1 WP 6 Low Emission Lifestyles Communication and Participation Strategies Report Paper Walkable City Hyderabad Status Re...
WP 6 “Low Emission Lifestyles – Communication and Participation Strategies” Report Paper
Walkable City Hyderabad Status Report (July 2013)
By Nexus Institute for Cooperation Management and Interdisciplinary Research
nexus Institute for Cooperation Management and Interdisciplinary Research Otto-Suhr-Allee 59 10585 Berlin Germany Registration Court: Berlin-Charlottenburg HRB 96110 Managing Director: Dr. Hans-Liudger Dienel Contact: Dr. Angela Jain Tel. +49 30 318054-66 Fax +49 30 318054-60 [email protected]
Content Summary..................................................................................................................................... 3 1.
Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 3
Stakeholder Analysis ........................................................................................................... 4
Student Projects within Indo-German Exchange Program ................................................. 4
Expert Workshop “Walkable City Hyderabad” ................................................................... 5
Steps towards a Pedestrian Policy ...................................................................................... 7
Citizen´s Exhibition “Right of Way – Right to Stay” at Begum Bazaar ................................ 8
Centre for Pedestrian Infrastructure and Planning (CPIP) ................................................ 10
Students Design Competition “Walkable Hyderabad” ..................................................... 11
Summary This Status Report on the project “Walkable City Hyderabad” summarizes the participatory activities conducted from 2010 to 2013: Realization of students projects within an Indo-German student exchange program in September 2010; Expert Workshop “Walkable City Hyderabad” including a field trip in September 2010; various activities towards the implementation of a pedestrian policy in Hyderabad; Citizens´ Exhibition “Right of Way – Right to Stay” in January 2013; Inauguration of the “Centre for Pedestrian Infrastructure and Planning” in February 2013; initiation of the students design competition “Talk the Walk – Walkable Hyderabad” in February 2013. It also gives an overview of the still ongoing processes and activities. Previous participatory activities in the field of traffic and transport in Hyderabad have identified the situation of pedestrians as one of the key issues. Walking is still a very important mode of moving in the city, but interferes with other uses of space, such as motorized traffic, parking, street vending and service provision in the streets. These multiple claims to open space evolve in daily dynamic processes of negotiation that ultimately result in a displacement of those who are in the weakest position. Although the modal share of pedestrians is 40 to 50% they have no voice and no political backing. Moreover, a missing pedestrian infrastructure reduces the safety of pedestrians and leads to a high number of traffic accidents. As walking is yet the most eco-friendly form of mobility and a crucial factor for an efficient public transportation system and a livable city, the “Walkable City Hyderabad” project activities aimed to integrate the citizens perspectives on the traffic and transportation system into the public discourse and to initiate a broad communication and collaboration process among citizens, civil society organizations, local policy makers and authorities.
1. Introduction Under the project “Walkable City Hyderabad” several stakeholders of civil society, cultural institutions, universities and consultancies have gathered to promote a sustainable and integrated traffic and transportation development in Hyderabad with a special focus on pedestrians and walkability. The activities are part of the Sustainable Hyderabad Project and have been initiated by nexus Institute (Berlin, Germany) and the PTV Group (Karlsruhe, Germany). Previous activities in the field of traffic and transport in Hyderabad in 2009, namely the Citizens` Exhibition “Ready to move..?!” in Tarnaka, a conference that formulated a “Citizens` Charter on Urban Transport” and an accompanying Online-Discussion Forum identified safe pedestrian mobility as one of the city´s key issues. In Hyderabad, with its already approximately seven million inhabitants, a high percentage of travel is done by walking, mainly because a big proportion of the population is too poor to afford motorized or even public transport. But walking has become increasingly difficult in recent days. Pedestrian space has been converted into road space in order to accommodate the constantly rising number of vehicles in Hyderabad: In 2008, there were a total of 2.4 Million vehicles and is projected to reach 7.4 Million by 2025. The sole prioritization of motorized vehicular traffic has left the pedestrians with virtually no space along the busy arterials of the city. Walking along and crossing of these arterials has become life threatening, especially for the elderly, disabled, women and children. Several fatal accidents with pedestrians happen every week. Consequently, those who can choose their mode of transportation have been discouraged from walking. This trend is supported by the
decentralization and expansion of the city: Increased trip distances have made nonmotorized modes of transportation unfeasible. Still, public transportation has a significant share of the total trips and walking is essential for the use of this mode of transportation. But this fact has not been adequately recognized in the current layout of the transit system. In this context, the project activities of “Walkable City Hyderabad” aimed to: o analyze and present the perspectives of individuals that use the open space in different ways (lorry and rickshaw drivers, street vendors, waste pickers, merchants, retailers, residents, visitors, customers, traffic policemen, transportation agencies) o map the relevant actors, especially of the civil society sector o map the responsibilities in planning and infrastructure of pedestrian and related facilities o include the perspectives of civil society groups, practitioners and academia in the planning and management of a traffic system o investigate the solutions proposed by experts to make Hyderabad a walkable city o raise awareness regarding the declining options for non-motorized transport, especially walking and cycling.
2. Stakeholder Analysis The Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority (HDMA), Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (GHMC), their common subcommittee Unified Metropolitan Transport Authority (UMTA) and – for the enforcement of regulation – local traffic police have been identified by nexus as particularly important stakeholders for footpaths on the local level of public authorities. Above those local institutions there is Andhra Pradesh Roads and Building Department, which is generally responsible for the building and maintenance of roads in the state. In consequence, this situation “is giving rise to overlapping of functions and spatial and functional fragmentation”1 especially when it comes to traffic issues in general. Within the civil society sector there are also different organizations dealing with transport and traffic, but as the most important stakeholder the Right to Walk Foundation (R2W) has to be named. After its establishment in 2005 and under the leadership of its president and founder, Ms. Kanthimathi Kannan, R2W started different activities to raise public awareness and pressure on local authorities at the same time. The conducted activities in the field of walkability comprise several student projects realized within an Indo-German student exchange program, an expert workshop with a field trip, a citizen’s exhibition at Begum Bazaar, the planning and inauguration of a “Centre for Pedestrian Infrastructure and Planning” (CPIP), a students design competition and various policy implementation efforts.
3. Student Projects within Indo-German Exchange Program As central pillar of the educational and capacity building activities within the project “Walkable City Hyderabad” an Indo-German student exchange program has been initiated. Between September 23rd-30th in 2010, 18 students from the TU Berlin led by Günter Nest of 1
Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JJNURM): Hyderabad – City Development Plan, p. 56
the Habitat Forum Berlin and 12 students from the Jawaharlal Nehru Architecture and Fine Arts University (JNAFA) took part in a 7-days workshop to analyze and promote walkability in Hyderabad. The TU Berlin students participated in a preparation seminar during summer term 2010, where they studied relevant urban issues in Hyderabad and worked out space strategies fostering information around and participation in urban (planning) processes. These preliminary studies helped to strengthen the understanding of the students that urban processes are products of the interactions, at various levels, of different population groups, and that the involvement of and communication among as many and varied stakeholders as possible is essential in planning and/or management processes. The students chose three local areas to focus on within their fieldwork: Abids' crossing and Siddam Bazaar Road, both in Hyderabad's downtown, as well as the Musi River's portion comprised within Chadarghat Old Bridge/Railway Bridge and Purana Pul Bridge. During the 7-days workshop, the Indian and German students took part in a heritage walk, in a city tour with focus on current development sites (hi-tec city, ring road) and in a bus tour to the rural areas surrounding Hyderabad. Further, the students were shown different dams and tanks and got to talk to Maheep Singh Thapar, the Managing Director & Principal Consultant of a central urban and regional planning company in Hyderabad that works on the city’s´ master plans. Next to these activities the students conducted fieldwork within their chosen area, studying the site´s physical and social characteristics with special focus on traffic and transportation needs and priorities as well as on the pedestrian situation. Research methods included the mapping of existing built structures, circulations and activities, rhythm-analyses of the passage/commuting of people and surveys to identify various social and professional groups that use the spaces. In order to present and discuss the workshop results with experts in the respective field, the students guided and moderated a field trip to two different sites as part of the expert workshop “Walkable Hyderabad” organized by nexus Institute and PTV. Moreover, the students prepared and realized a performance in public space to promote walkability and pedestrian rights and to raise the citizen’s ´awareness of the issue. During the performance the students wheeled two decorated push carts on the streets of Hyderabad and on the campus of JNAFA with the aim to get people to reflect upon the state of the street space in Hyderabad and the citizens´ ways of using public space. To evaluate and discuss the gained experience and knowledge during the workshop, the TU Berlin students participated in a follow-up seminar. The results of the workshop were exhibited under coordination of Habitat Forum Berlin, on occasion of the Asia Pacific Weeks 2011 in Berlin.
4. Expert Workshop “Walkable City Hyderabad” As a follow-up to the previous activities nexus Institute, PTV and the cooperation partners’ ´Right to Walk Foundation´ Hyderabad, JNAFAU and Goethe-Zentrum Hyderabad conducted
an expert workshop for the discussion of immediate and sustainable solutions related to the improvement of the situation for pedestrians in several places around Hyderabad. The workshop took place on September 30th 2010 at a seminar hall of the School of Planning and Architecture of JNAFAU in Hyderabad. The participating 14 experts were important actors or stakeholders that are involved in organising and regulating the traffic and transport systems in Hyderabad. Due to the different backgrounds of the experts, among them GHMC commissioners as well as high representatives of private companies and public institutions, various viewpoints on approaches concerning the improvement of walkability have fostered the discussions and have spurred the finding of appropriate solutions. The proceedings integrated a variety of links between walking and using other transport modes and purposes such as heritage walks. The aim of the expert workshop was to improve the situation for pedestrians at the policy level and to discuss possible solutions model wise for selected places (“pilot projects”). It was envisioned to agree upon the implementation of model-footpaths and/ or a pedestrian zone. The workshop day started with a brief introduction and presentation of the program, followed by a field trip to several locations where pedestrians face severe problems. At these sites students from TU Berlin (under coordination of Prof. Dr. G. Nest, Urban Planning and Architecture) and JNAFAU (under coordination of Prof. S. Kumar, Department of Planning and Architecture) presented the respective situations and discussed them with the experts and researchers. The places and themes which have been chosen for the expert workshop included: - Jawahrlal Nehru Road (Mosque area) / Begum Bazar: Pedestrian Crossing and Pedestrian Zone; - Abids Road / Sultan Bazar: Pedestrian Crossing and Pedestrian Zone; - Lakdikapul Road / Public Garden Road: Heritage Walk and - Tarnaka Ward: Way to school for students. After a joint lunch, the workshop participants returned to the seminar hall at JNAFAU were a panel discussion took place. At this point, different actors and agencies presented their perspectives and opinions on the general state of the traffic and transport system and discussed possible solutions concerning the pedestrian situation in Hyderabad, especially for the visited sites. The panel discussion also focused on the historical grown traffic and transportation network, its links to public infrastructure (e.g. bus stations, traffic lights etc.), the responsibility of different actors (e.g. companies, government, citizens etc.), methods to raise public awareness concerning pedestrian rights and possible ways to contribute for and cooperate within the aim for a better walkability. A joint dinner followed the intense afternoon session and offered the participants the possibility to further intensify the dialogue and strengthen the cooperation. The well-attended workshop with its lively discussions provided encouragement for taking the next step. That is to approach the bodies responsible for planning, building and maintenance
of sidewalks and to identify potential stretches where model pedestrian infrastructures can be built and evaluated.
5. Steps towards a Pedestrian Policy In order to enhance the awareness concerning the walkability of Hyderabad improvements of the infrastructure for pedestrians will first have to be implemented and monitored on an exemplary (temporary) basis. In combination, a participative decision making process is envisioned to include the citizens’ perspectives into the design and planning of pedestrians facilities (e.g. Planning Cell / Citizens Report etc.). The results of such a process shall demonstrate how these exemplary improvements are assessed and adopted by the users and how such approaches can be transferred and implemented on a larger scale (planning, building, and maintenance). However, it has been difficult to get an official mandate for this kind of participatory process because a general lack of awareness among politics and administration can be observed regarding the needs of pedestrians. In April 2011 the “Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation” (GHMC) introduced a special cell to deal with pedestrians’ problems.2 Moreover, GHMC officials, attended by the Right to Walk Foundation (R2W) and other NGOs, also encouraged a comprehensive pedestrian policy. The policy is said to comprise a general widening of roads and footpaths including standardized designs, barriers wherever necessary, standard height, and other aspects as well as regulations regarding encroachment by parked vehicles and hawkers.3 In September 2011 GHMC decided to start a pilot program with model footpaths in five roads with a total length of 100 km. The selected roads were Road No.11 & 12 Banjara Hills, Road No.36 Jubilee Hills, opposite Salar Jung Museum and Himayatnagar. 4 In order to prove the convenience of the new pavements R2W has conducted a walkability survey at Road No. 36 Jubilee Hills. The results of this survey laid the foundation for future research and complemented further actions within the project. In April 2012, the R2W foundation in cooperation with the Consumers Association of India (CAI) and Vadaa, a NGO based in Hyderabad, organized a “Walkability Dialogue” which was attended by several government officers and GHMC commissioners. Subsequent to the “Walkability Dialogue” the project team was requested by GHMC commissioners to take part in the development of a “Pedestrian Policy”. The idea is to develop a “Walking Guideline” for Hyderabad that includes necessary regulations for the building of sidewalks and that predominantly addresses authorities, planners, architects and property owners. It should serve as normative as well as practical guide line that enhances activities towards a sustainable pedestrian infrastructure. The Delhi Pedestrian Design Guidelines are a good and comprehensive best practice example for such a binding determination of all general measures concerning the way of building sidewalks.
http://hyderabad-india-online.com/2011/04/ghmc-new-cell-pedestrians/ http://www.slocat.net/news/560 4 http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Hyderabad/article2461716.ece 3
6. Citizen´s Exhibition “Right of Way – Right to Stay” at Begum Bazaar5 Begum Bazaar, is a historical wholesale market area and lively marketplace in Hyderabad, a place with little open space but ever increasing traffic. In January 2013 the Citizens´ exhibition “Right of Way – Right to Stay” was set up for two days at a stage in the middle of the busy market area, open and visible for everyone. It attracted approximately 200 visitors in two days. This public intervention aimed to reactivate and widen the existing debate about how to deal with the scarcity of open space and the role of traffic and transportation in the area. Moreover, it was intended to raise the awareness among citizens for perspectives of others and interdependencies between actors, to create coherence across social barriers by addressing a politically neutral topic, to promote freedom of public speech and to physically unite people from different backgrounds in a situation beyond their daily working-living relationships. The exhibition was developed by Tobias Kuttler, in cooperation with Dr. Angela Jain and Dr. Bhaskar Poldas. The citizen’s exhibition focused on “Open Space” as a category of daily negotiation and potential conflict between users with different requirements related to space. Amongst others, the daily spatial negotiation evolves mainly around two types of uses: Street vending (in mobile and immobile forms) and transportation (moving and stationery traffic; goods transportation). Both of these uses shape the character of Begum Bazaar to a large part. As Hyderabad has profoundly changed in the last twenty years, literature suggests that street vending as well as traffic has increased in the city in this period of time. Even more important is that the character of traffic has changed – from unmotorized transportation (mainly pedestrians, cycles, cycle rickshaws) to motorized modes (auto rickshaws, two-wheelers, cars). The exhibition tried to reveal whether and how these macro-level changes have affected the organization of space in Begum Bazaar and how these changes are perceived by different actors. The exhibition further asked whether these changes have advantaged or disadvantaged actors in the daily negotiation about space. In order to understand the local context, such as the rhythms of everyday life of the people and the role of social hierarchies and religion in the area, a two-month period of observation, analysis and documentation was conducted by a project member. After this period, twelve different groups of actors have been identified that either directly use and work in the open space (e.g. rickshaw and lorry drivers, street vendors, bicycle rickshaw drivers, waste pickers), that have indirect influence on open space (wholesale merchants, retailers, transportation agencies, residents, visitors, customers) or are further relevant in the particular space context (e.g. children and juveniles, women, elderly). Subsequently, 31 interviews with individuals of the particular groups have been conducted. The duration of the interviews
See also: Jain, A., Kuttler, T. (2013). Local action in Urban Open spaces of Hyderabad. In press.
ranged from ten minutes up to three hours. The interviews were mostly conducted in either Telugu or Hindi, making the company of a reliable translator a perquisite for successful communication. The interviews did not only aim for a better understanding of the local problems and possible solutions, but for the creation of an atmosphere of mutual respect, reliability and trust between the local actor and the interviewing project team. The interviews covered topics such as a persons´ working history in relation to Begum Bazaar; his or her immediate use of the space and its development due to changes in demographics, nature of business, transportation, etc.; his/her requirements on the use of the space; his/her perspectives on traffic and transportation; conflicts and problems as well as his/her ideas and visions for the future. Eleven of the interviewed individuals decided to participate in the citizens’ exhibition and to present excerpts of their interviews along with a photo of themselves in their living and working environment. The selection of those contents and their arrangement was closely coordinated with the interviewed individuals in several meetings. The Citizens´ exhibition “Right of Way – Right to Stay” was than inaugurated in a public event on January 24th 2013 together with GHMC cooperator of Begum Bazaar Shanker Yadav, and Ward Committee members. Tobias Kuttler inaugurated the exhibition on behalf of nexus institute and the Sustainable Hyderabad project. The group of visitors was very heterogeneous and lively discussions were initiated. In order to improve the accessibility of the exhibition, especially for illiterate and physically challenged people, there was an audio guide available for all visitors. After visiting the exhibition each visitor was invited to provide more suggestions for the improvement of Begum Bazaar. The overall feedback towards the exhibition and the whole participation process was positive. The process and the public intervention have reactivated the existing debate on the traffic and transport situation and embraced new actors and perspectives. Participants represented in the exhibition received mementos by the cooperator and ward committee members. Their reactions and feedback indicated that the collaboration with the project team was perceived as a good experience and as a personal success. The Citizens` exhibition “Right of Way – Right to Stay” should be considered as a very first step of civic involvement and community building in Begum Bazaar. The gathered perspectives and perceptions by various actors on Begum Bazaar helped achieving a deep understanding for the daily lives and social relations of actors in and the organization of public space. Local actors have been put in a position where they could freely express their thoughts and opinions on different matters of personal and public life and were encouraged to think about prevailing difficulties and solution strategies. Further, the citizens´ exhibition
has been once again displayed at the occasion of the final conference of the Megacity Project, February 16th 2013 at Zoroastrian Club, Secunderabad, where it caught the attention of city government officials. One of them agreed to a site visit with the project team and a local actor.
7. Centre for Pedestrian Infrastructure and Planning (CPIP) In 2009, the “Walkable Hyderabad Consortium” has been established by concerned citizens, researchers, social activists and professionals to address the growing neglect of pedestrian needs in the public sphere. In this initiative partners joined hands whose work and impact has been recognized nationally as well as internationally. The consortium is a collaborative network of organizations that have come together to involve in discourse related to the documentation, survey, research, planning, advocacy, awareness, community outreach and professional services in the areas of pedestrian infrastructure and public spaces usage. Its members include: Goethe Zentrum, Hyderabad; Indian National Trust for Art and cultural Heritage (INTACH), Hyderabad; The Right to Walk Foundation/ Hyderabad; Nexus Institute/ Berlin; The PTV group/ Karlsruhe; The Indian Institute of Architects (IIA), A.P Chapter/ Hyderabad; Institute of Town Planners India (ITPI), A.P Chapter/ Hyderabad; Karmayog Hyderabad and Heritage Conservation Initiative Consultancy (HCIC)/ Hyderabad. In order to expand on the previous activities and to foster further projects and cooperation the “Walkable Hyderabad Consortium” in collaboration with the School of Planning & Architecture (SPA/ JNIAS) came forward to establish a “Centre for Pedestrian Infrastructure and Planning (CPIP)” at JNIAS, Secunderabad. The purpose of this centre is to impart training, conduct research and related activities for students and professionals leading to capacity building in pedestrian infrastructure and usage of public spaces. It is further to develop pedagogical material to be used as part of the curriculum at JNIAS –School of Planning & Architecture (SPA), and in due course, at institutes across India. The CPIP will become a forum that provides a physical location to host all initiatives related to pedestrian rights and issues in the city. The centre is foreseen to set up a permanent exhibition/ laboratory open to the public, to establish a library and database centre for information related to the centre’s activities, to develop training, certificate and degree programs and to organize public events. A coordination committee will manage the centre, thus be responsible for decision making involved in day-to-day activities, be responsible for financial planning and provide outreach to the public and to institutions. It will be composed of the chairman Dr. Pramod S. Shinde, Director, JNIAS – SPA, the convenor Ms. Kantimati Kanan, President, Right 2 Walk Foundation and 9 more regular members. The inauguration of the CPIP took place on February 15th 2013 at the School of Planning &
Architecture (SPA) at JNIAS in Secunderabad. The public event started with an opening ceremony. Ms. Amita Desai, Executive Director of the Goethe Institute, presented the “Walkable Hyderabad Consortium” followed by a screening of short films, documentaries and case studies highlighting the need for pedestrian infrastructure and the plight of pedestrians by the students of the University of Hyderabad and Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences. Further, representatives of nexus Institute and PTV Group presented the technical collaboration for CPIP. The formal inauguration of CPIP was announced by the lighting of the lamp by Prof. D. Swaminadhan, President, JNIAS along with Chief Guest, Prof. Dr. Dr. h. c. Konrad Hagedorn, Head of Division of Resource Economics, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin followed by Mrs. Ch. Sujatha Gangadhar, Registrar, JNIAS and other invited dignitaries. A “Statement of Intent” was signed by the representatives of the participating partners followed by different speeches on the purpose and goals of the CPIP. The first activity of the CPIP is to carry out a students’ design competition titled “Talk the Walk” for architecture students. Thus as final part of the inauguration event, the students’ competition was announced and the posters released. The inaugural session concluded with a visit to the CPIP facility at SPA, JNIAS by all the members of CPIP and other participants and followed by High tea. The first meeting of the CPIP Coordination Committee was held on February 19th 2013 at CPIP, SPA – JNIAS, Secunderabad. Attendees included: Dr. Pramod S. Shinde (Director JNIAS – SPA, Chairman CC); Ms.Ch. Sujatha Gangadhar (CA, Registrar, JNIAS); Ms. Kantimati Kanan (President, Right 2 Walk Foundation, Convenor); Mr. Tobias Kuttler (nexus, Berlin); Ms. Tanja Schaefer (PTV Group); Ms. Amita Desai (Director, Gothe – Zentrum, Hyderabad); Ar. R. Nitin Sinha (Conservation Professional, HCIC); Er. Phani Gopal (Faculty – SPA JNIAS); Mr. Bhaskar Poldas (nexus, Berlin) and students from offices of Ar. Shankar Narayanan & Ar. V. Narsimham. The committee deliberated on the further set up of the centre (e.g. bank account, financial issues etc.), its dissemination (e.g. PhD research program, integration of master theses etc.), its public relations (e.g. brochures, website, posters, social media portal etc.) and specific activities (e.g. design competition, traveling exhibition, scientific symposia). As a result of the meeting, an activity timeframe until February 2014 was created.
8. Students Design Competition “Walkable Hyderabad” As a first activity, the Centre for Pedestrian Infrastructure and Planning (CPIP) of the School of Planning & Architecture of JNIAS, Hyderabad announced an architectural competition titled “Talk the Walk- Walkable Hyderabad” for all architecture, design and planning students of the twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. The participants are required to prepare a design case study for the stretch from Lakdi-ka-pul to Mahavir Hospital Junction, as a site that evokes memories of the past, draw attention to the current crisis and explore creative visions for a safe, healthy and environment friendly future of pedestrians in Hyderabad. The competition is to identify the demands, needs, requirements, existing practices and problems faced by pedestrians on the selected case-study stretch. Using the theme of a “Walkable Hyderabad” the participants are invited to prepare an informative architectural case study based on the needs of the pedestrians and their interface with urban transport.
The three best contributions will be awarded prize money: 1st Prize – Rs.15000, 2nd Prize – Rs. 7000, 3rd & 4th Prizes – Rs. 3000 each. In order to assure a high quality of the contributions, a site visit with experts held on April 21st 2013 and an orientation seminar held on April 24th 2013 have been organized. The deadline for submissions was June 17th 2013 which was later extended. On August 14th, the design proposal were presented at the School of Planning and Architecture at JNIAS, in presence of Sri Krishna Babu, commissioner GHMC and several other dignitaries.