THEKEY.TO ACADEMY The Carbon Footprint of Textiles

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The Carbon Footprint of Textiles Norbert Jungmichel, Systain Consulting

Berlin | July 5th 2010

Systain Consulting – more than 10 years of passion for sustainability

Systain Consulting

Systain Consulting is an experienced CSR consultancy. Together with our clients, we develop tailor-made and pragmatic solutions for sustainable management – with main focus on the supply chain. Our clients range from brands, retailers, importers and producers.

The Systain team offers: -

Systematic solutions for sustainability Comprehensive business know-how Performance-oriented consultancy Headquarter in Hamburg and offices in the main production markets 25 employees of various nationalities in 4 countries July 5th 2010

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Systain Consulting

Systain worldwide Hamburg

Hong Kong Schwäbisch Gmünd

Istanbul Dhaka

July 5th 2010

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Carbon Emissions are faced an increasing awareness among consumers

Systain Consulting

Relevance of the topic CO2 for several product groups today and in the future Growth rate Furniture Fruits and Vegetables Frozen Food Fast-food and Coffee Shops Fashion, Clothes and Shoes Chemist and Hygiene Store Creamery Products Toys Do-It-Yourself Supplies Books and Newspapers Over-The-Counter Drugs Today

Soft Drinks



Survey among 1.011 consumers in Germany, carried out by Sempora, Sept. 2007 Systain Consulting 2009

July 5th 2010

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Patagonia (U.S.): information about environmental impact of textiles

Systain Consulting

Information about the carbon footprint Carbon footprint related to the weight of the textile Information about energy consumption, waste etc. Trace & tracking for consumers  Regular T-Shirt: CO2 equals eight times the weight of the shirt

July 5th 2010

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Systain Consulting

Fossile fuels cause CO2-emissions 1)

Bestandteile: 1 Atom Kohlenstoff (C), 2 Atome Sauerstoff (O = ½O2)






Molare Massen: C = 12 g/Mol, ½O2 = 16 g/Mol, CO2 = 44 g/Mol


Aus 4) ergibt sich für CO2 ein Anteilsverhältnis von


Der Kohlenstoffanteil in fossilen Brennstoffen liegt bei ca. 85%


1 kg fossilen Brennstoff = ca. 850 g Kohlenstoff (C) Dichte von verschiedenen fossilen Brennstoffen:




1 : 1,3 : 3,67

(C : ½O2 : CO2)

7.1) Dieselkraftstoff = ca. 845 g /Liter 7.2) Ottokraftstoff = ca. 750 g /Liter 7.3) Schweröl = ca. 1.000 g/Liter Beispielrechnung für Diesel -

Ein Liter Diesel hat eine Masse von ca. 845 g (siehe 7.1)


Da der Masseanteil von Kohlenstoff in fossilen Brennstoffen bei ca. 85% liegt (siehe 6), enthält ein Liter Diesel ca. 718,25 g Kohlenstoff.


Entsprechend dem unter 4) ermittelten Kohlenstoffanteil für CO2 entstehen bei vollständiger Oxidation von einem Liter Diesel: 718,25 g C * 3,67 g CO2/g C=

2,6 kg CO2/ Liter Diesel

*für Diesel (ohne Emissionen bei Förderung und Raffinierung * 1 Mol = 6.0221367 * 10-23 Teilchen (Avogadrosche Zahl) ** Dieser Wert schwankt mit der Kraftstoffdichte July 5th 2010

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The Carbon Footprint indicates all greenhouse gas emissions along the whole life-cycle

Systain Consulting 2010

July 5th 2010

Systain Consulting

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The journey of a longshirt: from the cotton field in the U.S. via the factory in Bangladesh to the consumer in Germany

Systain Consulting

Figure: google

Long shirt ‚Boysen’s’, ¾ sleeve, white, 100% cotton, Size 40-42, Net weight 222 grams

Systain Consulting 2010

July 5th 2010

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Carbon Footprint of the white longshirt: 10.75 kg CO2e, 50 times the net-weight Disposal 0.25 kg 2%

Systain Consulting

Cotton Cultivation 1.27 kg 12%

Use-Phase 3.30 kg 31% Manufacture 3.00 kg 28% Packaging 0.24 kg 2% Catalogue 1.53 kg 14%

Systain Consulting 2010

Transports 0.29 kg Distribution 3% 0.87 kg 8%

July 5th 2010

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N2O-gases are linked to cotton growing and have an almost 300-time larger effect than CO2

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 The Carbon Footprint regarding cotton growing incl. ginning makes up 1,27 kg CO2e.  Indicated by generic secondary data due to data gaps for cotton growing.  Almost half of it caused by direct and indirect nitrous oxide emissions (N2O), which has a Global Warming Potential (GWP) of 298 relative to CO2

N2O 45%

CO2 53%

CH4 2%

 The level of uncertainties is quite high: - Direct emissions of N2O depends on temperature, soil structure, the use of fertilizer, water etc. - Production of fertilizers – no data outside the western hemisphere available - Land use Change? - Carbon sequestration by the cotton?

July 5th 2010

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Manufacture implies an emission-level of 3.0 kg CO2e per functional unit

Systain Consulting


1.02 kg

0.98 kg


0.88 kg

CO2e (in kg)





CO2e-emissions in the production spinning – sewing/RMG (excl. transportation)

0.12 kg

0,00 Spinn ing

Knit ting

D yeing


 Approx. 2/3 of the carbon emissions are caused by electricity, 1/3 by heating processes  A major part of the electricity is generated on site (gas generators)  High proportion of natural gas as source of energy  Production of a dark longshirt (same size): 3.41 kg CO2e Systain Consulting 2010

July 5th 2010

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0.87 kg CO2e are being emitted due to distribution processes, more than half result from returns

2nd delivery 0.11 kg

2nd pick-up customer 0.01 kg

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Warehousing 0.11 kg

2nd warehousing 0.05 kg

Delivery 0.28 kg Transport return 0.29 kg

Pick-up customer 0.01 kg Return by customer 0.01 kg Systain Consulting 2009

July 5th 2010

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Systain Consulting

Consumers can contribute significantly to reduce the Product Carbon Footprint

Carbon Footprint for use phase (55 laundries)

12.0 kg

Scenario 1: base scenario with shared usage of dryer and iron according to the statistical average 10.0 kg

Carbon Footprint (in kg CO2e)

Scenario 2: permanent usage of dryer and iron after each laundry 8.0 kg

6.0 kg

4.0 kg

2.0 kg

Washing machine


Stock Germany



Loading capacity (average)

5 kg

6 kg

Use of loading volume (average)



Mass per loading (in kg)



Use per wash cycle



Average energy consumption

0.80 kWh

3.30 kWh

Assumptions of the carbon footprint calculations for the use phase 0.0 kg Base scenario: ØHousehold D

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Scenario: permanent use of dryer and pressing iron

Washing machine Water supply Pressing iron

Washing agent Dryer

July 5th 2010

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Options for reducing carbon emissions can be identified – example of energy efficient devices

Household devices with an improved level of energy efficiency may reduce the Carbon Footprint in use phase by one third, compared to the household stock. The Carbon Footprint in the use-phase is further determined by:  Washing temperature  Actual loading of appliances

A washing temperature of 40°C instead of 60°C reduces the Carbon Footprint of the usephase by 45%, 30°C instead of 40°C by 40%. Washing machine Water supply Pressing iron

July 5th 2010

Washing agent Dryer

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Systain Consulting

In total, three textiles have been evaluated

Long shirt ¾ sleeve, white 100% cotton

Sweat-jacket with hood, fuchsia 100% cotton (‘Cotton made in Africa’)

Jacket for kids, red 100% Acrylic

Size 40-42 Net weight 222 grams Cotton from U.S. Production in Bangladesh Offered by OTTO

Size 40 Net weight 446 grams Cotton from Benin Production in Turkey Offered by BAUR

Size 152-158 Net weight 266 grams Acrylic from China Production in Bangladesh Offered by OTTO

Systain Consulting 2010

July 5th 2010

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Three products - three Footprints – and lots of information

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Product Carbon Footprint (in kg CO2e)

16.0 13.42 kg

14.0 12.0

13.67 kg

10.75 kg

10.0 8.0 Disposal Use-Phase Packaging Catalogue Distribution Transportation Manufacture Raw Materials

6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 Long-Shirt white

Systain Consulting 2010

Sweat-Jacket fuchsia

Acrylic Children Jacket red July 5th 2010

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Energy efficiency and national grid factor reduce the carbon footprint in manufacture in Turkey

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Carbon Footprint (in kg CO2e)

2.21 kg 2.0

1.5 1.07 kg 1.0

0.5 0.24 kg

0.20 kg 0.0 Spinning



CO2e-emissions in the production spinning - RMG (excl. transportation)


 40% less GHG-emissions for manufacture compared to the longshirt produced in Bangladesh (mass equivalence)  But 90% more GHG-emissions for dyeing due to: waste water treatment, color intensity, thickness of knit-fabric, energy sources (natural gas + lignite)  Dyeing I: exclusive use of natural gas: 1.43 kg CO2e; exclusive use of lignite: 2.30 kg CO2e  Dyeing II: elasticity of carbon footprint due to volatile production – doubling emissions per output Systain Consulting 2010

July 5th 2010

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Cooling and Lighting have a significant quantity of electricity consumption in a garment factory

Systain Consulting

Analysis of electrical equipment

17% 41%

Machinery W ashing Unit 20%

Cooling (fans and AC) Lighting

22% Percentage of electrical devices, clustered by electrical load (example garm,ent factory in Bangladesh – acrylic jacket)

July 5th 2010

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Systain Consulting

Only low reflection of light by the ceiling

Inadequate reflectors

Tubes with less Watt would also be appropriate

Main switch instead of separate lights switchers

Too much tubes for lighting

Use of magnetic ballasts instead of electronic ones

Dark, light absorbing ceiling, walls and floors

July 5th 2010

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Carbon Footprint results in transparency and raising awareness

Systain Consulting

Capabilities of the PCF:  Creating Transparency  Identification of Hot-Spots  Determining alternatives  Addressing carbon emissions in the supply chain  Addressing carbon emissions in emerging markets  Awareness Raising  Using for management instruments

Incapabilities of the PCF:  Not an exclusive eco-indicator  No comparison by a CO2-label  No exact, universal result

Linking CO2-emissions with energy costs is a key success factor Systain Consulting 2010

July 5th 2010

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Systain Consulting

Four steps for a systematic approach 1. Orientation

2. Transparency

3. Strategy

4. Implementation

• Are there regulations that may affect my business / -partners? • What are expectations from our costumers, investors, the public? • … • • • •

What is the carbon footprint of my company? Where can I find hot-spots for energy consumption? How much are the energy costs? …

• • • •

What measures may reduce the energy consumption? What are short-term measures that can be taken immadiately? What are my investment costs? …

• • • •

How can I implement the defined measures in existing processes? Who has to do what? How shall I communicate these measures? … July 5th 2010

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Systain Consulting

Systain Consulting GmbH Norbert Jungmichel Wandsbeker Str. 13a 22179 Hamburg

[email protected] T. +49 40 6461 8459 F. +49 40 6461 6666

Systain Consulting 2009

July 5th 2010 09.07.2010

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