Please copy and paste this embed script to where you want to embed

Surveying & Positioning Guidance note 10 Geodetic Transformations Offshore Norway Revision history

1

Version

Date

Amendments

1.0

April 2001

First release

Background

European Datum 1950 (ED50) is the de facto and de jure geographic coordinate reference system for oil industry licencing and operations offshore Norway. In 1981 the nations bordering the North Sea published technical recommendations for deriving ED50 coordinates from the coordinate reference systems used by the then current satellite navigation systems, WGS72 and WGS72BE1. These recommendations were widely adopted by the oil industry. In some parts of the North Sea (Denmark, UK) their use has continued after modification for the difference between WGS72 and the WGS84 system used by current generation GPS navigation satellite positioning, but this usage is no longer appropriate in Norway. In 1990 the nations bordering the North Sea published technical recommendations for deriving ED50 coordinates from WGS842. These are the so-called North Sea formulae, formerly adopted for use in Norway south of 62º North. They use a two-step approach, first from WGS84 to ED87 using a position vector 7-parameter transformation, then from ED87 to ED50 through a 4th-order reversible polynomial3. In 1991 a Statens Kartverk note reconfirmed the adoption of the North Sea formulae for offshore Norway south of latitude 62º North4. This same note detailed a position vector 7-parameter transformation for use offshore Norway north of latitude 65º North5. The note also advocated linear interpolation between the results from this transformation and the North Sea formulae for the area between 65ºN and 62ºN. These various transformations were included in the Statens Kartverk program SLGTRF. (This program is no longer available). In 1997 Statens Kartverk published coordinates for a new Norwegian geodetic network, Stamnettet, based on ETRS89 realised through an adjustment called EUREF89 (see paragraph 10). A new transformation between ETRS89 and ED50 was defined for use offshore Norway north of latitude 65º North6. This transformation was included in the Statens Kartverk coordinate conversion program

1 Report of an investigation into the use of doppler satellite positioning to provide co-ordinates on the European Datum 1950 in the area of the North Sea. Ordnance Survey of Great Britain Professional Paper New Series No. 30, 1981. 2 The Transformation between ED50 and WGS84 for exploration purposes. Norwegian Mapping Authority. Geodesy Division. Geodetic publication Nr.1990:1 3 See EPSG geodetic parameter data set geodetic transformation ED50 to WGS 84 (14) (code 8046) or the reference in footnote 2 for details. 4 Norwegian Mapping Authority note of 13-Feb-1991 “Om Transformasjon mellom Geodetiske Datum i Norge” 5 From ED50 to WGS84: dX= -84.491 dY= -100.559 dZ= -114.209 metres; rX= -2.4006 rY= -0.5367 rZ= -2.3742 microradians; dS= +0.2947 ppm. See EPSG geodetic parameter data set geodetic transformation ED50 to WGS 84 (15) (code 8047) or reference in footnote 4 for derivation. 6 Position Vector 7-parameter transformation. From ED50 to ETRS89: dX= -116.641 dY= -56.931 dZ= -110.559 metres; rX= +4.327 rY= +4.464 rZ= -4.444 microradians; dS= -3.520 ppm. See EPSG geodetic parameter data set, code 1588.

WSKTRANS at this time. For offshore Norway, this 1997 transformation produces results which differ from the 1991 transformation by between approximately 5cm at 72º North to 70 cm at 65º North. The interpolation between 62º North and 65º North was maintained, but because the transformation north of 65º North had changed the results of the interpolation differ from previous interpolation results by 0cm at 62º North and 70 cm at 65º North. However this update to WSKTRANS was not widely known. Many practitioners using alternative coordinate transformation applications continued to use the 1991 data. Most offshore oil industry operators and their service providers have not included the North Sea formulae or the mid-Norway interpolation into real-time positioning applications. Many different alternatives have been used as pragmatic approximations. Most of the data management software packages in use within the oil industry are “off the shelf ” international products that do not allow for non-geocentric geodetic transformation methods.

2

The relationship between ETRS89 and WGS84

The International Earth Rotation Service (IERS) maintains a coordinate reference system for the international geodetic community. This system, the IERS Terrestrial Reference System or ITRS, represents the scientific community’s best model of the Earth. It is realised through coordinates and coordinate velocities for a set of stations around the world and published periodically by IERS as the IERS Terrestrial Reference Frame, ITRFxx where xx represents the year of realisation7. This is a global system. ETRS89 was defined to be coincident with the ITRS at 1/1/1989. But ETRS89 is not a global system: it is anchored to the stable parts of the EurAsian tectonic plate. This plate is moving at about 17mm per year relative to the ITRS. In just over a decade since 1989, ETRS89 has diverged from the current ITRS by about 25cm. The two continue to diverge. See also footnote 8. WGS84 is maintained by the US. Like the ITRS it is a global system. Initially it was coincident with ITRS to an accuracy of about 1.5 metres. It is currently maintained within 10cm of the ITRS. WGS84 is therefore not fully consistent with earlier published versions of ETRS89. But to an accuracy of a few decimetres the two can be considered to be approximately the same. This approximation will remain valid for several years.

7 In some international geodetic literature both the terms “System” (as in ITRS) and “Frame” (as in ITRF) have been adopted as synonomous to “Datum”. Strictly speaking these terms have slightly different meanings. 8 In a number of countries (including Norway), the term “EUREF89” (also called ETRF89) has been used for the reference system realisation introduced following a European GPS campaign carried out in May 1989. To avoid confusion in the naming, the name EUREF89 has been retained and subsequent network adjustments have been referred back to the same epoch (1/1/1989). For oil industry practical purposes EUREF89 and ETRF89 can be taken to be aliases of ETRS89.

3

Recommendations

With effect from 1st May 2001 the following transformation is recommended for converting GPS WGS84 coordinates to ED50 coordinates offshore Norway north of 62º North: Transformation method: Position Vector 7-parameter transformation Transformation parameter values:

dX =

+ 116.641 m

dY =

+ 56.931 m

dZ =

+ 110.559 m

rX =

- 4.327 µrad

=

- 0.893 sec

rY =

- 4.464 µrad

=

- 0.921 sec

rZ =

+ 4.444 µrad

=

+ 0.917 sec

dS =

+ 3.520 ppm

See annex 1 for examples of the application of this transformation. For transformations from ED50 to WGS84 the signs should be reversed9. Adoption of this recommended transformation north of 62º North will create differences from previous practice of up to 4 metres. These differences are within the general accuracy of offshore positioning and coordinate transformation uncertainty. It is therefore recommended that ED50 coordinates from historic operations offshore Norway north of 62º North remain unchanged and be considered consistent with application of the 2001 recommendation. No action is required for management of historic data. Where users have a special need for exact consistency with past practice they should continue to use that practice for local areas. But for new projects the above transformation is recommended. South of 62º North the 1991 North Sea formulae (paragraph 2 above) remains the recommended transformation between ED50 and WGS84. See annex 1 for examples of the application of this transformation. If a simpler transformation method from WGS84 to ED50 is required in the Norwegian sector south of 62º North, then as an approximation to about 1 metre the following is recommended: Transformation method: Position Vector 7-parameter transformation Transformation parameter values:

dX =

+ 90.365 m

dY =

+ 101.130 m

dZ =

+ 123.384 m

rX =

- 1.614 µrad

=

- 0.333 sec

rY =

- 0.373 µrad

=

- 0.077 sec

rZ =

- 4.334 µrad

=

- 0.894 sec

dS =

- 1.994 ppm

For transformations from ED50 to WGS84 the signs should be reversed10. See annex 2 for examples of the application of this approximation. Adoption of the recommendations in paragraphs 10 and 13 above will give rise to a discontinuity in the transformation along the parallel of 62º North of between 3.2m in the west to 4.5m in the east (see annex 1). It must be emphasized that there is no discontinuity in the ED50 graticule, nor of the ETRS89 or WGS84 graticules. Operations across the 62º North parallel will have great difficulty in applying two discontinuous transformations. It is therefore recommended that for any field operation straddling the 62º North parallel, the transformation applicable to the majority of the survey area be applied to the whole survey. This is similar to the procedure adopted in the case of a survey crossing a projection zone boundary.

9 This reversed transformation is code 1612 in the EPSG geodetic parameter database. 10 This reversed transformation is code 1613 in the EPSG geodetic parameter database.

4

Discussion

It is noted that the Norwegian license-block numbering schema has a discontinuity at 62º North, and also that the area immediately adjacent to the parallel of 62º North is of lesser geological interest to the oil industry than most of offshore Norway. For offshore oil industry operations, once an absolute accuracy of a few metres has been achieved then relative accuracy and consistency become more important. Uniformity of application between operators and service providers and ease of application in real-time field operations and data management are also important. The recommendations above have taken consistency and ease of use to be more important than continuity of transformation. Users of the Statens Kartverk coordinate conversion program WSKTRANS requiring these 2001 transformation recommendations need to use v4.0 or later versions of the program.

5

Summary of recommendations

South of 62º North the 1991 North Sea formulae continues to be the recommended transformation between ED50 and WGS84 (paragraph 2). However for data management applications and real-time field operations where a two-step transformation and/or a polynomial transformation are not available, an approximation accurate to 1 metre may be used (paragraph 14). North of 62º North the recommended transformation between ED50 and WGS84 is as given in paragraph 10. No action is required from data managers following this clarification of geodetic transformation. Historically-derived ED50 coordinates may be assumed to be consistent with those derived through these 2001 transformations. Any operations which cross the parallel of 62º North should use only one transformation for the full survey area. The transformation adopted should be that which applies to the majority of the survey area.

6201/12 SW corner

6202/10 SW corner

6202/11 SW corner

6202/12 SW corner

6203/10 SW corner

6203/11 SW corner

6203/12 SW corner

6204/10 SW corner

6204/11 SW corner

6204/12 SW corner

6204/12 SSE corner

33/3 NW corner

34/1 NW corner

34/2 NW corner

34/3 NW corner

35/1 NW corner

35/2 NW corner

35/3 NW corner

36/1 NW corner

36/2 NW corner

36/3 NW corner

36/3 NE corner

62°00’00.000”N

62°00’00.000”N

62°00’00.000”N

62°00’00.000”N

62°00’00.000”N

62°00’00.000”N

62°00’00.000”N

62°00’00.000”N

62°00’00.000”N

62°00’00.000”N

62°00’00.000”N

62°00’00.000”N

Latitude

4°52’45.240”E

4°40’00.000”E

4°20’00.000”E

4°00’00.000”E

3°40’00.000”E

3°20’00.000”E

3°00’00.000”E

2°40’00.000”E

2°20’00.000”E

2°00’00.000”E

1°40’00.000”E

1°22’22.769”E

Longitude

61°59’58.454”N

61°59’58.444”N

61°59’58.429”N

61°59’58.407”N

61°59’58.393”N

61°59’58.378”N

61°59’58.363”N

61°59’58.346”N

61°59’58.328”N

61°59’58.309”N

61°59’58.290”N

61°59’58.273”N

Latitude

4°52’39.004”E

4°39’53.731”E

4°19’53.690”E

3°59’53.728”E

3°39’53.697”E

3°19’53.665”E

2°59’53.631”E

2°39’53.599”E

2°19’53.568”E

1°59’53.539”E

1°39’53.513”E

1°22’16.261”E

Longitude

WGS84 via North Sea formulae

61°59’58.488”N

61°59’58.480”N

61°59’58.466”N

61°59’58.453”N

61°59’58.439”N

61°59’58.425”N

61°59’58.411”N

61°59’58.397”N

61°59’58.383”N

61°59’58.369”N

61°59’58.355”N

61°59’58.343”N

Latitude

4°52’39.299”E

4°39’54.034”E

4°19’53.995”E

3°59’53.956”E

3°39’53.917”E

3°19’53.879”E

2°59’53.840”E

2°39’53.802”E

2°19’53.764”E

1°59’53.726”E

1°39’53.689”E

1°22’16.425”E

Longitude

WGS84 via north of 62º transformation

4.42m

4.55m

4.58m

3.61m

3.50m

3.44m

3.39m

3.35m

3.32m

3.30m

3.26m

3.22m

True Dist

76°13’35.8”

75°49’06.12”

75°31’56.7”

66°46’32.1”

66°01’29.6”

64°57’43.2”

63°57’57.7”

61°52’58.1”

59°10’12.8”

55°41’23.0”

51°51’02.6”

47°45’59.7”

Azimuth

North Sea formulae - north of 62º tfm

62°00’00.000”N

62°00’00.000”N

58°00’00.000”N

35/1 NE corner

35/2 NE corner

Test point - 8/3 NE corner

Latitude

62°00’00.000”N

33/2 NW corner

Location Longitude

4°00’00.000”E

3°20’00.000”E

3°00’00.000”E

1°22’22.769”E

ED50

57°59’57.815”N

61°59’58.378”N

61°59’58.363”N

61°59’58.273”N

Latitude

3°59’54.595”E

3°19’53.665”E

2°59’53.631”E

1°22’16.261”E

Longitude

WGS84 via North Sea formulae

57°59’57.838”N

61°59’58.360”N

61°59’58.342”N

61°59’58.253”N

Latitude

3°59’54.600”E

3°19’53.689”E

2°59’53.652”E

1°22’16.240”E

Longitude

WGS via North Sea approximation

Example ED50 to WGS84 co-ordinate transformations in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea.

Annex 2

True Dist

0.716

0.658

0.718

0.690

Azimuth

6°35’02.2”

147°54’58.8”

154°49’05.6”

206°16’29.5”

Differences

NB: The UK-Norway Boundary is taken as the intersection of the Geodesic between pts 9 and 10 of Treaty Series dated 31/1980 and the latitude 62deg N (both expressed in ED50 terms). The Norway Inshore boundary is taken as the intersection of the Geodesic between Norske grunnlinjepunkter 67 and 68 and the latitude 62deg N (both expressed in ED50 terms).

Inshore boundary

6201/11 SW corner

Blocks north of 62°N

33/2 NW corner

UK-Norway boundary

Blocks south of 62°N

ED50

ED50 to WGS84 co-ordinate transformations along the parallel of 62 degrees North.

Annex 1

Annex 3 Schematic diagram of EPSG Geodesy Database Transformations for Offshore Norway

Past Future Year: 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02…

Latitude 65°N

EPSG CRS Name

Code

Comment

ED50 to WGS84 (15)

8047

Codes 1147 + 1146, via ED87

ED50 to WGS84 (21)

8569

Codes 1568 + 1146, via ETR S89

ED50 to WGS84 (23)

1612

Bursa-Wolfe transformation, no more interpolation

ED50 to WGS84 (20)

1450

Interpolation between 8047 and 8046

ED50 to WGS84 (22)

1590

Interpolation between 8569 and 8046

ED50 to WGS84 (14)

8046

Concatenation of codes 1025+1146 via ED87, including polynomial

ED50 to WGS84 (23)

1613

Bursa-Wolfe transformation, approximates code 8046

62°N

209-215 Blackfriars Road London SE1 8NL United Kingdom Telephone: +44 (0)20 7633 0272 Fax: +44 (0)20 7633 2350 165 Bd du Souverain 4th Floor B-1160 Brussels, Belgium Telephone: +32 (0)2 566 9150 Fax: +32 (0)2 566 9159

Internet site: www.ogp.org.uk e-mail: [email protected]

Disclaimer Whilst every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information contained in this publication, neither the OGP nor any of its members past present or future warrants its accuracy or will, regardless of its or their negligence, assume liability for any foreseeable or unforeseeable use made thereof, which liability is hereby excluded. Consequently, such use is at the recipient’s own risk on the basis that any use by the recipient constitutes agreement to the terms of this disclaimer. The recipient is obliged to inform any subsequent recipient of such terms.

Copyright OGP The contents of these pages are ©The International Association of Oil & Gas Producers 2006. All rights are reserved.

View more...
1

Version

Date

Amendments

1.0

April 2001

First release

Background

European Datum 1950 (ED50) is the de facto and de jure geographic coordinate reference system for oil industry licencing and operations offshore Norway. In 1981 the nations bordering the North Sea published technical recommendations for deriving ED50 coordinates from the coordinate reference systems used by the then current satellite navigation systems, WGS72 and WGS72BE1. These recommendations were widely adopted by the oil industry. In some parts of the North Sea (Denmark, UK) their use has continued after modification for the difference between WGS72 and the WGS84 system used by current generation GPS navigation satellite positioning, but this usage is no longer appropriate in Norway. In 1990 the nations bordering the North Sea published technical recommendations for deriving ED50 coordinates from WGS842. These are the so-called North Sea formulae, formerly adopted for use in Norway south of 62º North. They use a two-step approach, first from WGS84 to ED87 using a position vector 7-parameter transformation, then from ED87 to ED50 through a 4th-order reversible polynomial3. In 1991 a Statens Kartverk note reconfirmed the adoption of the North Sea formulae for offshore Norway south of latitude 62º North4. This same note detailed a position vector 7-parameter transformation for use offshore Norway north of latitude 65º North5. The note also advocated linear interpolation between the results from this transformation and the North Sea formulae for the area between 65ºN and 62ºN. These various transformations were included in the Statens Kartverk program SLGTRF. (This program is no longer available). In 1997 Statens Kartverk published coordinates for a new Norwegian geodetic network, Stamnettet, based on ETRS89 realised through an adjustment called EUREF89 (see paragraph 10). A new transformation between ETRS89 and ED50 was defined for use offshore Norway north of latitude 65º North6. This transformation was included in the Statens Kartverk coordinate conversion program

1 Report of an investigation into the use of doppler satellite positioning to provide co-ordinates on the European Datum 1950 in the area of the North Sea. Ordnance Survey of Great Britain Professional Paper New Series No. 30, 1981. 2 The Transformation between ED50 and WGS84 for exploration purposes. Norwegian Mapping Authority. Geodesy Division. Geodetic publication Nr.1990:1 3 See EPSG geodetic parameter data set geodetic transformation ED50 to WGS 84 (14) (code 8046) or the reference in footnote 2 for details. 4 Norwegian Mapping Authority note of 13-Feb-1991 “Om Transformasjon mellom Geodetiske Datum i Norge” 5 From ED50 to WGS84: dX= -84.491 dY= -100.559 dZ= -114.209 metres; rX= -2.4006 rY= -0.5367 rZ= -2.3742 microradians; dS= +0.2947 ppm. See EPSG geodetic parameter data set geodetic transformation ED50 to WGS 84 (15) (code 8047) or reference in footnote 4 for derivation. 6 Position Vector 7-parameter transformation. From ED50 to ETRS89: dX= -116.641 dY= -56.931 dZ= -110.559 metres; rX= +4.327 rY= +4.464 rZ= -4.444 microradians; dS= -3.520 ppm. See EPSG geodetic parameter data set, code 1588.

WSKTRANS at this time. For offshore Norway, this 1997 transformation produces results which differ from the 1991 transformation by between approximately 5cm at 72º North to 70 cm at 65º North. The interpolation between 62º North and 65º North was maintained, but because the transformation north of 65º North had changed the results of the interpolation differ from previous interpolation results by 0cm at 62º North and 70 cm at 65º North. However this update to WSKTRANS was not widely known. Many practitioners using alternative coordinate transformation applications continued to use the 1991 data. Most offshore oil industry operators and their service providers have not included the North Sea formulae or the mid-Norway interpolation into real-time positioning applications. Many different alternatives have been used as pragmatic approximations. Most of the data management software packages in use within the oil industry are “off the shelf ” international products that do not allow for non-geocentric geodetic transformation methods.

2

The relationship between ETRS89 and WGS84

The International Earth Rotation Service (IERS) maintains a coordinate reference system for the international geodetic community. This system, the IERS Terrestrial Reference System or ITRS, represents the scientific community’s best model of the Earth. It is realised through coordinates and coordinate velocities for a set of stations around the world and published periodically by IERS as the IERS Terrestrial Reference Frame, ITRFxx where xx represents the year of realisation7. This is a global system. ETRS89 was defined to be coincident with the ITRS at 1/1/1989. But ETRS89 is not a global system: it is anchored to the stable parts of the EurAsian tectonic plate. This plate is moving at about 17mm per year relative to the ITRS. In just over a decade since 1989, ETRS89 has diverged from the current ITRS by about 25cm. The two continue to diverge. See also footnote 8. WGS84 is maintained by the US. Like the ITRS it is a global system. Initially it was coincident with ITRS to an accuracy of about 1.5 metres. It is currently maintained within 10cm of the ITRS. WGS84 is therefore not fully consistent with earlier published versions of ETRS89. But to an accuracy of a few decimetres the two can be considered to be approximately the same. This approximation will remain valid for several years.

7 In some international geodetic literature both the terms “System” (as in ITRS) and “Frame” (as in ITRF) have been adopted as synonomous to “Datum”. Strictly speaking these terms have slightly different meanings. 8 In a number of countries (including Norway), the term “EUREF89” (also called ETRF89) has been used for the reference system realisation introduced following a European GPS campaign carried out in May 1989. To avoid confusion in the naming, the name EUREF89 has been retained and subsequent network adjustments have been referred back to the same epoch (1/1/1989). For oil industry practical purposes EUREF89 and ETRF89 can be taken to be aliases of ETRS89.

3

Recommendations

With effect from 1st May 2001 the following transformation is recommended for converting GPS WGS84 coordinates to ED50 coordinates offshore Norway north of 62º North: Transformation method: Position Vector 7-parameter transformation Transformation parameter values:

dX =

+ 116.641 m

dY =

+ 56.931 m

dZ =

+ 110.559 m

rX =

- 4.327 µrad

=

- 0.893 sec

rY =

- 4.464 µrad

=

- 0.921 sec

rZ =

+ 4.444 µrad

=

+ 0.917 sec

dS =

+ 3.520 ppm

See annex 1 for examples of the application of this transformation. For transformations from ED50 to WGS84 the signs should be reversed9. Adoption of this recommended transformation north of 62º North will create differences from previous practice of up to 4 metres. These differences are within the general accuracy of offshore positioning and coordinate transformation uncertainty. It is therefore recommended that ED50 coordinates from historic operations offshore Norway north of 62º North remain unchanged and be considered consistent with application of the 2001 recommendation. No action is required for management of historic data. Where users have a special need for exact consistency with past practice they should continue to use that practice for local areas. But for new projects the above transformation is recommended. South of 62º North the 1991 North Sea formulae (paragraph 2 above) remains the recommended transformation between ED50 and WGS84. See annex 1 for examples of the application of this transformation. If a simpler transformation method from WGS84 to ED50 is required in the Norwegian sector south of 62º North, then as an approximation to about 1 metre the following is recommended: Transformation method: Position Vector 7-parameter transformation Transformation parameter values:

dX =

+ 90.365 m

dY =

+ 101.130 m

dZ =

+ 123.384 m

rX =

- 1.614 µrad

=

- 0.333 sec

rY =

- 0.373 µrad

=

- 0.077 sec

rZ =

- 4.334 µrad

=

- 0.894 sec

dS =

- 1.994 ppm

For transformations from ED50 to WGS84 the signs should be reversed10. See annex 2 for examples of the application of this approximation. Adoption of the recommendations in paragraphs 10 and 13 above will give rise to a discontinuity in the transformation along the parallel of 62º North of between 3.2m in the west to 4.5m in the east (see annex 1). It must be emphasized that there is no discontinuity in the ED50 graticule, nor of the ETRS89 or WGS84 graticules. Operations across the 62º North parallel will have great difficulty in applying two discontinuous transformations. It is therefore recommended that for any field operation straddling the 62º North parallel, the transformation applicable to the majority of the survey area be applied to the whole survey. This is similar to the procedure adopted in the case of a survey crossing a projection zone boundary.

9 This reversed transformation is code 1612 in the EPSG geodetic parameter database. 10 This reversed transformation is code 1613 in the EPSG geodetic parameter database.

4

Discussion

It is noted that the Norwegian license-block numbering schema has a discontinuity at 62º North, and also that the area immediately adjacent to the parallel of 62º North is of lesser geological interest to the oil industry than most of offshore Norway. For offshore oil industry operations, once an absolute accuracy of a few metres has been achieved then relative accuracy and consistency become more important. Uniformity of application between operators and service providers and ease of application in real-time field operations and data management are also important. The recommendations above have taken consistency and ease of use to be more important than continuity of transformation. Users of the Statens Kartverk coordinate conversion program WSKTRANS requiring these 2001 transformation recommendations need to use v4.0 or later versions of the program.

5

Summary of recommendations

South of 62º North the 1991 North Sea formulae continues to be the recommended transformation between ED50 and WGS84 (paragraph 2). However for data management applications and real-time field operations where a two-step transformation and/or a polynomial transformation are not available, an approximation accurate to 1 metre may be used (paragraph 14). North of 62º North the recommended transformation between ED50 and WGS84 is as given in paragraph 10. No action is required from data managers following this clarification of geodetic transformation. Historically-derived ED50 coordinates may be assumed to be consistent with those derived through these 2001 transformations. Any operations which cross the parallel of 62º North should use only one transformation for the full survey area. The transformation adopted should be that which applies to the majority of the survey area.

6201/12 SW corner

6202/10 SW corner

6202/11 SW corner

6202/12 SW corner

6203/10 SW corner

6203/11 SW corner

6203/12 SW corner

6204/10 SW corner

6204/11 SW corner

6204/12 SW corner

6204/12 SSE corner

33/3 NW corner

34/1 NW corner

34/2 NW corner

34/3 NW corner

35/1 NW corner

35/2 NW corner

35/3 NW corner

36/1 NW corner

36/2 NW corner

36/3 NW corner

36/3 NE corner

62°00’00.000”N

62°00’00.000”N

62°00’00.000”N

62°00’00.000”N

62°00’00.000”N

62°00’00.000”N

62°00’00.000”N

62°00’00.000”N

62°00’00.000”N

62°00’00.000”N

62°00’00.000”N

62°00’00.000”N

Latitude

4°52’45.240”E

4°40’00.000”E

4°20’00.000”E

4°00’00.000”E

3°40’00.000”E

3°20’00.000”E

3°00’00.000”E

2°40’00.000”E

2°20’00.000”E

2°00’00.000”E

1°40’00.000”E

1°22’22.769”E

Longitude

61°59’58.454”N

61°59’58.444”N

61°59’58.429”N

61°59’58.407”N

61°59’58.393”N

61°59’58.378”N

61°59’58.363”N

61°59’58.346”N

61°59’58.328”N

61°59’58.309”N

61°59’58.290”N

61°59’58.273”N

Latitude

4°52’39.004”E

4°39’53.731”E

4°19’53.690”E

3°59’53.728”E

3°39’53.697”E

3°19’53.665”E

2°59’53.631”E

2°39’53.599”E

2°19’53.568”E

1°59’53.539”E

1°39’53.513”E

1°22’16.261”E

Longitude

WGS84 via North Sea formulae

61°59’58.488”N

61°59’58.480”N

61°59’58.466”N

61°59’58.453”N

61°59’58.439”N

61°59’58.425”N

61°59’58.411”N

61°59’58.397”N

61°59’58.383”N

61°59’58.369”N

61°59’58.355”N

61°59’58.343”N

Latitude

4°52’39.299”E

4°39’54.034”E

4°19’53.995”E

3°59’53.956”E

3°39’53.917”E

3°19’53.879”E

2°59’53.840”E

2°39’53.802”E

2°19’53.764”E

1°59’53.726”E

1°39’53.689”E

1°22’16.425”E

Longitude

WGS84 via north of 62º transformation

4.42m

4.55m

4.58m

3.61m

3.50m

3.44m

3.39m

3.35m

3.32m

3.30m

3.26m

3.22m

True Dist

76°13’35.8”

75°49’06.12”

75°31’56.7”

66°46’32.1”

66°01’29.6”

64°57’43.2”

63°57’57.7”

61°52’58.1”

59°10’12.8”

55°41’23.0”

51°51’02.6”

47°45’59.7”

Azimuth

North Sea formulae - north of 62º tfm

62°00’00.000”N

62°00’00.000”N

58°00’00.000”N

35/1 NE corner

35/2 NE corner

Test point - 8/3 NE corner

Latitude

62°00’00.000”N

33/2 NW corner

Location Longitude

4°00’00.000”E

3°20’00.000”E

3°00’00.000”E

1°22’22.769”E

ED50

57°59’57.815”N

61°59’58.378”N

61°59’58.363”N

61°59’58.273”N

Latitude

3°59’54.595”E

3°19’53.665”E

2°59’53.631”E

1°22’16.261”E

Longitude

WGS84 via North Sea formulae

57°59’57.838”N

61°59’58.360”N

61°59’58.342”N

61°59’58.253”N

Latitude

3°59’54.600”E

3°19’53.689”E

2°59’53.652”E

1°22’16.240”E

Longitude

WGS via North Sea approximation

Example ED50 to WGS84 co-ordinate transformations in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea.

Annex 2

True Dist

0.716

0.658

0.718

0.690

Azimuth

6°35’02.2”

147°54’58.8”

154°49’05.6”

206°16’29.5”

Differences

NB: The UK-Norway Boundary is taken as the intersection of the Geodesic between pts 9 and 10 of Treaty Series dated 31/1980 and the latitude 62deg N (both expressed in ED50 terms). The Norway Inshore boundary is taken as the intersection of the Geodesic between Norske grunnlinjepunkter 67 and 68 and the latitude 62deg N (both expressed in ED50 terms).

Inshore boundary

6201/11 SW corner

Blocks north of 62°N

33/2 NW corner

UK-Norway boundary

Blocks south of 62°N

ED50

ED50 to WGS84 co-ordinate transformations along the parallel of 62 degrees North.

Annex 1

Annex 3 Schematic diagram of EPSG Geodesy Database Transformations for Offshore Norway

Past Future Year: 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02…

Latitude 65°N

EPSG CRS Name

Code

Comment

ED50 to WGS84 (15)

8047

Codes 1147 + 1146, via ED87

ED50 to WGS84 (21)

8569

Codes 1568 + 1146, via ETR S89

ED50 to WGS84 (23)

1612

Bursa-Wolfe transformation, no more interpolation

ED50 to WGS84 (20)

1450

Interpolation between 8047 and 8046

ED50 to WGS84 (22)

1590

Interpolation between 8569 and 8046

ED50 to WGS84 (14)

8046

Concatenation of codes 1025+1146 via ED87, including polynomial

ED50 to WGS84 (23)

1613

Bursa-Wolfe transformation, approximates code 8046

62°N

209-215 Blackfriars Road London SE1 8NL United Kingdom Telephone: +44 (0)20 7633 0272 Fax: +44 (0)20 7633 2350 165 Bd du Souverain 4th Floor B-1160 Brussels, Belgium Telephone: +32 (0)2 566 9150 Fax: +32 (0)2 566 9159

Internet site: www.ogp.org.uk e-mail: [email protected]

Disclaimer Whilst every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information contained in this publication, neither the OGP nor any of its members past present or future warrants its accuracy or will, regardless of its or their negligence, assume liability for any foreseeable or unforeseeable use made thereof, which liability is hereby excluded. Consequently, such use is at the recipient’s own risk on the basis that any use by the recipient constitutes agreement to the terms of this disclaimer. The recipient is obliged to inform any subsequent recipient of such terms.

Copyright OGP The contents of these pages are ©The International Association of Oil & Gas Producers 2006. All rights are reserved.