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FOR CIOS

Open Source Powers Enterprise Digital Transformation CIOs Need To Embrace Open Source Software To Drive Change by Paul Miller and Lauren E. Nelson April 25, 2016 | Updated: April 29, 2016

Why Read This Report

Key Takeaways

Open source is not just of interest to researchers, startups, or small businesses. The modern enterprise embraces open source capabilities to accelerate its digital transformation efforts, and open source components increasingly underpin today’s major technology markets. CIOs must consider open source technologies as part of their broader business technology strategy. This report addresses the evolution of open source and highlights its importance to enterprise strategy moving forward.

Open Source Is An Essential Part Of Your Business Technology Strategy As businesses transform their technology stack in support of efforts to win, serve, and retain customers, open source tools and applications play a critical role in lowering lock-in, increasing agility, and driving change in the way that technology projects are considered, governed, and delivered.

FORRESTER.COM

Traditional Technology Vendors Drive Open Source Today The stereotypical view of open source projects conceived and delivered by lonely developers is long-gone. Today, key players in the enterprise software market such as Hewlett Packard Enterprise (HPE), IBM, Microsoft, and Oracle commit significant financial and human resources to ensuring that foundational open source projects grow and succeed.

FOR CIOS

Open Source Powers Enterprise Digital Transformation CIOs Need To Embrace Open Source Software To Drive Change by Paul Miller and Lauren E. Nelson with Pascal Matzke, Vanessa Wegner, Carmen Stoica, and Ian McPherson April 25, 2016 | Updated: April 29, 2016

Open Source Has Moved From Bedroom To Boardroom Open source is no longer limited to academics and hobbyists. Enterprises across the globe now look to open source software to support mission critical, customer-facing workloads.1 According to Forrester’s most recent survey of software decision-makers, 41% identify increasing their use of open source as a high or critical priority for 2016.2 Established enterprise software players invest heavily in open source, as newer companies — like Hortonworks and Red Hat — attract significant customers to their open source-powered solutions.3 The increasing demand for agile, customer-obsessed technology drives interest in open source among large organizations and their technology partners. It’s no longer acceptable to take the traditional, cautious approach to technology adoption. Fast adoption often means high levels of vendor lock-in and future limitations on change. As open source options evolve, enterprises see them as a more open and flexible path forward. Many open source software projects have reached a scale and maturity that make them worthy of evaluation alongside more traditional proprietary solutions. These are four clear signs that you’re already using open source and should take it seriously: ›› Technology giants collaborate on open source projects. The days in which open source software projects start, grow, and reach widespread adoption driven by individual developers are long-gone. Now, paid employees from tech giants make most of the code contributions, within the rules and procedures laid down by the foundations — the Apache Software Foundation, the Linux Foundation, the OpenStack Foundation, and others — that govern these projects. OpenStack’s latest release, Liberty, ranks its top individual contributors as employees of SUSE, Red Hat, HPE, IBM, and Huawei.4 IBM recently announced a major initiative that included committing “more than 3,500 researchers and developers” to Apache Spark-related projects.5 ›› Tech innovators stand on the shoulders of open source giants. Open source is the engine behind new tech innovation. Rather than reinventing the wheel, developers leverage open source tools like Chef, Nagios, or Puppet. Instead of unnecessarily recreating basic functionality, project teams quickly get to devote time, money, and attention to differentiating on top of a robust open

Forrester Research, Inc., 60 Acorn Park Drive, Cambridge, MA 02140 USA +1 617-613-6000 | Fax: +1 617-613-5000 | forrester.com © 2016 Forrester Research, Inc. Opinions reflect judgment at the time and are subject to change. Forrester®, Technographics®, Forrester Wave, RoleView, TechRadar, and Total Economic Impact are trademarks of Forrester Research, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective companies. Unauthorized copying or distributing is a violation of copyright law. [email protected] or +1 866-367-7378

FOR CIOS

April 25, 2016 | Updated: April 29, 2016

Open Source Powers Enterprise Digital Transformation CIOs Need To Embrace Open Source Software To Drive Change

source base. In a number of areas, new companies emerge to offer commercial solutions and services layered upon freely available open source code. Cloudera and Hortonworks, for example, pursue rather different business models on top of the same open source Apache Hadoop project. Regardless, open source is heavily intertwined in today’s top tech innovation. ›› Even risk-averse governments push open source-friendly policies. Keen to reduce their dependence on expensive vendors and encourage faster and more open development of new services, governments around the world have been surprisingly quick to craft policies that favor open source solutions. The General Services Administration (GSA) of the US federal government, for example, “will give priority to using open source software as we design now [sic] solutions.”6 In March 2016, the White House announced further plans to “promote innovation and collaboration across Federal agencies” on the back of an open source strategy.7 Other governments also seek to promote open source, or at least to level the playing field between open source and proprietary offerings.8 ›› And Fortune 50s aren’t shying away from open source either. Enterprise developers report extensive use of open source tooling in multiple tech arenas (see Figure 1). But organization-wide open source adoption is also increasingly common. You’d be hard pressed to find any company in the Fortune 50 that isn’t making extensive use of Linux. Twelve Fortune 50s currently use OpenStack with another five actively considering it for their private cloud.9 Eight Fortune 50s use a distribution of Cloud Foundry.10 Open source big data and analytics company Hortonworks counts over half of the Fortune 100 among its customers.11 Chef and Puppet are table stakes for today’s enterprise automation scripts. Whether you recognize it or not, open source is common today both for use by individual developers and within a broader organizational strategy (see Figure 2).

© 2016 Forrester Research, Inc. Unauthorized copying or distributing is a violation of copyright law. [email protected] or +1 866-367-7378

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FOR CIOS

April 25, 2016 | Updated: April 29, 2016

Open Source Powers Enterprise Digital Transformation CIOs Need To Embrace Open Source Software To Drive Change

FIGURE 1 Open Source Drives Digital Transformation

41% of enterprise decision-makers say that increasing use of open source is a high or critical priority for 2016.*

Linux/Unix

19% 58%

of x86 OS instances are LINUXor UNIX-based on average,** while of enterprise decision-makers use LINUX or UNIX for any of their x86 OS instances.**

Base: 1,402 global infrastructure technology decision-makers whose firms prioritize servers and the data center and deploy x86 servers (20+ employees)

Cloud platforms

12 8

Fortune 50s use OpenStack.†

Fortune 50s use Cloud Foundry.†

“How will your use of the following cloud platforms change during the next 12 months?” (% implementing/implemented and expanding/ upgrading implementation)‡ Other, CloudStack-based

13%

of enterprises state their primary software approach to internal private cloud is open source technology.**

Other, OpenStack-based

13% 24%

Pivotal Cloud Foundry Red Hat OpenShift

32% 35%

Cloud Foundry Base: 1,387 global infrastructure technology decision-makers whose firms are planning to or have implemented internal private cloud

37%

Base: 675 global cloud developers

Note: Not all responses are shown. *Source: Forrester’s Global Business Technographics® Software Survey, 2015. Base: 3,530 global software decision-makers. **Source: Forrester’s Global Business Technographics Infrastructure Survey, 2015 ‡ Source: Forrester’s Business Technographics Global Developer Survey, 2015 † Forrester estimates

© 2016 Forrester Research, Inc. Unauthorized copying or distributing is a violation of copyright law. [email protected] or +1 866-367-7378

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FOR CIOS

April 25, 2016 | Updated: April 29, 2016

Open Source Powers Enterprise Digital Transformation CIOs Need To Embrace Open Source Software To Drive Change

FIGURE 2 Major Open Source Projects

“Which of the following classes of open source software tools/frameworks have you used for development or deployment in the past 12 months?”* “Which of the following classes of open source software tools/frameworks is your primary development or deployment in the past 12 months?”† Relational DBMSes Operating systems

Portals or mashup servers

20%

4%

18%

5%

18%

4%

Business intelligence tools

Release/deployment mgmt tools

20%

5%

Content mgmt systems

Management and monitoring

25%

5%

Application frameworks

Business applications

29%

14%

Application servers

NoSQL DBMSes

36%

10%

Development IDEs

SCM Tools

37%

16%

Web servers

Build and release mgmt tools

38%

16%

16%

5%

16%

3% 4% 3% 3% 2%

Developers are using open source for a wide array of tasks and projects, and their primary tools are varied

15% 15% 15% 12%

*Base: 1,943 global developers Base: 1,594 global developers who use open source software



Source: Forrester’s Business Technographics Global Developer Survey, 2015

© 2016 Forrester Research, Inc. Unauthorized copying or distributing is a violation of copyright law. [email protected] or +1 866-367-7378

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April 25, 2016 | Updated: April 29, 2016

Open Source Powers Enterprise Digital Transformation CIOs Need To Embrace Open Source Software To Drive Change

CIOs Need To Focus On Other Open Source Benefits Beyond Cost Superficially, at least, the primary motivation for adopting open source is usually thought to be cost. Open source solutions, after all, are free to download, install, modify, and use. But the truth is more nuanced, as successful open source implementations may require expensive (and scarce) developer talent, bespoke coding, or time-consuming engagements to persuade a diverse community of interests to focus and move in useful directions.12 There is no guarantee that an application built on open source foundations will cost less (or more) than its equivalent bought from a traditional vendor. But organizations that adopt open source solutions see a range of benefits extending far beyond the simplistic tallying of dollars and cents: ›› It kicks off a cultural transformation. Above all else, open source tools and approaches kick off a new phase of tech adoption within the organization, with technology increasingly recognized as an enabler of broader business transformation and not simply a necessary cost center. Adoption of open source, and the embrace of more modular, nimble, and customer-obsessed development methodologies forces the business to reconsider many of the legacy decisions that constrain both the technology management function and the broader organization of which it is part. At General Electric (GE), for example, the company’s ambition to become a leader in the industrial internet depends upon the success of recent efforts to restructure and refocus the technology management organization.13 ›› It’s an unmatched peer-to-peer resource. It’s entirely possible to download open source development tools and some open source code, lock the virtual doors, and quietly deploy it inside your own data center without ever telling anyone. But to do so misses out on the opportunity to share ideas and best practices, to learn from the mistakes — and successes — of others, and to advertise yourself as an attractive employer for those developing with the same tools and code elsewhere. Netflix was an early customer of Amazon Web Services (AWS) and is widely regarded as an exemplar of cloud-native application building. Key open source components of the company’s so-called Simian Army cement that reputation, demonstrating the prowess of Netflix’s engineers and acting as a powerful advert to prospective new hires.14 ›› It modernizes your internal talent. As organizations look to modernize established systems of record and build the systems of engagement that power future growth, open source tools, development environments, and applications often figure highly. Alongside the acquisition of new talent, internal projects based on open source development frameworks create opportunities to introduce existing employees to new tools, new ways of working, and new ways of engaging with stakeholders across the business and beyond. At BMW, for example, adoption of the open source OpenStack cloud is introducing internal developers to new ways of working that prepare them for the company’s drive to deliver solutions that are increasingly customer-obsessed.15 ›› It draws top developers from top technology companies. Development of open source projects doesn’t come from college students in dorm rooms, but rather from entire groups inside large tech entities like HPE, IBM, and Oracle that are completely dedicated to developing lines of code.

© 2016 Forrester Research, Inc. Unauthorized copying or distributing is a violation of copyright law. [email protected] or +1 866-367-7378

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FOR CIOS

April 25, 2016 | Updated: April 29, 2016

Open Source Powers Enterprise Digital Transformation CIOs Need To Embrace Open Source Software To Drive Change

These teams not only help vendors mature the offering to support their distributions and build in integrations to their existing products. They also compete against each other on metrics such as code commits and bug fixes, all of which are tracked for all to see on sites like Stackalytics.16 ›› It reduces lock-in. Selecting a proprietary tech solution in any category carries the risk of lock-in to a single vendor, product road map, and price-list. Lock-in refers to the pain, cost, and upheaval of vendor swapping and arguably places undue power in the hands of vendors. Open source alters that power dynamic. Anyone can see the code, anyone can modify the code, and anyone can add to the code. In some cases, distributions based off an open source project require a test of compatibility allowing for easier movement between alternative vendor distributions.17 For a few customers, direct open source adoption frees them entirely from vendor lock-in and cost as they acquire and nurture internal expertise.18 But for most, open source is more about a reduction of lock-in at key places in the application stack, rather than complete elimination of all vendor dependencies. One early driver in BMW’s move to OpenStack was to reduce their dependence upon expensive VMware licenses, but the project was about far more than a short-term cost saving.19 ›› It avoids rework through upstream contributions. Enterprises still practice heavy software customization of their packaged solutions, even knowing that upgrades will likely mean extensive rewriting. In an increasingly agile world, this slows down your enterprise’s pace of innovation. Open source projects give your enterprise the opportunity to upstream your customization, such that these fixes appear in the next version to avoid time-consuming rewrites. Netflix takes this to the next level by contributing entire projects like the company’s Chaos Monkey. It created a standard in the market and positioned Netflix as a top technology innovator among enterprise IT shops. Open Source Has Transformed, And Its Reputation Is Quickly Catching-Up Despite a range of clear and increasingly compelling benefits, open source technologies still face skepticism from business and technology leaders within the traditional enterprise. Nonbelievers still view open source as exclusively for small and midsize businesses, mid-market players, and cloudnative companies. Common critiques include knocks at a project’s long term stability, foundation business processes, bug transparency, and a lack of incentives to harden solutions rather than constantly adding new — cool — features. This drastically underestimates the progress made by projects and foundations over the past 10 years. With Fortune 50s adopting open source very publicly for production workloads, it is clear that open source is evolving. Although some contributors are still the wily developer types, the dominant development force behind these projects are developers fully employed and paid for by the large technology vendors with which enterprises already have long-standing relationships. These developers push for organizational and software stability to win the enterprise audience. CIOs should be aware of the following open source stability evolutions:

© 2016 Forrester Research, Inc. Unauthorized copying or distributing is a violation of copyright law. [email protected] or +1 866-367-7378

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FOR CIOS

April 25, 2016 | Updated: April 29, 2016

Open Source Powers Enterprise Digital Transformation CIOs Need To Embrace Open Source Software To Drive Change

›› Passionate optimists are now guided by chaperones. In the past, open source leadership has been portrayed as naive optimists driven by impractical idealism, swayed by petty internal arguments, and lacking an achievable long-term vision. Those days are long gone. Behind the scenes of major open source projects are the classic IT vendors that your company has worked with for years — Cisco, EMC, HPE, IBM, Microsoft, NetApp, Oracle, and the rest. These companies steward the development of the organization and technology, having seen what works and what can bring failure as bright ideas transition toward mainstream adoption. This guidance helps foundations move more quickly from hype to a mature market footing. ›› Scary transparency is replacing hidden instability. Vendors and open source solutions alike have powerful marketing machines that hope to mold your perception of their solutions. Beneath the surface of most modern open source projects, however, is a level of transparency that you don’t see from individual vendors or the open source projects of the past. This community provides specific real-life narratives, comprehensive lists of bugs, and explicit plans for future road maps. Heated debate, conducted in public, can easily appear both divisive and disruptive, but the eventual consensus usually serves to ensure that competing perspectives — and valid alternative solutions — have been fully considered. One of the best examples of progress monitoring is Stackalytics, which provides detailed contribution information for the OpenStack community and a set of complementary projects. Your team can easily see whether the focus of development is on endlessly chasing flashy new features or on hardening the core functionality that you need. ›› Center of gravity in standards development is moving to open communities. Fans of formal standards-making processes commonly assert that standards development organizations (SDOs) historically created standards and, as such, they should inevitably continue to do so in the future. In practice this position has become more difficult to defend. Collectively collaborating to identify standards needed and then creating one takes time. Once a proposed standard is created, momentum and adoption is the final requirement. Today, SDOs increasingly leverage open source projects for this final step. By building these standards into popular open source projects, adoption is far more likely. By participating in open source projects, your enterprise is partaking in upcoming standards within the market, further investing in lowered vendor lock-in. What It Means

Open Source Must Be Part Of Your Business Technology Strategy Few organizations are in a position to move entirely to an open source technology stack, but open source tools, technologies and approaches play an increasingly important role in most areas of technology development. An organization that does not fully consider open source options alongside the proprietary offerings they have traditionally procured is missing out on sound technologies, access to vibrant communities, and the opportunity to tap innovative new ways of working. Today, failure to fully consider open source options is unwise. Within a few short years, it will be unforgivably negligent.

© 2016 Forrester Research, Inc. Unauthorized copying or distributing is a violation of copyright law. [email protected] or +1 866-367-7378

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April 25, 2016 | Updated: April 29, 2016

Open Source Powers Enterprise Digital Transformation CIOs Need To Embrace Open Source Software To Drive Change

1. Open source will underpin the applications upon which your customers depend. Every application will not be an open source application, and there is still plenty of life in proprietary software and the purveyors of proprietary services. But the trends we see today will only continue to accelerate, as the developers of applications tap existing knowledge, practices, and software components to bootstrap the differentiating features and functions they wish to build. More than ever, open source code and components will lie at the heart of the applications upon which you and your customers depend. Failure to experiment with open source today, and failure to learn how best to benefit from open source today, will put you and your organization at a significant disadvantage in the coming years. 2. Open source communities will foster standards and peer-to-peer collaboration. Today’s SDOs need the people and willing adopters from open source projects to seal their proposals into actual standards. This will continue with the power increasingly shifting toward the open source communities. Similarly, open source groups have established peer-to-peer resources to facilitate collaboration cross-industry through sites like GitHub and user committee meetups led by the likes of the OpenStack and Cloud Foundry foundations. Providing this same sort of platform specifically targeted at tech leaders has traditionally been reserved for vendor-organized gatherings and SDO-led user groups. Looking forward, open source communities will extend their peer-to-peer communities to target tech leaders. Communities like these will help generate ideas from other industries, driving customer experience and organizational changes. 3. Technology is only part of the open source story. Again and again, we encounter evidence that the code is only one small part of the value open source brings to its enterprise adopters. CIOs continue to grapple with the challenge of transforming their technology management organization to drive real growth across an increasingly customer-obsessed business. The skills, ways of working, and ideas that open source deployments require of their developers go a long way toward transforming that workforce to meet the new demands of the business. Those demands show no sign of diminishing. As organizations continue their rush to embrace the realities of the age of the customer, a technology management organization that has learned the lessons open source can teach will be well placed to meet new business demands. More importantly, it will also be well placed to start playing a far more proactive role in driving that age of the customer agenda throughout the business.

© 2016 Forrester Research, Inc. Unauthorized copying or distributing is a violation of copyright law. [email protected] or +1 866-367-7378

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FOR CIOS

April 25, 2016 | Updated: April 29, 2016

Open Source Powers Enterprise Digital Transformation CIOs Need To Embrace Open Source Software To Drive Change

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Supplemental Material Survey Methodology Forrester’s Global Business Technographics® Software Survey, 2015, was fielded to 3,651 business and technology decision-makers located in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, New Zealand, the, UK and US from companies with two or more employees. This survey is part of Forrester’s Business Technographics and was fielded from July 2015 to August 2015. ResearchNow fielded this survey on behalf of Forrester. Survey respondent incentives include points redeemable for gift certificates. We have provided exact sample sizes in this report on a question-by-question basis. Forrester’s Business Technographics Global Developer Survey, 2015, was fielded to 1,943 developers located in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, New Zealand, the UK, and the US. Forrester’s Global Business Technographics Infrastructure Survey, 2015, was fielded to 3,592 business and technology decision-makers located in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, New Zealand, the UK, and the US from companies with 2 or more employees. This survey is part of Forrester’s Business Technographics and was fielded from May 2015 to June 2015. ResearchNow fielded this survey on behalf of Forrester. Survey respondent incentives include points redeemable for gift certificates. We have provided exact sample sizes in this report on a question-by-question basis.

© 2016 Forrester Research, Inc. Unauthorized copying or distributing is a violation of copyright law. [email protected] or +1 866-367-7378

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FOR CIOS

April 25, 2016 | Updated: April 29, 2016

Open Source Powers Enterprise Digital Transformation CIOs Need To Embrace Open Source Software To Drive Change

Forrester’s Business Technographics provides demand-side insight into the priorities, investments, and customer journeys of business and technology decision-makers and the workforce across the globe. Forrester collects data insights from qualified respondents in 10 countries spanning the Americas, Europe, and Asia. Business Technographics uses only superior data sources and advanced datacleaning techniques to ensure the highest data quality. We have illustrated only a portion of the survey results in this document. To inquire about receiving full data results for an additional fee, please contact [email protected] or your Forrester account manager.

Endnotes At Wal-Mart, for example, all of the hundreds of millions of web visitors to walmart.com properties during the 2014 holiday season were served from an OpenStack compute cloud. Source: Amandeep Juneja, “Why we chose OpenStack for Walmart Global eCommerce,” WalmartLabs, February 18, 2015 (http://www.walmartlabs.com/2015/02/ why-we-chose-openstack-for-walmart-global-ecommerce/).

1

Source: Forrester’s Global Business Technographics Software Survey, 2015.

2

Enterprise software players from HPE and IBM to Microsoft and Oracle invest heavily in open source, often integrating elements into their proprietary product lines. Microsoft, for example, had the not entirely justified reputation as antiopen source. This month’s move to make the company’s SQL Server database run on the open source Linux operating system is just the latest in a long line of proof points to the contrary. Source: Barb Darrow, “Microsoft Bringing SQL Server to Linux,” Fortune, March 7, 2016 (http://fortune.com/2016/03/07/microsoft-sql-server-for-linux/).

3

Every SDN player is involved in OpenStack. See the “Quick Take: OpenStack Summit, Q4 2015” Forrester report. Elsewhere, companies born in the world of open source also see strong enterprise adoption. Red Hat, which grew on the back of the open source Linux project, remains the poster child here. Hortonworks aims to repeat that success with an almost religious zeal for “100% open source” solutions in the big data space. The OpenStack community’s Stackalytics site gathers data from a number of public sources, making it easy to track the various individual and corporate contributions to OpenStack’s constituent projects. The data on contributions by individual contributors, for example, shows that (ordered by contribution) employees of SUSE, Red Hat, HPE, IBM, and Huawei topped the list of individual contributions to the current OpenStack code release. Considering the teams of developers that companies pull together that ranking shifts, with HPE far ahead of the next company (Red Hat) at the top of the list for lines of code contributed by companies. Source: Stackalytics (http://stackalytics. com/?release=liberty).

4

Source: “IBM Announces Major Commitment to Advance Apache Spark, Calling it Potentially the Most Significant Open Source Project of the Next Decade,” IBM press release, June 15, 2015 (https://www-03.ibm.com/press/us/en/ pressrelease/47107.wss).

5

Source: Sonny Hashmi, “Our Guiding Principles – Open, Innovative and Intuitive solutions,” GSA blog, August 1, 2014 (http://gsablogs.gsa.gov/innovation/2014/08/01/our-guiding-principles/).

6

Source: Tony Scott, “Leveraging American Ingenuity through Reusable and Open Source Software,” The White House, March 10, 2016 (https://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2016/03/09/leveraging-american-ingenuity-through-reusable-andopen-source-software).

7

© 2016 Forrester Research, Inc. Unauthorized copying or distributing is a violation of copyright law. [email protected] or +1 866-367-7378

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FOR CIOS

April 25, 2016 | Updated: April 29, 2016

Open Source Powers Enterprise Digital Transformation CIOs Need To Embrace Open Source Software To Drive Change

The UK initially took a bullish approach to open source, which was toned down by the time draft recommendations were implemented. Source: Bryan Glick, “Government mandates ‘preference’ for open source,” ComputerWeekly. com, March 15, 2013 (http://www.computerweekly.com/news/2240179643/Government-mandates-preference-foropen-source) and “Using open source software,” Gov.uk (https://www.gov.uk/service-manual/making-software/opensource.html).

8

The government of India and the European Commission are among the other public bodies with explicit open source policy statements. Source: “Policy on Adoption of Open Source Software for Government of India,” Department of Electronics & Information Technology, Government of India (http://deity.gov.in/sites/upload_files/dit/files/policy_ on_adoption_of_oss.pdf) and “Open Source Strategy in the European Commission,” European Commission (http:// ec.europa.eu/dgs/informatics/oss_tech/index_en.htm). This figure is based upon Forrester’s combination of public market statements with various private briefings to our analysts.

9

This figure is based upon Forrester’s combination of public market statements with various private briefings to our analysts.

10

This figure is based upon statements made during Hortonworks’ earnings call for Q4 of 2015.

11

To read more about best practices for adopting open source, see the “Best Practices: Adopt Open Source Software To Improve Development Effectiveness” Forrester report and see the “Brief: The World’s Largest Market Needs Open Source Technology” Forrester report.

12

GE has made bold bets to move out of on-premises data centers into the cloud and to shift from selling machines to delivering a rich set of software and data services around those machines. A very different technology management function — the newly formed GE Digital — lies at the heart of CEO Jeff Immelt’s vision for the future of this industrial giant. See the “Brief: GE Positions Itself As A Digital Industrial Leader” Forrester report and see the “Brief: The Industrial Internet May Not Need Its Own Cloud” Forrester report.

13

Applications hosted in the public cloud must embrace the notion of ‘design for failure,’ recognizing that individual elements of a complex multidata center cloud may fail from time to time. Applications should be architected in a way that enables them to recover from these failures. Netflix has survived several high-profile outages affecting parts of Amazon’s cloud, remaining online when other companies using the same AWS data centers suffered embarrassing down-time. The company has released many of the tools that it uses, sharing them freely under open source licenses and also explaining the rationale behind them in great detail. Source: “Netflix Open Source Software Center,” Netflix (http://netflix.github.io).

14

Backed by leading technology infrastructure providers including Cisco, Dell, EMC, HP, IBM, Intel, and VMware, OpenStack underpins significant workloads at an increasingly diverse set of organizations, including BMW, CERN, Comcast, eBay, and Wal-Mart. To read more, see the “Brief: OpenStack Is Now Ready For Business” Forrester report.

15

Source: Stackalytics (http://stackalytics.com/).

16

The OpenStack Foundation, for one, has invested significant effort in ensuring that the distributions and code implementations from different vendors can be certified as meeting certain interoperability requirements. Source: “OpenStack Interoperability,” OpenStack (https://www.openstack.org/brand/interop/).

17

eBay, for example. Source: Archana Venkatraman, “Case Study: How eBay uses its own OpenStack private cloud,” ComputerWeekly.com, June 18, 2014 (http://www.computerweekly.com/news/2240222899/Case-study-How-eBayuses-its-own-OpenStack-private-cloud).

18

To read more about BMW and their investment in OpenStack, see the “Brief: OpenStack Is Now Ready For Business” Forrester report.

19

© 2016 Forrester Research, Inc. Unauthorized copying or distributing is a violation of copyright law. [email protected] or +1 866-367-7378

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