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by: Robert Walther directed by: Dr. Jon Udell Study made possible with support from the Wisconsin Hilldale Undergraduate/ Faculty Research Fellowship Program, the Wisconsin Builders Association and the University of Wisconsin-Madison Enterprise Center

Builders' Guidebook to Reducing, Reusing and Recycling Residential Construction Waste in Wisconsin October 1993 AuthorlResearcher: Robert Walther: Senior, University of Wisconsin-Madison Research Director: Dr. Jon Udell: Irwin Maier Chair of Business, UW-Madison Enterprise Center Reviewers: Mehrdad Azemun, Senior, University of Wisconsin-Madison Bill Binn, Builder, Wyntree Construction lnc. Gerald J. Diemer, Executive Vice-President, Wisconsin Builders Association Len Linzmeier. Builder, Windsor Homes Eileen Norby, Solid Waste Management and Research Coordinator, University of Wisconsin System Administration Andy Swartz, Special Recyclables Coordinator, Department of Natural Resources

Editor: Bruce Stein: Communications Specialist, Wisconsin Builders Association Illustrations: David Nigh

Acknowledgements Robert Walther and Jon Udell gratefully acknowledge the Wisconsin Builders Association, all those listed below and many not named here for their assistance throughout the research and preparation of this guidebook.

The Wisconsin Hilldale Undergraduate/Faculty Research Fellowship Program The Enterprise Center of the University of Wisconsin-Madison The staff and members of the Madison Area Builders Association, Madison, Wisconsin The National Association of Home Builders, Upper Marlboro, Maryland Tom Pelliteri and staff of Pellitteri's Container Haul-Away Inc., Madison, Wisconsin Innovative Waste Management Consultants, Apple Vally, Minnesota Jim Goddard, Recycling Program Manager, Metro, Portland, Oregon John Reindl, Recycling Manager, Department of Public Works, Dane County, Wisconsin Robert Brickner, Senior Vice'President, GBB Solid Waste Management Consultants, Virginia Gary Duckert of Great Lake Fiber, Waterloo, Wiscosnin The following employees of the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources: Lackshmi Sridharan, Chief, Solid Waste Management Section Jack Connelly, Unit Leader, Solid Waste Management Section Janet Niewald, Unit Leader, Solid Waste Reduction and Recycling Section Rick Weigle, Recycling Specialist Andy Swartz, Special Recyclables Coordinator Debbi Palermini, President, Palermini and Associates Mary Kohrell, UW-Extension. Green Bay, Wisconsin Sheri Gruder, Recycling Operations Specialist, UW-Extension Kristine L. Schutte, Dane County Zoning Inspector Honora Kramer, Wisconsin Clean Sweep Coordinator

Background of the Research This guidebook focuses on the management of residential construction waste. It is the result of a three month research project, made possible by a grant from the Wis. consin Hilldale UndergraduatelFaculty Research Fellowship and support from the Wisconsin Builders Association. Robert Walther, a Senior at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, spearheaded the study with guidance from Dr. Jon Udell of the UW Enterprise Center. The research included an extensive literature review of construction and demolition waste, a composition analysis of single family home construction waste in Dane County, Wisconsin, and multiple surveys of builders, landfill operators, waste haulers, recyclers and governmental officials across Wisconsin.

Who is This Guidebook Designed For? This guidebook focuses on construction waste in Wisconsin, but builders across the country may benefit by reading it. Aside from residential builders and remodelers, commercial builders will also find this guidebook useful. The following information and recommendations are intended t o aid all builders in making economical and environmentally sound waste management decisions.

Contents Introduction


What is Residential Construction Waste


Wisconsin's Recycling Law and Its Effect on Builders


Composition of Residential Construction Waste


What You Can Do Today




Drywall/G ypsum








Hazardous Materials


Other Materials


Time, Space and Money




Appendix A Waste Exchanges





Introduction According t o estimates by Franklin Associates Ltd., approximately 8O%, or 1,090,000 tons, of construction and demolition waste are buried in Wisconsin landfills every year. Meanwhile, some areas of the country are recycling and reusing nearly 60% of the construction and demolition waste they produce. Why are builders in some areas of the country recycling and reusing more of their waste than builders in Wisconsin? The primary reasons are rising disposal costs and governmental mandates. In some areas, high disposal costs help make recycling and reuse of construction waste less costly than landfilling. In addition, some states n o w ban certain waste materials from their landfills and/or mandate them for recycling. In Wisconsin, disposal costs also are increasing, and several materials commonly found in construction waste will be banned from the Wisconsin's landfills after January 1, 1995. It is important that builders begin planning n o w t o

reduce, reuse and recycle their construction waste. Hesitant builders will find themselves losing money when landfill costs increase and the bans take effect. By acting now, builders can also begin t o stimulate the markets needed t o handle their waste materials. Currently these markets are weak, or do not exist at all. This guidebook provides builders with the information they need t o start planning for the future. It also provides information about the quantity and composition of residential construction waste. Most importantly, this guidebook provides builders with tips on h o w t o economically reduce, reuse, and recycle the waste they produce.

Page 1

Generation of Single-Family Home Construction Waste in Wisconsin

Every year, the construction of single family homes in Wisconsin generates approximately 700,000 cubic yards, or 280 million pounds, of loose construction waste. If placed over a football field, this pile of construction waste wouldrise nearly 350 feet. This does not include commercial construction waste or even demolition debris.

What is Residential Construction Waste? Every time someone builds or remodels a home, waste is created. Thus, every builder has become the manager of a bonafide waste stream. According t o the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR), construction waste is defined in conjunction with demolition waste as:

...solid waste resulting from the construction, demolition or razing of buildings, roads and other structures. Demolition and construction material typically consists of concrete, bricks, bituminous concrete, wood, glass, masonry, roofing, siding, and plaster, alone or in combinations. It does not include asbestos, waste paints, solvents, sealers, adhesives or similar materials.

Note: "construction" waste differs from "demolition" waste. Demolition waste refers t o solid waste which is largely inert and results from the demolition of buildings, roads, and other human-made structures. Construction waste, however, originates as structures are built. The DNR does not make a clear distinction between construction and demolition waste, but the concerned waste manager will seriously consider the differences. Construction waste is generally bulky, easy t o separate into individual components and produced at a relatively predictive rate throughout the year. Demolition waste is usually generated in spurts, heavily mixed, and can be very dense. Thus, although these materials are often mentioned together, the methods used t o handle them can differ greatly. This guidebook concentrates on construction waste.

Percentage of Single-Family Home Construction Waste in C & D Dane County, Wisconsinproducesapproximately175,OOOcubicyards3or I IO,000 tons of construction and demolition waste per year. Waste from single family home consfrucfioncomprises beiween 40% 10 55% by volume, and f3% to f 7% by weight, of all construction and demolition wasteproducedin Dane Couny. So while construction waste takes up more space, it weighs less than demolition waste.

Page 2

Wisconsin's Recycling Law and Its Effect on Builders On April 27,1990, Governor Tommy Thompson signed Wisconsin's recycling law, into existence. The law includes measures t o change the state's throw-away habits. Although the measures do not apply explicitly t o construction wastes, they do pertain directly t o certain components of construction waste. Thus, these measures will widely affect builders. The law's landfill bans will have the greatest impact on the way builders manage waste. Beginning January 1, 1995, the following items may not be placed in landfills, converted t o fuel or burned in liscensed solid waste treatment facilities.



2. 3.


4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 1 1.

glass containers magazines and other material printed o n similar paper newspaper and other materials printed o n n e w s p r i n t





waste tires bi-metal (steel/aluminum) containers used for carbonated and m a l t beverages

The items underlined above are commonly found in construction waste. Builders will have t o concentrate on finding disposal alternatives for these items. Builders who fail to prepare for the bans may encounter great difficulty and cost to adjust their waste management practices later. It can take a lot of time to change waste management practices, educate employees and find outlets for banned waste materials. The following items have already been banned from landfills and incinerators: As of Januarv 1, 1991

As of Januarv 1. 1993

1. lead acid batteries 2. major appliances 3. waste oil (except burning for energy recovery)

1. grass clippings 2. leaves 3.sticks 4. brush 5. other lawn and garden items including clean woody matertial no greater than six inches in diameter

Note: Responsible units (i.e. cities) with effective recycling programs may seek variances from 1995 recycling requirements for any single material if the cost of selling the processed material exceeds the co$t of disposing of the material or exceeds $40 per ton.

Page 3

Composition of Residential Home Construction Waste Knowing the composition of residential construction waste will help determine the most appropriate and economical methods for handling it. The following table displays the materials commonly found in home construction waste and the relative volume of each material.

Residential of

Percentage of

Wood Drywall Corrugated Cardboard

30% - 50% 10% - 25%

Packaging (Plastic and Paper) Metals Masonry Shingles

5% - 15% 5% - 10% 1% - 10% 1% - 5%

10% - 20%

Insulation CarpetmgPadding Scrap Dirt and Rock Flooring Scrap Yaint Cans Lunch Garbage

less than 5% less than 5% less than 5% less than 5% 1 lessthan 5% I less than 5%


- Caution This table combines data from the following sources: Toronto Home Builders Assoc. 1989; Palermini & Assoc, 1992; Steve Apotheker, 1992; NAHB, 1993; Metro, 1993; and estimates of construction waste analyzed in Dane County, Wisconsin. Use your best judgement when applying these percentages t o your waste data. These estimates can vary greatly from region t o region, and builder to builder.

Page 4



What You Can Do Today The following pages suggest ways t o Reduce, Reuse and Recycle construction waste. The three R‘s are defined below. A later section in this guidebook will describe how reducing, reusing, and recycling construction waste may also help t o lower disposal costs.

Reduce: To lessenin extent, amount, number, toxicityand/orotherquantity. One of the best ways to cut disposal costs is t o not create waste in the first place. This “R“ will display how builders can reduce the volume of waste they create.

Reuse: To extend the life of an item by using it again, repairing it, modifying it or creating new uses for it. Construction materials require great amounts of energy and resources t o produce. By landfilling the materials that didn’t “fit”, the energy and resources contained in those left-over materials are lost. Moreover, reusing materials may improve efficiency. The result of this greater efficiency lowers disposal costs and decreases the quantity of materials that need to be purchased per job site. This ”R“ will provide suggestions for preserving energy and maximizing efficiency, Le. ”getting the most” out of construction materials.

Recycle: To collect and reprocess manufactured materials for reuse either in the same form or as part of a different product. If you can’t reduce or reuse certain construction waste materials, recycle them. Recycling construction waste can provide many valuable raw materials t o manufacturers of new products. This ”R” provides information on how to recycle construction waste, and emphasizes the importance of using products made from recycled materials.

Page 5

Wood Wood is the single largest component of residential construction waste. In Dane County wood comprises nearly 40% of residential construction waste, and for every new home built, approximately 17 cubic yards of wood waste is generated. In an age where wood fiber is becoming more valuable and the cost of raw lumber is escalating, wasting wood has become an expensive practice. Many options exist for reducing, reusing and recycling wood waste. And, because of its large volume, minimizing wood waste clearly provides one of the best ways to clamp down on disposal costs.

Dimensional Wood Cut Lumber Pallets Packing Crates

Manufactured Wood

Land Clearing Wood Debris

Particleboard OSB Treated Lumber Laminates Plywood

Brush Stumps

REDUCE: Design your floor plans to make efficient use of whole 4' x 8' panels, and standard lumber lengths. If ordered in large quantities, wood may be custom cut to fit unusual designs. Monitor wood waste more closely per home Try to better estimate the actual quantity of wood needed to be purchased depending on the size and characteristics of the homes you build.

Use 2x sandwich headers instead of solid 4x or 6 x beams. Open corners and T-walls. Use drywall clips t o replace corner studs. Use prefabricated wood components t o reduce waste a t the construction site.

REUSE: Coordinate with suppliers to take back or buy back unused wood or use in another project Instead of new cuts from full length materials, use a central cutting area t o enhance the probability that cut lengths can be used for cripples, lintels and blocking. Use cut-offs for spacers in header construction. Donate waste wood to l o w income housing, or get rid of extra wood through "waste exchanges" (described in Appendix A).

Page 6

Cut wood clearing waste into fireplace lengths and stack on the job site. Leave for new occupant, or put out b y the curb with a "free firewood" sign. Encourage people to scavage your wood waste piles for their small home construction projects and/or as kindling wood in their fireplaces.

RECYCLE: Separate wood that cannot be reused and deliver it to wood waste recyclers. Contact your local government recycling office to locate end-users of wood waste near you. Obtain the DNR Recycling Markets Directory to locate wood recyclers in your area by calling Janet Niewald at (608) 266-21 11. Contact major producers of wood waste in your area, i.e. pallet producers, lumber companies and furniture manufacturers, to see if they can handle your wood waste through their waste handling operations. If no end-users exist for wood waste in your area, coordinate with other builders through your local builders association to purchase a wood shredder or invest in starting up a local recycling operation. Develop incentives for framing contractors and crew t o reduce, reuse, and recycle wood waste. Remove as many nails and other metal fixtures from the wood waste as economically possible. Although some recyclers may have the capability t o magnetically remove metals, metal contamination in wood waste can damage recycling equipment and decrease the marketability of the wood waste. Note:The recyclability of various types of wood waste depends on its eventual use. Clean dimensional lumber usually has higher valued recycling applications than manufactured or treated wood waste. Examples: Wood waste IScurrently being shredded and used as animal bedding; chipped and used for landscaping and boiler fuel; ground-up and used as raw material in new composite boards.

DrywaWGypsum Drywall waste is similar t o waste wood in that it comprises a large volume of residential construction waste and has a lot of bulk. In addition, drywall has many reduction, reuse and recycling possibilities, and if segregated from other wastes, has great potential for reducing the overall volume of waste going t o the landfill.

-REDucE: Design your floor plans to make efficient use of whole 4' x 8' drywall sheets. Require sub-contractors to handle all drywall scrap they produce on your home site This can be done by specifying it in your contract bids. Develop incentives for drywall sub-contractors to reduce the waste they produce.

REUSE: Keep ALL drywall scraps in a central, dry location inside the home to be easily accessed by workers until every room is fully drywalled.


Donate scrap drywall t o l o w income housing, or get rid of extra drywall through "waste exchanges" (described later in this guidebook). In addition, call Habitat for Humanity at (608) 255-15 4 9 for information on h o w to donate excess construction material.

RECYCLE: Because of its lime (Calcium Sulfate) content, drywall or gypsum can be spread directly onto agricultural fields as a nutrient supplement. Other parts of the country are disposing of vast quantities of gypsum in this fashion. Use the DNR Recycling Markets Directory by calling (608) 266-21 1 1 to locate drywall recyclers near you. Talk with drywall contractors to discover if they know of any recycling options, or if they would be interested in investigating starting a recycling facility for farmers in their area. Ask yoursuppliers of drywall if they may be able to "back-haul" scrap drywall to their production plant. They may be able to recycle it back into new drywall or recycle it into other products. Drywall is a difficult material to sort out from other construction wastes due to its weight and bulk. If possible try to sort drywall waste in a dry, central location to be taken periodically for recycling or picked up by farmers for fertilizer. Be careful not t o let piles of drywall accumulate and get wet because they can give off offensive odors. Contact the National Association of Home Builders Research Center at (301) 249-4000 to get information on how drywall scraps can be used by farmers.

Page 8


Paper Paper in c.onstruction waste originates almost entirely from discarded packaging. Cabinets, siding, light and door fixtures,.tile, appliances, nails, carpet, etc. usually come packaged in corrugated cardboard boxes (wavy centered board), boxboard (cereal box type) or brown wrapping paper. Because of its ability t o protect materials from damage at a low cost, few options exist for reducing construction paper waste. The paper waste, however, has a high potential for reuse and recycling. Recycling markets for paper waste are strong in Wisconsin, and li'ke wood and drywall, the bulk of the paper waste provides another great opportunity t o reduce the volume of construction waste going t o the landfill. Currently, Dane~Countybans corrugated cardboard from its landfills. After January 1, 1995, Corrugated cardboard will be banned from all Wisconsin landfills.

REDUCE: Coordinate with the manufacturers of the materials you buy t o reduce the paper packaging on the materials delivered to your home sites. Examine the paper packaging on siding and cabinets, for example, to see if any of it is unhecessary. Require sub-contractors to handle all old corrugated cardboard IOCC) waste they produce on your home site. This can be done by specifying it in your contract bids.

REUSE: Waste corrugated boxes have limited reuse capability, but could be used as collection containers for sawdust, metal scraps for recycling andlor other floor scraps after sweeping. Large pieces of corrugated cardboard act as good coverings for finished floors while workers are still in the home. Work to convince manufacturers to deliver items in reusable packaging that can be "backhauled" to the manufacturer and used again.

-RECYCLE: Check with your local recycling center to see if they accept corrugated cardboard and other waste paper items for recycling. There is a market for used corrugated cardboard. In fact, there is an export market for ,it.

If you find an outlet for corrugated cardboard, have your employees separate it in a dry location for recycling. Flatten all boxes in separate piles and bundle with string. Deliver them to a local recycling center, or have the piles picked up by a recycler in your area. There is usually a small charge for pick-up of materials. Have your waste hauler place an additional dumpster for corrugated cardboard at each of your construction sites or in a central location near several working job sites. Make sure the container has a lid to keep the material dry. Have the hauler deliver the dumpsters to a recycling center. Note: adding another dumpster does' not necessarily mean paying for an additional dumpster. You are still producing the same volume of waste, but you would be filling t w o dumpsters at the same time instead of one. Help "complete the recycling loop" by buying materials made from or packaged in recycled paper and corrugated cardboard. Many ceiling tiles, for example, are now made from recycled paper fibers, and cardboard is generally made into tissue and boxboard containers.

Page 9

Metals Most metal in residential construction waste can be recycled. Wisconsin has many scrap dealers that accept metal waste. Although most sub-contractors already recycle or reuse high valued metals such as copper, solder and brass, some lower valued metals such as steel and aluminum still end up in the landfill. In Dane County, many metal items found in the dumpsters were not even removed from their original packaging. Many other metal products, such as metal hinges and drawer runners, were landfilled because they were affixed to construction materials that were damaged before installation.



Steel Duct Work Nails Pipes Banding

Aluminum Siding Copper WireIPipe Solder Brass


BEDUCE: Coordinate with manufacturers to take back or buy back unused metal products. Try to design floor plans to make efficient use of standard lengths of heating duct materials, metal pipes, wiring, siding and gutters. Require sub-contractors t o handle all metal waste they produce on your home site specifying it in your contract bids.

This can be done by

REUSE: Train employees to deliver unused metal items to the next home site or to notify you of metal materials that could be returned to the manufacturer Donate usable waste metal products to low income housing. information about donating materials at (608)255-1 549.

Contact Habitat for Humanity for more

If construction materials with metal knobs, runners, handles, etc., are damaged before installation, have employees remove the metal parts before the damaged materials are discarded. Reuse the metal items on the construction materials ordered t o replace the damaged ones, return to the original vendor, or take them for recycling.

RECYCLE: Have workers separate out all metal scrap and place it in a central location on the site. Have collected metal delivered or picked up by a local scrap metal dealer. Some scrap dealers may provide you with a centrally located container for the metal from your construction site(s). Scrap metal dealers can usually be located in the Yellow Pages. Make sure to ask the scrap dealer if they require separation of ferrous and non-ferrous waste. If a metal scrap dealer does not exist near you, contact a local automobile junk yard to inquire if they can accept your metal waste.

Note: For metal cans containing unused solvents or paint, see the hazardous waste section in this guidebook about the correct and safest ways to dispose of these items.

Page 10



Plastics Plastic waste from residential construction sites comes in many forms. When mixed together, the plastics are practically impossible t o recycle due t o incompatible polymers and chemical additives. If a builder wishes t o recycle plastic wastes, great care must be taken t o prepare and separate the many different types of plastic. In general, most builders do not have the time or employees t o handle this waste material for recycling. In 1995, however, foam polystyrene packaging, and anything which constitutes a "plastic container" will be banned from landfills in Wisconsin. The information below provides suggestions for reducing and reusing plastic waste, as well as information that will aid you in identifying which plastic wastes you should concentrate on t o comply with the landfill ban.



LDPE SheetinglBags HDPE Buckets/Bottles PET Bottles Shrink Wrap Polystyrene

PVC Pipe Vinyl Siding Polyethylene Carpet Pad Linoleum

-REDUCE: Coordinate material suppliers t o reduce the plastic packaging on purchased materials. Try to buy items that have less plastic packaging. If packaging is needed, encourage manufacturers to deliver items in materials that may can be recycled Corrugated cardboard and metal banding, for example, may make good substitutes for non-recyclable plastics. Encourage manufacturers to' deliver items in reusable packaging that can be "backhauled" to the manufacturer. HDPE buckets, for example, may be returned and refilled by the original manufacturer. Require sub-contractors to handle all plastic waste they produce on your home site. This can be done by specifying it in your contract bids. Plastic shrink wrap can somtimes substitute for more bulky rigid plastic packages. The shrink wrap is recyclable in some areas if kept clean

Page 11

REUSE: Remove the tops to five gallon HDPE buckets, and use the buckets throughout the home under construction to act as collection containers for plastic waste, metal scraps, drywall scraps, or other recyclable or reusable material. This will help keep small recyclable/reusable items out of miscellaneous floor sweepings.

Use CDPE plastic insulation bags or other plastic sheeting to cover materials that need to be kept dry, or to protect installed flooring. Staple plastic sheeting over empty window openings during cold or w e t weather. Cut one gallon plastic containers in half. Use the top portion with the handle as a carrying tool or scooper for nails or other materials that are difficult to hand-carry.

BECYCLE: Contact a local. recycling center to discover which types of plastic are currently being recycled in your area. Have employees sort out specified plastic containers and deliver them t o a recycling center. Contact the DNR to find a recycler that accepts your plastic recyclables. Buy construction materials made from recycled materials.

FYI: Some of the most commonly recycled plastic wastes include, HDPE bottles (milk or detergent type bottles marked with a #2 on the bottoml, PET bottles (two-liter soda type bottles marked with a # 1 on the bottom), LDPE bags (insulation bags), and foam polystyrene (white foam packaging and "peanuts").

Page 12

Hazardous Materials Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are required t o have thick clay-liners and nonpermeable membranes t o protect the surrounding environment from internal pollutants. Interestingly, some of the same hazardous waste residues deposited in municipal landfills are also deposited in C&D landfills. Most C&D landfills, however, are not required t o install extensive protective containment systems. Although both the homeowner and the homebuilder should be equally safe in handling their hazardous wastes, the builders must recognize that most C&D landfills are less capable of containing waste pollutants. Builders can benefit by handling hazardous wastes as safely and correctly as possible. Recent studies show that C&D landfills may be leaching pollutants at concentrations warranting heavy liners and expensive membranes (Connelly and Pugh, 1992). These measures increase the cost of using the landfills. The more builders that keep hazardous residues out of C&D landfills, the more they will control pollution and rising disposal costs. The following tips can help make using and handling hazardous waste materials safer for employees and the environment. The table on the next page displays what hazardous materials are commonly found in construction waste and the proper ways to dispose of them.

Safety Tips

. Create a plan for cleaning up spilled

materials, involving and educating employees about the plan. . Use water based cleaners instead of petroleum based chemicals. . Use biodegradable cleaners . Use non-chlorinated paint and varnish stripper t o decrease amount of volatile organic compounds emitted t o the atmosphere. . Reuse thinner t o clean equipment. . Combine same solvent residues. . Contact original vendors t o see if they would take-back any leftover chemicals. . Train employees about the materials they are handling.

Page 13


HanardousWaste Paint



Suggested Handling Procedure

lpaint Cans

Arosal Cans Solvents



Waste Oil Napthalene Formaldehyde Urea Pentachlorophenol Chromium Copper Arsenate (CCA) Tar

Painted Wood Thinners ITurpentine Stain Glue (solvent based) Caylking Tubes Glue (water based) Piping Compound IDrywallJoint Compound IGreases, oil

Contact your local metal scrap dealer to ask if they accept empty paint cans for recycling. If so, or in any case, dry out empty paint cans until only a thin skin of dry paint remains. Take the dried-out cans to your scrap dealer for recyclingor landfill them. If their is more than a thin skin of paint remaining in the can, use as much as possible, or leave paint for lnew home-owners as touch-up paint. lUse up entire can. Remove the plastic lid and take to a scrap dealer for recycling (if acceptable) or landfill. If Paint is dry, dispose in a landfill. Use as much as possible. Filter and reuse remainder. /ContactClean Sweep' to learn about disposal options in your area. Contact Clean Sweep' Empty, and dispose in a landfill


Icontact your local recycling center for a collection lpoint in your area. ILaminated Wood lTry to order only what you need. Dispose any scraps lin the landfill. I Plywood, Particleboard ]Try to order only what you need. Dispose any scraps in the landfill. Verneers, LaminatedWood Try to order only what you need. Dispose any scraps in the landfill. _. Pressure Treated Lumber Try to order only what you need. Dispose any scraps in the landfill. __ Roofing Tar Can sometimes be donated to asphalt plants if not containing any asbestos. Or contact Clean Sweep* to learn of disposal options in your area.


"Clean Sweep" only acepts hazardous waste materials from households. Builders however, can contact clean sweep to learn about proper disposal methods for hazardous waste generated from construction sites. Call Honora Kramer, Wisconsin Clean Sweep Coordinator at (608) 267-1997 for more information, Page 14

Other Materials m

aIt Shinales

Companies across the country are starting to recycle this material into pot-hole filler and new pavement. Currently, no outlet for this material exists in Wisconsin. Encourage suppliers of new asphalt shingles to invest in an operation to facilitate the use of unused or discarded shingles.

Masonrv , Tile , Concrete, Rock, and Dirt Many builders leave small amounts of soil, rock and masonry on construction sites, or use it as driveway underlay. Large quantities of these materials. separated from other construction debris, may be accepted at local landfills as "clean fill" (largely inert soils and clays used for covering daily deposits of waste). Have a landfill operator examine any large amounts of these materials for approval as clean fill. Material landfilled as daily cover usually has lower tipping or disposal fees than regular landfilled waste.

Insulation Very small quantities of insulation are wasted. Most companies are able to stuff extra insulation into various places throughout the home under construction or a t other sites. No outlets for recycling currently exist for this material in Wisconsin.

Choosing a Landfill for Unusually Heavy or Dense Construction Waste For unusually heavy loads of construction waste, i.e. lots of rocks and soil, or a truckload o f asphalt shingles, it may be less expensive to deposit these mgterials in municipal solid waste landfills rather than construction and demolition (C&D) landfills. Municipal solid waste landfills usually charge by the volume o f materials entering their facility, while C&D landfills usually charge by weight.

Lunch Refuse

It is not uncommon to find lunch refuse in residential construction waste. Lunch refuse can include many recyclables such as glass and plastic drink bottles, aluminum soda cans, and steel food cans. Collect these materials by placing two or three plastic bags on every construction site and educating employees t o deposit their recyclable lunch garbage in the bags. It may be a good idea t o tie the bags to the side of waste dumpsters or place them in central locations on the site(s1. Also, use clear plastic bags. Recyclables seen in the bag will help indicate its purpose to workers. When the bags are full, have someone collect and deliver them to a local recycling center. The recyclables may need to be sorted out of the bags or the recycling center may sort the materials. Workers could also be required to take all lunch refuse with them, and encouraged to make their own arrangements for recycling it.

N0TE:Aluminum. glass, plastic, and steel containers will be banned from Wisconsin's landfills as of January 1, 1995, unless under variance (see note on page 3).

Page 15


Time, Space and Money Although builders' attitudes toward waste reduction and recycling have never been measured, the vision of builders saying "I have no time, no space on my job sites, no money, and it will never work!" in response t o this guidebook certainly does not stretch the imagination. Disposal costs are increasing and time, space and money are precious t o every builder. Ironically, these factors help make construction waste recycling economical and efficient. When landfill disposal costs increase, Reduction, Reuse, and Recycling (the 3R's) often become less expensive in comparison t o landfilling. When this happens, builders can "avoid" high disposal costs by using the "3R's" t o divert their waste materials from the landfill. In return, avoided landfill cost can help offset the costs of the 3R's. However, reducing, reusing, and recycling construction waste does not become less expensive than landfilling for all materials. Two main factors determine if a waste material becomes more expensive t o landfill than t o reduce, reuse and recycle. The first factor is the volume and bulk of each waste material. The second factor is the market demand for each material. First, builders pay for waste disposal based on volume. When starting t o reduce, reuse and recycle construction waste, builders should concentrate on bulky, high volume waste materials. This will enable builders t o avoid landfill costs from the start and better offset the costs of new waste management practices. Therefore, builders may want to concentrate on finding disposal alternatives for high volume wastes, such as wood and corrugated cardboard, before low volume waste, such as glass and plastic. Second, economical opportunities are lost by landfilling materials with high recycling market demand. Materials that have high market demand usually receive a favorable price when sold. If diverted from the landfill and sold t o a recycler, waste materials with high market demand help offset waste management costs more than diverting materials with low market demand. Therefore, builders may want t o concentrate on finding disposal alternatives for materials that have high market demand, i.e materials that recyclers pay the most for or charge the least t o accept. Making smart waste management choices from the start will help builders minimize costs and reduce, reuse and recycle more waste materials in the long run. To make wise waste management decisions, builders should monitor rising disposal costs and the market demand for waste materials in their area.

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Even better, builders could work together in changing their waste management practices. As stated before, builders value time, space and money. These factors usually stimulate competition between builders. Under Wisconsin's wide encompassing recycling law, however, trying t o save time, space and money may influence builders t o work together. Builders, for example, can work together t o develop centralized recycling and reuse facilities for construction waste materials. Central recycling centers can save space by allowing builders t o combine recyclable waste materials into fewer piles or containers at the job site. Recycling centers can save builders time by doing the sorting, marketing, and transporting of the waste materials. They also may repair reusable building materials. Centralized facilities can save builders money by replacing highly paid construction workers with lower paid employees t o sort and process the wastes. Builders also can work together t o reduce the quantity of waste the industry generates. By working with local builders associations, builders can develop training workshops for employees on h o w t o maximize the use of construction materials and reduce waste, form committees t o address construction waste issues, and lobby legislators t o make waste management regulations economical and environmentally friendly. Together, builders also can encourage governmental officials t o prioritize construction waste materials for recycling research funding and market development.

Conculsion All in all, it will take time for builders t o adjust their current waste practices t o the mandates in Wisconsin's new recycling law. The Wisconsin Builders Association provides this guidebook as tool for builders t o start planning now. Planning n o w can save time, space and money in the future. To start, builders should concentrate on high volume construction waste materials and materials that have high market demand. At the same time, builders can work together to centralize their efforts. If done properly, builders can make great strides in minimizing their waste management costs while maximizing their efforts t o safeguard the environment and conserve resources.

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Appendix A Waste Exchange Programs, Information based on a Fact Sheet produced by Sherri Gruder, Recycling Operations Specialist, University of Wisconsin-Extension, Solid and Hazardous Waste Education Center ISHWEC)

A waste exchange can help businesses find a market or an end user for materials they no longer need. It's a catalog system based on the premise that one businesses' discards can be another businesses' feedstock. For example, a busihess that makes bird houses may be able t o use wood waste produced by builders. Most waste exchanges are actually information exchanges. They do not handle the actual materials; they compile information about wanted or available waste and surplus materials. The information is usually provided in catalogs or on an electronic bulletin board service (BBS). Businesses contact one another t o establish the actual exchange. Listings can be confidential, and some exchanges also provide information about waste management goods and services.

Usina a Waste Exchanae Service Listing Materials

Responding To Listings

To list a material, builders can indicate materials available or needed, the amount of material, its physical state, and how often the material is available or needed. For materials available, also indicate h o w it is packaged, any contaminants that may be present, its chemical formula (if a liquid), and the process that generated the material. Most exchanges allow confidential listing of material.

Businesses interested in materials that have a confidential listing contact the waste exchange service. The service then informs the generator about the interested business. The generator has the option of responding t o the connecting business t o negotiate transactions. Or the business may contact generators directly if the waste exchange provides the name and address of the generator.

Some of the waste exchanges that service businesses in Wisconsin include: Industrial Materials Exchange Service (IMES) IMES is operated b y the pollution prevention office of the Illinois EPA, and works in cooperation with 12 states including Wisconsin. The exchange publishes a bi monthly catalog. Builders in Wisconsin can obtain catalogs by calling the SHWEC at (608) 2620385, or the Wisconsin DNR at (608) 267-9523. In 1991, there were 4 8 6 listings by IMES and 2551 responses t o those listings.

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National Materials Exchange Network (NMES) NMES is an electronic BBS that links industrial waste exchanges in the U.S. and some in Canada. It is operated by the Pacific Materials Exchange (PME), a nonprofit corporation based in Spokane, Washington through a grant from the EPA. To list with NMES use a computer with a modem. Any business or industry may list materials by calling (800)8586625. There is no charge for the service and it is available 2 4 hours a day.

Wisconsin Electric Power Company (WEPCO) WEPCO is planning a Waste Material and Environmental Information Exchange for fall, 1993. It will serve businesses that are WEPCO customers from South Eastern Wisconsin. The exchange will be accessed by mail or fax. For information about WEPCO call (414) 221-2000 or (800)222-9288. This waste exchange will also link businesses with governmental agencies, universities and UW-Extension programs, libraries, and organizations that can assist with environmental issues.

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Bibliography Apotheker, Steve. 1992. Managing Construction and Demolition Materials. Resource pecvclinq. August. Chapman, Ken and Emily 8. Ross. 1992. Construction Waste. The Construction SDecifier . July.


Connelly, Jack, Laura Pugh and Gene Mitchell. 1991. Demolition Landfills - H o w Much Regulation is Needed? Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Solid Waste Management Section, Madison, Wisconsin. Connelly, Jack and Laura Pugh. 1992. Preliminary Report, Investigation of Potential Groundwater Impacts at Demolition Landfills and Deer Pits. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Solid Waste Management Section, Groundwater Assessment. C.T Donovan Associates. 1990. Recycling Construction Waste in Vermont. Burlington, Vermont. Ellis, Dr. Thomas. 1978. Report on Urban Wood Waste in the United States of America. USDA, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin. Federle, Mark 0. 1992. Analysis of Building Construction Recycling Efforts in Iowa. Iowa State University, Department of Civil and Construction Engineering. Filtz, Russell, Carl Swanson and Marty Felker. 1993. New C&D Processing Technologies. Resource Recvclinq. August, 12(8). Filtz, Russell, Carl Swanson and Marty Felker. 1993. Move it, Smash it, Screen it: Processing Equipment for C&D. Resource Recvclinq. August, 12(8). Franklin Associates, Ltd. 1992. Wisconsin Waste Generation and Composition Study, Waste Management Study. September. Goddard, Jimand Pat Merkle. 1993. Resource Efficient Building, A Handbook for Building Owners, Designers and Project Managers. Metro, Portland, Oregon.


Goddard, Jim and Debbi Palermini. 1992. Managing a Resourceful Renovation. Resource Recvcling. August. Hans G.A. Van Hulst. 1991. Cleaner Technology in the Building and Construction Sector. Means t o Minimize Waste Production and Optimize Recycling.

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Hendriks, Ch.F. 1991. Standards and Quality Declarations for the Use of Secondary Building Materials, Especially Building and Demolition Waste. Innovative Waste Management. 1993. Construction Materials Recycling Guidebook, A Guide t o Reducing and Recycling Construction and Remodeling Waste. Metropolitan Council of the Twin Cities Area, Minneapolis/St.Paul, Minnesota. Lauritzen, Erik K. 1991. Construction and Demolition Waste as Potential Resource. Barriers for Recycling. Lee, Benjamin. 1991. New Style MRFs Recycling Construction and Demolition Waste. Solid Waste and Power. October. McGregor, Mark, Howard Washburn and Debbi Pallermini. 1993. Characterization of Construction Site Waste. Metro, Solid Waste Department, Portland, Oregon. Metro, Solid Waste Department. 1993. Construction Site Recycling, A guide for Architects, Builders and Developers. Portland, Oregon. Montanari, Richard. 1991. This Old House. Recvclina Today. November. National Association of Home Builders. 1993. Builders Guide t o Residential Construction Waste Management. NAHB Research Center, Upper Marlboro, Maryland. Palermini, Debbi. 1992. Recycling Construction Waste. Land DeveloDment. SpringSummer. Rhea, Marsha. 1992. Subcontractors Recycle Construction Waste for Profit and by Necessity. The Subcontractor. November, 14(3).

R.S. 1992. Recycling Demo Debris, Tearing Down for Reuse. BioCvcle. May, 1992. R.S. 1993. Recycled House is Builders' Model. BioCvle. June. R.S. 1992. Recycling Debris From Construction Projects. BioCvcle. August. .~

Savage, George and Edward L. von Stein. 1992. C&D Debris Finds new Incarnation in Recycling. World Waste. Schlanger, Phoebe. 1992. New Solutions for Construction Debris. Land DeveloDment. Spring-Summer.

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Unknown. 1992. Recycling Building Debris is Tested. Nation's Buildina News. Walther, Robert. 1993. Economic Analysis of Construction Waste Recycling Options in Dane County, Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin-Madison Enterprise Center. White, Edwin H. and Mike E. Burger. 1993. Construction Drywall as a Soil Amendment. BioCvl$. July. Woods, Randy. 1992. Riding the C&D Tide. Waste Aae. April. Woods, Randy. 1992. C&D Debris: A Crisis is Building. Waste Aae. January.

Winzinger, JoAnn. 1991. Contractor's Tasks. An Example of Conception of a Recycling Scheme. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Bureau of Solid and Hazardous Waste. 1993. Wisconsin Recycling Market Directory. WI

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