NEW PSAT STRATEGICS AND PRACTICES By: Dr. S. L. Sherrill, Mrs. Deim, Mrs. Canady
1 NEW PSAT STRATEGICS AND PRACTICES By: Dr. S. L. Sherrill, Mrs. Deim, Mrs. Canady2 PROGRAM: 6:00-6:50 6:50-7:00 7:10-7:...
NEW PSAT STRATEGICS AND PRACTICES By: Dr. S. L. Sherrill, Mrs. Deim, Mrs. Canady
6:50-‐7:00 7:10-‐7:50 7:50-‐8:00 8:00-‐9:00
INTRODUCTION: Dr. Sherrill • READING SECTION STRATEGIES • WRITING AND LANGUAGE SECTION STRATEGIES • MATH SECTIONS STRATEGIES BREAK READING, WRITING, AND LANGUAGE PRACTICUM: Mrs. Canady BREAK MATH PRACTICUM: Mrs. Deim
KEY TO THE PSAT: The most important PSAT strategy is to really focus on FULLY UNDERSTANDING the quesQons. The test is more about your thought process than about how much you know. So if you think through what the quesQons are asking and set them up well, you will do ﬁne.
WHAT IS THE PSAT? It is a preliminary SAT that is used for assessing student academic progress and determining eligibility for the NaQonal Merit Scholarship compeQQon.
PSAT FORMAT: There are four secQons: 1 Reading Test: 60 minutes, 47 quesQons, 5 passages 2 WriJng And Language Test: 35 minutes, 44 quesQons, 4 passages 3 Math Test—No calculator: 25 minutes, 17 quesQons (13 mulQple choice and 4 grid-‐in) 4 Math Test—Calculator PermiQed: 45 minutes, 31 quesQons, (27 mulQple choice, 4 grid-‐in)
OLD AND NEW PSAT DIFFERENCES:
WHAT TO DO BEFORE THE PSAT? 1. Go to bed at a reasonable hour starQng a week before the test. 2. Know the test direcQons—you don’t want to waste Qme reading the direcQons on each secQon. 3. Know that you should include an answer for every quesQon since there is no penalty. 4. Become comfortable with Qming. Do at least some pracQce with Qming so you will not work too quickly or too slowly on test day.
WHAT SHOULD I BRING TO THE PSAT? 1. A scienQﬁc or graphing calculator www.collegeboard.org/psat-‐nmsqt/approved-‐calculators. 2. Several sharpened number 2 pencils 3. A watch to monitor your pacing (one that doesn’t make noise) 4. Have an email address you can use to receive informaQon from colleges, and enter it on the PSAT. 5. Use the restroom before the test starts and have a snack and water boale so you do not waste Qme during the test.
READING SECTION STRATEGIES
KNOW THE MAKEUP OF THE READING SECTION: • 60 minutes long • 47 quesQons • 5 passages total: 1 literature passage, 2 history/social science passages, 2 science passages • One of the passages will be comprised of two smaller passages that you will need to compare/contrast in the quesQons • 1-‐2 graphs accompanying the reading that you will need to analyze • The quesQons for a given passage generally go in order of where the material is found in the passage (e.g., quesQon 1 is about lines 1-‐5, quesQon 2 is about lines 6-‐9, etc.) • The quesQons are in random order of diﬃculty
READING SECTION TEST-‐TAKING STRATEGIES: 1. Take your Jme. Read the passages well and think through the quesJons carefully. 2. Remember there is no penalty to guess. 3. Read the passages before answering the quesJons (helps understand the meaning of the passage). • Peruse the quesQons • Read the passage well (inference, tone, purpose, suggesQon, funcQon, etc.) • Answer the quesQons carefully
READING SECTION TEST-‐TAKING STRATEGIES: 4. Focus on the overall meaning of the passage(s) as you read. • Read the Literature passage’s ﬁrst paragraph more carefully and the rest normally. • Read the Non-‐FicQon passage (history/social science) reading the ﬁrst paragraph, the ﬁrst sentence of each paragraph, and the last paragraph carefully, and read the rest normally. Note the criQcal informaQon. • Read the Dual Passage with the focus on the overall meaning, but pay close aaenQon to the overall relaQonship between the two passages. Look for similariQes or diﬀerences between the two.
READING SECTION TEST-‐TAKING STRATEGIES: 5. Do not hesitate to skip and come back to quesJons. • First quesQons of passage will usually have the overall meaning. If you don’t grasp it, go to the other quesQons and come back. 6. Cover the answers as you read the quesJons. • Remember to have perused the quesQons prior to reading. 7. Underline and circle key words as you read. • Read carefully the ﬁrst Qme circling key words (not, primary, infer, suggest, etc.).
READING SECTION TEST-‐TAKING STRATEGIES: 8. Create your own general answer by considering the context. • Read, paraphrase (put in your own words) what you read. What is the broad idea? Will help with answering the quesQons. 9. Do not hesitate to refer back to the passage (open book test). 10. The answers will be 100% correct or 100% wrong. • Look not for the best answer but the ﬂawless answer. • Look for correctness. 11. Focus on meaning, not on matching. • Don’t choose answer because it uses similar ure it is the correct idea.
READING SECTION TEST-‐TAKING STRATEGIES: 12. Determine word deﬁniJons based on context clues. • The sentence compleQon in the old PSAT is found in the Reading Test. While vocabulary is important, pracQce picking upon meaning of words based on the context 13. Just because you do not know a word’s meaning does not mean it is wrong. • If you have a word that sort of works and one you do not know, go with the word you do not know since it has the potenQal of being 100% correct. 14. When in doubt, give the PSAT the beneﬁt of the doubt. • This is a well-‐constructed assessment. Don’t waste Qme looking for ﬂaws.
WRITING & LANGUAGE SECTION STRATEGIES
KNOW THE MAKEUP OF THE WRITING & LANGUAGE SECTION:
• • • • •
1 secQon 35 minutes long 4 passages 11 quesQons per passage, with 44 quesQons total QuesQons are in a random order of diﬃculty
WRITING & LANGUAGE TEST-‐TAKING STRATEGIES: 1. Take your Qme. Be thorough. 2. Pace yourself to ﬁnish when Qme is called. 3. Underline and circle key informaQon as you read long quesQons (one word omiaed and you miss the point). 4. Try to hear as you read by silently mouthing things.
WRITING & LANGUAGE TEST-‐TAKING STRATEGIES: 5. Think about the meaning. Many Qmes, the issue is punctuaQon and subject-‐verb agreement. 6. Consider relevant context. See the bigger picture like tense agreement or tone consistency. 7. With about 9 minutes per passage, you have Qme. 8. Try to create your own answer before looking at the choices. 9. Do not hesitate to come back to answers to quesQons. You can skip quesQons and come back.
WRITING & LANGUAGE TEST-‐TAKING STRATEGIES: 10. Use similariJes among answers to eliminate choices (Ex. A. AddiJonally, B. Also, C. In Contrast, D. Moreover). 11. If you must guess, be smart about it. Remember “No Penalty.” • SomeQmes a few of the same answer choices are used in a row. Do avoid picking an answer choice simply because it was in a previous quesQon. • “No Change” has just as much a chance of being correct as other opQons. • QuesQons do not have tricks or gimmicks (ex. shorter answer). • Once you have a thoughoul decision, don’t second-‐guess you answer. 12. Realize that these are grammar rules, not merely preferences.
KEY GRAMMAR CONCEPTS (See A&achment for Details) 1. Sentence Basics 2. Sentence Fragment 3. Sentence Flow and Structure
MATH SECTION STRATEGIES
KNOW THE MAKEUP OF THE MATH SECTIONS:
• The new PSAT Math Test is composed of TWO subsecQons • One secQon is a 45-‐minute calculator permiaed secQon, consisQng of 31 quesQons total (27 mulQple choice and 4 grid-‐ins. • One secQon is a 25-‐minute no calculator permiaed secQon, consisQng of 17 quesQons total (13 mulQple choice and 2 grid-‐ins. • The quesQons generally become more diﬃcult as you go through the secQon.
MATH SECTIONS TEST-‐TAKING STRATEGIES: 1. The math secQons are more straighoorward than it used to be. All drawings are to scale unless they state otherwise. You can answer every quesQon since there is no penalty for guessing. You can spend more Qne thinking through problems instead of playing mind games. 2. The math secQons are curved, so do you best to keep levelheaded. This is the ﬁrst year of the new PSAT so they will curve it; so no maaer how challenging or less challenging it may be, keep a level head. 3. Don’t overthink the quesQons, especially at the beginning of each secQon. You do not need higher-‐order math to solve the quesQons. You need a ﬁrm grounding in the basics.
MATH SECTIONS TEST-‐TAKING STRATEGIES: 4. Rely more on your thinking, less on your knowledge. Do not respond quickly because you were never oﬃcially taught the concept. Use your intuiQon and reasoning to think through the problems. Your job is to get the right answer, not explain your thought processes to someone else. 5. Do not push through the secQon. The PSAT is easier to ﬁnish. PracQce pacing on the pracQce math tests given. 6. Instead of rushing through the quesQons, second-‐guessing yourself, and having to spend Qme double-‐checking, focus on doing the quesQons one Qme well.
MATH SECTIONS TEST-‐TAKING STRATEGIES: 7. Focus on what the quesQon is asking. Underline and circle key words as you go to ensure you do not miss anything important. Pay aaenQon to the quesQon. Don’t get tunnel vision and tune out vital facts. 8. Approach the quesQons like a puzzle, not like a typical school math problem. Challenging quesQons require long calculaQons. 9. Do not jump to an answer too quickly. On the new PSAT, incorrect answers are carefully designed to be answers to the most likely ways of incorrectly solving the problems.
MATH SECTIONS TEST-‐TAKING STRATEGIES: 10. Write out your work. Don’t do in head but write problems out. The more you write, the more likely the answer will be correct. Don’t make careless mistakes. 11. Don’t overuse the calculator. There is a whole secQon that you cannot use the calculator. Many of the answers to the problems will keep radicals and fracQons in their nondecimal form. So calculaQng too far ahead could set you behind. Use when necessary. However, rely on your criQcal thinking ﬁrst and on your calculator second.
MATH SECTIONS TEST-‐TAKING STRATEGIES: 12. Use the choices to sharpen your thinking. Don’t jump to an answer prematurely or eliminate answers too quickly, but examine all answers. Be open to plugging numbers back into the expressions when possible. StarQng with choices B or C since choices are typically arranged from small to large can save Qme. Looking at the answer choices may help develop a sense of what the quesQon is asking. 13. Math problems will not require a great number of steps so don’t make simple mistakes.
MATH SECTIONS TEST-‐TAKING STRATEGIES: 14. Careless mistakes are sQll mistakes. Make careless mistakes on easier problems may be more detrimental than having conceptual diﬃculQes on a challenging quesQon. 15. Come back to quesQons you do not understand. Do not underesQmate the power of your subconscious mind to work through a previous problem while your conscious mind is focused on a diﬀerent problem. If you can’t get a problem, circle and come back.
MATH SECTIONS TEST-‐TAKING STRATEGIES: 16. Give the quesQons the beneﬁt of the doubt. Do not assume that it is unfair or a stupid quesQon. Try to reexamine your understanding of the quesQon. 17. Be prepared for the unexpected. Since this test your ability to think criQcally, do not let unusual quesQons surprise you. 18. What about the addiQonal topics in math? Unless you are aiming for a perfect score, the PSAT has only two quesQons from this wildcard series of topics.
MATH CONCEPTS YOU MUST KNOW: 1. Use subsQtuQon to solve equaQons. 2. Uses eliminaQon to solve equaQons. 3. Use the quadraQc formula to solve an equaQon. 4. Use factoring to simplify expressions. 5. Know common factoring paaerns.
MATH CONCEPTS YOU MUST KNOW: 6. Know how to determine slope-‐intercept form. 7. Know how to determine slope formula, posiQve and negaQve correlaQons. 8. Know how use linear, quadraQc, and exponenQal models to interpret funcQons. 9. Percentages 10. RaQos and ProporQons
MATH CONCEPTS YOU MUST KNOW: 11. Unit Conversion 12. ScienQﬁc NotaQon 13. InequaliQes 14. Exponents 15. Absolute Value
MATH CONCEPTS YOU MUST KNOW: 16. Probability Basics 17. Independent/Dependent CounQng Problems 18. Distance, Rate, Time 19. Measures of Center 20. Range and Standard DeviaQon
MATH CONCEPTS YOU MUST KNOW: 21. Margin of Error and Conﬁdence Intervals 22. FuncQon SoluQons 23. Imaginary Numbers 24. Sine, Cosine, Tangent 25. Circle Formula 26. Miscellaneous Geometry and Trigonometry
PSAT PRACTICE TEST #1 Copy and paste this address in your browser for PSAT Test #1 and then download to your laptop or computer. haps://collegereadiness.collegeboard.org/sites/default/ﬁles/ psat_nmsqt_pracQce_test_1.pdf PSAT PRACTICE TEST #1 ANSWERS Copy and paste the address below in your browser for PSAT Test #1 Answers and then download to your laptop or computer. haps://collegereadiness.collegeboard.org/sites/default/ﬁles/ psat_nmsqt_pracQce_test_1_answers.pdf
General InformaJon 1. Two secJons : Reading and WriQng (Essay is opQonal) 2. All Passages: a. Are from previously published material b. Vary in diﬃculty from 9th grade to college level c. Answers are based on what is stated or implied in the passages 3. Subjects of passages: a. History/ Social Sciences • Emphasizes interpretaQon of words in context • Emphasizes command of evidence (charts, graphs, etc.) b. Science • QuesQons focus on hypotheses, experimentaQon, and data c. Literature • QuesQons focus on theme, mood, and characterizaQon • Deﬁning words from their use in the sentence/context • Command of evidence-‐use of passage to support and analyze wriaen and graphic informaQon
! All passages may be paired (2 readings) and may have a graph which include charts, graphs, or tables. ! Each test has a quesQon from each subject area. ! There will 1-‐2 graphics in the History, Social Sciences, or science passages. ! Prior knowledge of the subject is not tested. ! No mathemaQcal computaQon is required.
Make up: 4 single passages & 1 paired / 47 QuesQons 60 Minutes Three basic areas of assessment: 1. Words in Context -‐ vocabulary 2. Command of Evidence -‐ reading comprehension a. Use of evidence b. Analysis of Argument c. Analysis of QuanQtaQve InformaQon 3. Real-‐world Context – synthesis
Reading SecJon QuesJons: 1.
InformaJonal content a. Words in context b. Central ideas c. Evidence d. Reasoning 2. Rhetoric a. Word choice b. Text structure c. Point of View d. Purpose e. Argument 3. Synthesis 4. Graphs
Word in Context ! These quesQons will give you a word or phrase and ask you to select the answer that could best replace it. ! Refer back to the passage and try to think of your own word to replace the one in the quesQon. ! You can also try plugging the words into the sentence.
Word in Context 1. We will call upon our ciQzens to act bravely in this Qme of need. (A) shout at (B) visit brieﬂy (C) appeal to (D) cry for Note: If uncertain of answer – plug it into the original sentence to see if it makes sense.
Words in Context
1. Hank was not used to being in the company of such a reﬁned individuals, and strove to hoose his words and references carefully. (A) developed (B) unadulterated (C) cultured (D) delicate
Central Ideas • QuesQons may ask you to idenQfy a reasonable summary of a speciﬁc part of the passage. (Use your notes!) • Central ideas should : • (1) be accurate according to the passage • (2) be reﬂecQve of the enQre passage
• Could ask about relaQonships between parts-‐ how the relate to each other. • This is the “big picture” of the passage!
Central Ideas Wrong Answers to Avoid
How to Avoid them
Makes judgments or asserQons that go beyond what is stated in the passage
Choose answers based only on what is stated in the passage.
MenQons details that appear only brieﬂy in the passage.
Look for ideas discussed throughout the passage or at least several paragraphs
Central Ideas Sample QuesJon The events presented in the passage are best described as a) a potenQal soluQon to the mystery of who painted a speciﬁc work of art b) one researcher’s quest which is of liale interest to other historians c) the painstaking removal of certain artworks to reveal more valuable pieces d) a new discovery with potenQally major implicaQons for art history
Evidence ! These quesQons are to cite evidence/ support from the text. ! The quesQon will provide 4 sentences from the passage and ask which one best supports (provides evidence for) an idea. ! Refer back to the passage for the evidence. ! Read the sentences before and awer the answer.
Evidence QuesJon Sample Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous quesQon? (A) “A close-‐up … surface” (B) “Awer months … 1285” (C) “For centuries … Gioao” (D) “The growing … November” Note: For evidence, refer back to the passage.
Reasoning ! You are looking for an answer choice that is the same idea (analogous) to an idea of a passage. ! You are to ﬁnd the situaQon that follows a similar paaern or idea as the selected paaern. ! The answer does not have to match the topic of the passage only the idea of the selected passage. ! Try puyng the idea in your own words.
Reasoning QuesJon ! Which of the following situaQons is most analogous to the problem presented in the passage? ! Which hypotheQcal situaQon involves the same paradox discussed by the author? ! The principle illustrated in lines 16-‐19 (“By … life”) is best conveyed by which addiQonal informaQon.
1. Word Choice a. Tone b. Rhetoric 2. Text Structure 3. Point of View 4. Purpose 5. Argument
Rhetoric Word Choice • Tone • Refers to a feeling or aytude Rhetorical Devices • RepeQQon, metaphor, personiﬁcaQon, etc.
Rhetoric – Word choice Asks how speciﬁc words, phrases, or paaerns shape the meaning and tone of the text. Example: The Author’s tone is best described as (A) apologeQc (B) mournful (C) invigorated (D) reﬂecQve
Rhetoric – Word Choice Example: “… and the realizaQon the she herself was nothing, nothing, nothing to the engaged young man was a biaer aﬄicQon to her.” The main rhetorical eﬀect of the repeated word in line 13 is to a) underscore how frequently Edna had felt ignored in her teens b) suggest that Edna owen had to remind herself of her proper place c) emphasize how liale Edna maaered to the young man d) imply the Edna lacked self-‐conﬁdence around the young man and Margaret.
Text Structure 1. Use your summaries. 2. Mark up the structure. Concept
How to mark the passage
Indicate a change in direcQon of the author’s reasoning or argument
Circle the word
Examples or evidence
Clarify concepts discussed Note “e.g.” or by the author; can reveal how an author has “e.v” in the margin supported his argument
Text Structure QuesJons These quesQons ask about the structure of the text as a whole, or about the relaQonship between the whole text and a speciﬁc part of the text. Example: The author’s statement at lines 11-‐12 serves primarily to (A) introduce evidence for his conclusion (B) provide support for an earlier argument (C) summarize the passage (D) introduce the main argument
Text Structure QuesJon Example: The general organizaJon of the passage is best described by which of the following? a) A problem is introduced but the evidence supporQng it is quesQoned; the author concludes the problem is solvable. b) A problem is introduces with evidence to support it; that author introduces a compeQng argument. c) Evidence is introduced and a problem is idenQﬁed; the author oﬀers addiQonal informaQon. d) A problem is introduced and a soluQon proposed; the author oﬀers an alternaQve soluQon.
Point of View
The author’s point of view or aytude. ! Look for adjecQves – words used to describe feelings • Ex. Delicious, love, hate, beauQful, sad, etc. ! If these descripQons are not aaributed to someone else, you may assume they are from the author. ! Do not go beyond the actual descripQon to make it beaer or worse than what is implied.
Point of View Dr. Chabra has found a way to help serious athletes recover more quickly from the sQﬀness caused by heavy training. Like any new medical intervenQon, Dr. Chabra’s novel approach to treaQng muscle soreness has been met with some skepQcism and a lot of quesQons. SQll, many of her colleagues praised the innovaQve treatment; they rightly recognized the valuable impact it could have on athleQc performance. The author’s artude toward Dr. Chabra’s new treatment is best described as (A) uncertain (B) relieved (C) disparaging (D) approving
Analyzing Purpose ! Asks about purpose of the enQre passage or speciﬁc lines or paragraphs. ! Choose a “big-‐picture” answer – why was the passage wriaen. ! Is it to persuade? Argue against? Or Introduce a new concept? ! Try to describe the goal of the passage in your own words before looking for the answer.
Analyzing Purpose QuesJon The primary purpose of the passage is to (A) explain an exciQng discovery (B) describe Cavallini’s arQsQc style (C) emphasize the importance of art history (D) discuss Gioao’s role in the Renaissance
Argument ! The argument is an idea that the author believes is true and trying to persuade you ! You must locate the arguments the author believes to be true ! Ask yourself what the author seems sure about, or what he is trying to persuade you to believe.
Argument QuesJon In lines 6-‐10 the author argues that a) a Republic is the only acceptable form of government b) only those who can read should be allowed to vote in a Republic c) a true Republic must allow both women and men to vote d) a Republic is necessary to allow women to vote
Analyzing Evidence • Will ask what kinds of evidence the author uses to support his argument, or whether he fails to use any • There are several kinds of evidence that can be used. • First ask what the argument is, then ask yourself what he said to prove it.
Types of Evidence/Support Types of Evidence
Data or QuanQtaQve Evidence
Uses staQsQcs, percentages, or other kinds of numbers
Relies on the opinions of scholars, researchers, or other people with expert knowledge on the topic
Uses a personal experience or situaQon encountered by the author
Compares an idea being discussed to something else to clarify or make a point
Appeal to emoQon Creates feelings in the reader to persuade them of an argument,
Assessing Reasoning ! Ask you to analyze an author’s reasoning to see if it makes sense or why an author used a certain type of reasoning. ! Focus on the author’s overall goal for the lines you are asked about, then you can determine how the reasoning he uses provides evidence for his point. ! You may have to combine informaQon from more than 1 paragraph drawing new conclusions.
Analyzing Argument QuesJons ! “The author makes which of the following arguments?” ! “The author makes use of which of the following to support his argument?” ! What is the main evidence oﬀered in this passage for the claim…?” ! “In lines #-‐#, what is the most likely reason the author discusses Filipino mobile money services?”
Synthesis QuesJons ! This quesQon asks you to combine ideas. ! You must combine ideas from more than one source (such as paired passages or graphs) for a new idea to decide an answer. ! Look for repeated informaQon.
Synthesis – Paired Passages ! Pay aaenQon to informaQon that appears in both passages. MARK IT! ! Note an contrasts or opposites that you ﬁnd in the second passage. MARK IT! ! You will compare the informaQon from the passages, as well as their structure, tone, or way of making their argument. ! Look ﬁrst for the element you are asked about in each passage ﬁrst. ! Then look in the second passage for the element. ! Then you can combine the informaQon into the answer.
Paired Passage QuesJons ! Which contrast best describes how the author of each passage views the link between ______ and _______?” ! Both passages make use of which of the following? • Personal observaQons • HypotheQcal situaQons • Expert opinions • QuanQtaQve informaQon
Paired Passage QuesJons (Con’t) ! “Unlike Passage 2, Passage 1 focuses on…” ! “Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous quesQon? (A) -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ (lines 1-‐4) (B) -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ (lines 10-‐13) (C) -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ (lines 20-‐24) (D) -‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐-‐ (lines 25-‐27)
Synthesis -‐ Graphs ! At least one passage on every reading test will be accompanied by a graph, table, chart, etc. ! These are QuanQtaQve quesQons asking about amounts or quanQQes (numbers). ! It will ask you to analyze the graph independently, or to understand how it relates back to the passage.
Analyzing Graphs ! Review what is being measured and the units of measurement. ! You can underline or circle any items on the graph that you are asked about. ! Assess the answers based on the informaQon of the graph – Be careful not to make any assumpQons
Graphs to Passages ! Look for lines in the graph that discuss the same subjects as being measured in the graph. ! IdenQfy the same informaQon in the passage. ! Then, compare the informaQon. ! You must combine these two sources for a “big picture”
Synthesis Graph QuesJons ! “It can reasonably be inferred from the passage and graphic that…” ! “Which claim about energy consumpQon is supported by the graph?”
WriJng SecJon ! Make up-‐ 4 passages / 44 quesQons / 35 minutes ! You will be required to write and edit texts. ! This will test your knowledge on grammar rules and elements of eﬀecQve wriQng. ! This secQon contributes to 4 sub scores: Command of Evidence; Words in Context; Expression of Ideas; Standard English ConvenJons
WriJng SecJon 1. Developing Ideas a. InformaQve b. NarraQve c. ArgumentaQve 2. Graphics 3. Order of Use 4. Use of Language
Developing Ideas 1.
Passages Styles 1. InformaQve 2. NarraQve 3. Argument 2. Main Point 3. Support and Evidence
Developing Ideas ! Passage Styles:
Give accurate informaQon
Research, summaries, instrucQons
Persuade the reader
Opinions, debates, editorials
Tell a story
Biographies, ﬁcQon, anecdotes
Developing Ideas ! Main Point " The central idea " QuesQons may ask you to edit the sentence with the main point so that it beaer represents the central idea " Main points should: • Express the core idea of the author • Summarize the conclusion drawn from informaQon in the paragraph • Maintain the tone of the author and the style of the language
Developing Ideas ! Support and Focus • You may be asked to support claims with addiQonal informaQon • The style of wriQng owen determines what type of evidence the author will use. # Arguments will need some addiQonal facts # NarraQve styles will use some addiQonal stories • SomeQmes paragraphs will contain an error in the development of the evidence # A sentence that provides irrelevant informaQon
Types of support Type
True, declaraQve statements
The First President of the United States was George Washington.
Facts presented in numerical form
About 71% of the Earth’s surface is covered with water.
IllustraQons of the point the author
Jack owen gets into trouble. He was grounded just last week.
Views of the author or New York city is too crowded an expert, not to be enjoyable. necessarily using the facts
Anecdotes Personal stories or memories
Even though it was small, our family’s lake house was my favorite place.
Developing Ideas -‐ QuesJons ! “Which choice most eﬀecQvely establishes the main point of the passage?” ! Which choice, inserted here, most eﬀecQvely adds support for the statement in sentence 5?” ! To improve the focus of this paragraph, which sentence should be deleted?”
Graphics ! Some passages will include graphs for evidence. ! These may by in the form of graphs, charts, tables, or others. ! Checklist for reading a graph: $ What are the Qtles? $ On a graph, what are the axes? $ What are the units? $ Is there a legend?
Organizing Ideas ! Helps the author express his ideas. ! Two elements to look for: 1. Logical order 2. Signal Words
Organizing Ideas Logical Order ! You will be asked to revise, add, or remove sentences to improve the logical order of a paragraph. ! You must ﬁrst idenQfy what the sentence is doing in the paragraph ! The ﬁrst sentence states the main point followed by supporQng evidence
Logical Order QuesJon “For the sake of the cohesion of this paragraph, sentence 4 should be placed (A) where it is now (B) Before sentence 1 (C) awer sentence 2 (D) awer sentence 5
Organizing Ideas Signal Words • Connect informaQon in a paragraph • They signal conQnuaQons, examples, changes, and conclusions • Tell you where sentences should go • You may be asked to revise misused signal words • You may also be asked to add signal words or phrases to exisQng sentences to create or improve the ﬂow of the paragraph
Signal Words Type of Signal Word
Moreover, also, addiQonally, similarly, furthermore, next
For example, much like, speciﬁcally, for instance
While, in spite of, yet, however, although
As a result, ﬁnally, therefore, consequently, hence
Use of Language ! Refers to the use of language ! You will be asked to revise the language of the author to more eﬀecQvely convey his ideas 1. Precision 2. Style 3. Tone 4. Style
Use of Language Precise ! Choose the word or phrase that best completes the sentence. ! Your goal is to choose the right word for what the author has to say. ! Two ways: 1. You will choose the best word of similar words 2. Using commonly confused or misused words
Use of Language Concise ! When phrases give a lot of informaQon in the fewest words possible ! Some sentences may use “empty words” • Ex. He is a man who is always busy. He owen switches in a hasty manner from one task to the next. • Beaer-‐ He is always busy. He owen switches hasQly from one task to another to the next.
Use of Language Tone ! The author’s aytude ! You will not be idenQfying the author’s tone, but revising a passage to match the author’s tone.
Tone – Ex. Chimpanzees are obviously as intelligence as humans. a) NO CHANGE b) Those scienQsts who originally disagreed were not as observant as Goodall. c) She determined that chimpanzees possess similar tool-‐making aniliQes to humans. d) I will always admire Jane Goodall for her work in expanding our knowledge of chimpanzees abiliQes.
Social Sciences ! Will be from a newspaper, magazine, or non-‐ﬁcQon book (contemporary) ! Topics will be economics, psychology, linguisQcs, and history ! Approach like a science passage.
History Passage ! There will be one historical document from the Founding documents of the U.S. • DeclaraQon of Independence, The U.S. ConsQtuQon, of the Bill of rights ! Global conversaJon • speech of Winston Churchill, passage from a speech of Nelson Mandela, a leaer from Gandhi ! These passages may be explanatory or argumentaJve, but can also be persuasive
Answering a History passage $ Pay aaenQon to the important people, places, and things listed $ Pay aaenQon to claims and facts $ Pay parQcular aaenQon to the author’s use of rhetoric – ﬁguraQve language, similes, and metaphors $ NoQce the emphasis of repeQQon of words or words with the same meanings $ Pay aaenQon to idenQfy the thesis and the supporQng details
Science Passages ! There are 2 science passages in the reading secQon ! The passages are from magazines, newspapers, or non-‐ﬁcQon books on popular science ! These sciences include: physics, biology, astronomy, chemistry, or similar ﬁelds ! You are not being tested on scienQﬁc knowledge, but any knowledge of the language of science can be helpful ! It will include 1-‐2 graphics ! It might include a paired passage ! It will include the same features of a literary passage such as: ﬁguraQve language, narraQve or descripQve elements
Answering a Science Passage $ As always, pay aaenQon to important people, places, and things $ Your goal is to idenQfy the main topic or argument $ Understand how the addiQonal informaQon and evidence explains the subject or supports the argument $ Pay special aaenQon to data and experimental evidence and to the elements of the argument presented in the passage
Elements of an Argument Thesis
The main idea being defended
Statements by the author supposedly true
InformaQon used to back up the claims
Counterclaims Claims that disagree or contradict And refutaJons what the author is saying Conclusion
A concluding statement that restates the thesis
Science Passages – Experiments ! Science passages will discuss experiments ! They may be the supporQng evidence or the main idea ! Helps to be familiar with the basic facts of how experiments are conducted and what they mean Basic Idea: % Experiments measure 1 thing-‐ cause and eﬀect % It does not say if they are good or bad % Consider the variables-‐ what is altered, measured, controlled % Note which they change and which they measure
Science Passages – Experiments ! There are some important things to remember about evidence based on an experiment: Drawing conclusions: & They are value neutral – not good or bad & They only demonstrate very speciﬁc relaQonships & DisQnguish between what the experiment suggests and what it demonstrates
! This passage will usually be an excerpt from a novel or a short story ! Sources can be older material or newer ! Passages will usually tell a story or describe a scene, object, or character
Answering a Literary Passage $ Look for any underlying message $ Pay aaenQon to the author’s use of language and literary techniques to convey the message $ You are not being tested on your knowledge of literature – but should be comfortable reading diﬀerent types of literature $ Summarize – make short notes about the passage
Important Details in literary language: 1. FiguraJve Language – alliteraQon, hyperbole, idioms, personiﬁcaQon, metaphors, and similes % These elements will help you understand the message % It provides hints about the author’s purpose 2. CharacterizaJon % DescripQon % Dialogue % AcQon % Internal Speech % Responses 3. Structure % DescripQve % NarraQve
Graphics ! At least one passage on every reading test will have a graph, table, or chart ! These quesQons are asking you to synthesize informaQon (make connecQons between 2 sources)
Analyzing Graphics $ Pay careful aaenQon to what is being measured and the units of measurement $ For a general quesQon, “Which claim is supported by the graph,” read each answer choice against the answers $ Don’t make decisions on informaQon not stated
RelaJng Graphics to Passages $ Look for lines in the passage that discuss the same subjects being directly presented in the graph $ Compare the informaQon in the passage against the informaQon of the graph $ If the informaQon is diﬀerent, then you have to combine the two in order to come up with the best conclusion Note: You can write on the graphs!
Paired Passages ! One passage of the test will be a paired passage ! Paired passages are going to ask you to synthesize informaQon – make connecQons between the 2 passages ! The best way to approach these passages is to read one at a Qme, then answer the quesQons for that passage ! The read the second one and do likewise
Analyzing Paired Passages ! Awer doing each passage, consider the quesQons that apply to both ! RepeaQng ideas $ Look for informaQon that appears in both passages – mark them $ Look for contrasQng ideas – mark them ! Answering the QuesQons $ These quesQons require answers from both passages $ This can mean structure, tone, or argument $ Consider each passage individually, looking for the answer to the quesQon $ Then combine or compare your answers
The End ☺
MATH SECTION PSAT Training Course Mrs. Deim Kaplan New SAT
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HEART OF ALGEBRA SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS 133
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PROBLEM SOLVING & DATA ANALYSIS PROBLEM SOLVING 150
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PASSPORT TO ADVANCED MATH EXPONENTS, RADICALS, POLYNOMIALS, AND RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS
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PASSPORT TO ADVANCED MATH FUNCTIONS & FUNCTION NOTATION 184
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PASSPORT TO ADVANCED MATH QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 201
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