Michael J.B. Green. May 2010 YILDIZ MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE PROJECT REPORT SERIES

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MANAGEMENT PLAN Michael J.B. Green May 2010

YILDIZ MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE PROJECT REPORT SERIES

Yildiz Mountains Biosphere: Preliminary Management Plan

FOREWORD This Preliminary Management Plan is the output of an extensive and intensive participatory process of engaging with a wide range of stakeholders during the implementation of the EUfunded Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project in 2009. The Plan belongs to those who live and work in this fabulous mountainous and coastal region of Thracian Turkey, as they have generated a vision of its future and a set of objectives and related activities that will begin to take them towards this vision over the next few years. All village communities within the proposed boundaries of the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere, and some located outside its boundaries have contributed to the development of the Plan, together with a number of provincial agencies, Kirklareli Governorship, municipalities, Non Governmental Organisations and of course the various directorates within the Ministry of Environment and Forestry. A special tribute is due to members of the Stakeholder Working Group and the Management Planning Unit (listed in Annex 2) who worked so diligently with the Project’s Technical Assistance Team in formulating this Plan, as well as to the many dedicated experts who undertook a wide range of studies to contribute the knowledge that informs this Plan. A list of their reports is included in the References at the end of this Plan. This Plan marks the beginning of journey to establish the Yildiz Mountains as a Biosphere, thereby becoming part of a global network of 531 biosphere reserves in 105 countries in which the protection of biodiversity is reconciled with the development needs of the local and wider community, while ensuring the ecological integrity of ecosystems remains intact for the benefit of nature and people. As such, this UNESCO concept of biospheres represents an innovative approach to conservation by using natural and cultural resources wisely. The beginning of this journey is heralded by the establishment of a Management Committee, who will be responsible for implementing this Preliminary Management Pan and developing it into a comprehensive management plan, and an Advisory Committee of representatives of villages and other local bodies that will continue the work of the former Stakeholder Working Group. We wish these two new committees every success in their endeavours towards progressing the vision for Yildiz Mountains. Finally, it is hoped that the work undertaken in the framework of the Yildiz programme will pave the way for the establishment and management of other biospheres in Turkey, as intended by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry.

Michael J.B. Green Team Leader, Technical Assistance Team Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project

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CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................................... II CONTENTS ............................................................................................................................................ III EXECUTIVE SUMMARY......................................................................................................................... V YÖNETĐCĐ ÖZETĐ .................................................................................................................................XIV 1.

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 1 1.1. 1.2. 1.3.

2.

BACKGROUND ...................................................................................................................... 7 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5.

3.

YILDIZ MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE PROJECT.................................................................................... 7 PREVIOUS PROJECTS ................................................................................................................. 8 BIOSPHERE EXPERIENCE IN TURKEY ........................................................................................... 9 STAKEHOLDER PARTICIPATION IN MANAGEMENT PLANNING ........................................................... 9 PARTICIPATORY PROCESS ........................................................................................................ 10 DESCRIPTION AND PHYSICAL FEATURES OF YILDIZ MOUNTAINS ............................ 13

3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. 3.5. 4.

LOCATION AND EXTENT ............................................................................................................ 13 CLIMATE .................................................................................................................................. 14 GEOLOGY AND GEOMORPHOLOGY ............................................................................................ 14 SOIL ........................................................................................................................................ 15 HYDROLOGY ............................................................................................................................ 15 BIODIVERSITY VALUES...................................................................................................... 18

4.1. 4.2. 4.3. 4.4. 4.5. 4.6. 4.7. 4.8. 5.

BIOGEOGRAPHY (INCLUDING TRANS-BORDER ASPECTS) ............................................................. 18 LAND COVER AND VEGETATION ................................................................................................. 18 HABITAT .................................................................................................................................. 22 LANDSCAPE ............................................................................................................................. 24 PLANTS ................................................................................................................................... 26 ANIMALS.................................................................................................................................. 29 CAVE FAUNA ........................................................................................................................... 32 AGRO-BIODIVERSITY ................................................................................................................ 34 CULTURAL AND LIVELIHOOD VALUES ........................................................................... 35

5.1. 5.2. 5.3. 5.3.1 5.3.2

5.4. 6.

ARCHAEOLOGY ........................................................................................................................ 35 HISTORY ................................................................................................................................. 35 LOCAL LIVELIHOODS ................................................................................................................. 35 Local livelihoods opportunities ......................................................................................................... 35 Sustainable livelihoods approach .................................................................................................... 37

RECREATION AND TOURISM ...................................................................................................... 38 ECOSYSTEM GOODS AND SERVICES ............................................................................. 41

6.1. 6.2. 6.3. 6.4. 6.5. 6.6. 6.7. 7.

RATIONALE FOR SELECTION OF YILDIZ MOUNTAINS AS A BIOSPHERE ............................................. 1 BIOSPHERE CONCEPT ................................................................................................................ 3 20-YEAR VISION FOR YILDIZ MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE ................................................................... 5

CARBON .................................................................................................................................. 42 WATER .................................................................................................................................... 43 TIMBER ................................................................................................................................... 45 NON-TIMBER FOREST PRODUCTS ............................................................................................. 46 AGRICULTURAL BIODIVERSITY ................................................................................................... 48 RECREATION AND TOURISM ...................................................................................................... 48 HUNTING ................................................................................................................................. 49 LEGAL AND POLICY FRAMEWORK .................................................................................. 50

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7.1. 7.2. 7.3. 8.

PREVAILING LEGISLATION ......................................................................................................... 50 LAND OWNERSHIP .................................................................................................................... 51 EXISTING DESIGNATED AREAS................................................................................................... 52 STRATEGY FOR DEVELOPMENT OF YILDIZ MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE ...................... 55

8.1. 8.1.1 8.1.2 8.1.3 8.1.4 8.1.5 8.1.6 8.1.7

8.2. 8.2.1 8.2.2 8.2.3 8.2.4 8.2.5 8.2.6 8.2.7

8.3. 8.4. 8.5. 8.5.1 8.5.2 8.5.3

8.6. 8.7. 8.8.

GOVERNANCE .......................................................................................................................... 55 Guiding principles ............................................................................................................................ 55 Management Committee ................................................................................................................. 55 Advisory Committee ......................................................................................................................... 57 Legislative framework ...................................................................................................................... 57 Biosphere Support Unit .................................................................................................................... 57 Recommendations for policy development ...................................................................................... 58 Stakeholder Working Group feedback on the Paris Accord ............................................................. 58

COMMUNITY-BASED NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ............................................................ 58 Social and economic development of Yildiz Mountains communities .............................................. 59 Defining the community ................................................................................................................... 60 A diversity of assets and associated enterprises ............................................................................. 61 Common property ............................................................................................................................ 62 Trust – a basis for good governance and good management .......................................................... 63 Common property and private enterprise ........................................................................................ 64 Piloting CBNRM ............................................................................................................................... 64

ZONATION ............................................................................................................................... 67 ZONATION - PROCESS .............................................................................................................. 68 ZONATION - STATUS QUO .......................................................................................................... 69 Core areas ....................................................................................................................................... 69 Transition areas ............................................................................................................................... 69 Buffer zones..................................................................................................................................... 69

ZONATION - POTENTIAL BUFFER ZONE ‘PROTECTION FORESTS’ AND CORE AREAS......................... 74 CROSS-BORDER COOPERATION ................................................................................................ 79 FINANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY....................................................................................................... 80

9.

THREATS .............................................................................................................................. 83

10.

OBJECTIVES ........................................................................................................................ 85

11.

ACTIVITIES ........................................................................................................................... 97

12.

MONITORING IMPLEMENTATION .................................................................................... 107

12.1. 12.2.

ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT ........................................................................................................ 107 MONITORING ......................................................................................................................... 107

12.2.1 Biosphere system monitoring......................................................................................................... 108 12.2.2 Site monitoring ............................................................................................................................... 108 12.2.3 Collaborative monitoring ................................................................................................................ 109

REFERENCES .................................................................................................................................... 110 ANNEXES ........................................................................................................................................... 111

ANNEX 1: STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS ANNEX 2: COMPOSITIONS OF STAKEHOLDER W ORKING GROUP AND MANAGEMENT PLANNING UNIT ANNEX 3: FLORA INVENTORY ANNEX 4: HOTSPOT SITE ACCOUNTS ANNEX 5: FAUNA INVENTORY ANNEX 6: VILLAGE PROFILES ANNEX 7: W ELL-BEING INDEX ANNEX 8: PARIS ACCORD – BIOSPHERE GOVERNANCE ANNEX 9: STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF VILLAGE COOPERATIVES IDENTIFIED BY STAKEHOLDERS ANNEX 10: MANAGEMENT AGREEMENT WORKSHOP ANNEX 11: DRAFT MOU FOR COOPERATION ANNEX 12: 12A THREAT REDUCTION ASSESSMENT (MPU) 12B THREAT REDUCTION ASSESSMENT (SWG) 12C DESCRIPTION OF THREATS AND DEFINITIONS OF 100% REDUCTION ANNEX 13: MONITORING FRAMEWORK

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Context This Preliminary Management Plan for the proposed Yildiz Mountains Biosphere is the output of a contractual requirement for the Consultant1 to produce a Feasibility Study for the Preparation of a Management Plan for the proposed Yildiz Mountains Biosphere under Service Contract TR 0602.16-01/001, Technical Assistance for Protection and Sustainable Development of Natural Resources and Biodiversity in the Yildiz Mountains funded by the European Union. The Beneficiary is the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, in particular its General Directorate of Nature Conservation and National Parks and its General Directorate of Forestry. Biosphere concept UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme is one of the most innovative and flexible conservation initiatives that focus on the reconciliation of protection of nature with its sustainable use within a global network of biosphere reserves, representative of the world’s major ecosystems. Biospheres are designed to fulfil three complimentary functions: 1. Conservation – to preserve genetic resources, species, ecosystems and landscapes. 2. Development – to foster sustainable economic and human development. 3. Logistic support – to support demonstration projects, environmental education and training, research and monitoring related to local, national and global issues of conservation and sustainable development. Criteria for an area to qualify for designation as a biosphere reserve are provided in Article 4 of the Statutory Framework of World Network of Biosphere Reserves (UNESCO, 1996). The biosphere reserve should include provisions for the three functions through an appropriate zonation system that comprises, respectively: (a) a legally constituted core area(s) devoted to long-term protection, according to the conservation objectives of the reserve, and of sufficient size to meet these objectives; (b) a buffer zone or zones clearly identified and surrounding or contiguous to the core area or areas, where only activities compatible with the conservation objectives can take place; (c) an outer transition area where sustainable resource management practices are promoted and developed. [Article 4.6] Furthermore, Article 4.7 indicates that: “Organizational arrangements should be provided for the involvement and participation of a suitable range of inter alia public authorities, local communities and private interests in the design and carrying out the functions of a biosphere reserve.”

1

The Consultant comprises a consortium of three companies: AGRER S.A.-N.V. (Brussels, Belgium), Agriconsulting S.p.A. (Rome, Italy) and Agrin Consultancy and Trading Company Ltd. (Ankara, Turkey).

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A schematic representation of the functions of a biosphere reserve and their distribution within core, buffer and transition areas is shown in the adjacent diagram. Importantly, this model is flexible and can be designed to accommodate the local socio-cultural and economic context2. Methodology This Preliminary Management Plan is informed by scientific and socio-economic findings resulting from previous studies and much additional work undertaken as part of the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project. It has been developed by means of a nine-month participatory process that has involved all the main stakeholders (village communities and cooperatives, state, provincial and municipal government agencies, and non governmental organisations), in line with Unesco guidance on the designation of biosphere reserves. Once stakeholders had been engaged in the process, a Stakeholder Working Group (SWG) was established to provide a mechanism for a representative group of stakeholders to be directly involved in the formulation of this Plan in concert with a Management Planning Unit (MPU), thereby creating a synergy between the experience of villagers and others living and working in Yildiz Mountains and the technical knowhow of scientific and planning experts. This process is shown diagrammatically below.

2

Such flexibility includes the option for States to use appropriate alternative terminology, such as biosphere 2 regions, areas etc for the term biosphere reserves . In the case of Yildiz Mountains it has been agreed with Unesco MAB to omit the term ‘reserve’ because this generates confusion among stakeholders about the multiple functions of the area. Thus, in this respect, Yildiz Mountains is referred to simply as Yildiz Mountains Biosphere.

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Participatory planning process Introduce project, identify issues&needs

March Village meeting s (28 villages)

Open house meetings 3 settlemen ts)

Focus group meetings

Mayors+ muhtars

1st round of village meetings

Identify vision, values, threats

SWOT on cooperative mechanism - generate consensus for community-based natural resource management

April Village meetings (28 villages)

May

June

Meetings with Meeting with community provincial representative agencies s

Workshop for community reps (coops, women, youth) + provincial agencies

Outputs from SWG workshops= inputs to management planning process

July-November 9 SWG workshops SWG study tour to Bulgaria Study tour to coops in Izmir and Aydin

Feedback Muhtars+ Cooperative Heads Muhtars+ provincial agencies

2nd round of village meetings

Women

MPU Youth

Workshops with community + cooperative representatives

Stakeholder Working Group workshops

Key features of the Biosphere The proposed Yildiz Mountains Biosphere, encompassing 121,800 ha, lies in north-western Turkey and comprises the Turkish part of the Yildiz Mountains, which extend into Bulgaria where they are known as the Strandja Mountains. Much of this mountain range in Bulgaria is protected within the 116,068.50 ha Strandja Nature Park (map below, left). Twenty five villages lie within the proposed Biosphere and a further seven peripheral villages own land and undertake activities inside it (map below, centre).

Yildiz Mountains has a rich cultural heritage (map above, right). The region was first settled along the Black Sea coast by Trachians in B.C. 2000. By 74 B.C. these coastal settlements belonged to the Roman Empire. The region was first occupied by the Ottomans in 1362-63 and their dominance was established in 1452. Successive waves of immigration have continued into more recent times, as reflected by the diverse origins of many families in the villages (e.g. Bosnians, Bulgarians, Greeks). Archaeological sites include: Trachian graves, especially around

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Demirköy; dolmens in Demirköy and Dereköy; and iron foundries from the early Fatih (Ottoman) period. Historical assets include a Genoese castle in Sislioba (a small version of Haghia Sophia in Istanbul), a cave abbey, an antique theatre and castle in Vize, and Haghia Nichola Abbey in Kiyiköy. Haghia Nichola Abbey is representative of the early Byzantium period, prior to occupation by the Ottomans in 1362-63. The Black Sea ports of Iğneada and Kiyikoy are also historically important, as is an historic trading route that runs between Volçan Bridge in SisliobaKaracadağ, on the Bulgarian border, and the former Panayir Seaport. As assessment of the main ecosystem goods and services delivered by the Yildiz Mountains indicates that the annual values of harvested timber and non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are approximately € 9.9 million and € 2.4 million, respectively. This compares with a potential economic value of € 44.0 - 445.5 million of carbon sequestered in the forests of the proposed Biosphere. While these estimates are very approximate, they highlight in economic terms the important function provided by the proposed Biosphere in countering the build up of ‘greenhouse gases’, notably CO2, as well as the potential value of this ecosystem service which is one or more orders of magnitude greater than the market value of other goods and services. Key biodiversity values of the proposed Biosphere include the following:

3



Two nationally Important Plant Areas, Yildiz Dağları (Istranca Dağları) and Iğneada Longoz, lie within the proposed Biosphere; a third, Kasatura and Terkos, lies partly inside.



A total of 1,378 plant taxa (1,295 species)3 have been reliably recorded in the proposed Biosphere and its immediate vicinity. This represents approximately 12% of Turkey’s flora (approximately 10,590 species) and 6.3% of European flora (approximately 20,590 species). Seventeen species are endemic, of which four are critically endangered and five are endangered, including the newly described Allium rumelicum sp. nova, known only from Mahya Mountain, and Jurinea turcica sp. nova, known only from Kiyiköy.



Forests cover 82% of the total area, of which deciduous is 81% and coniferous (mostly plantation) is 1%; grasslands and agricultural land cover nearly 16%; and water bodies 1%. Oak and beech forests are predominant, comprising 65% and 16% of land cover, respectively.



Twenty six EUNIS habitat types are represented, the predominant types being PannonianBalkanic turkey oak-sessile oak forests, comprising 65% of all EUNIS habitat types, Western Pontic beech forests (16%) and semi-natural dry grasslands and scrubland facies on calcareous substrates (16%).



The faunal inventory for the proposed Biosphere currently includes species of: 74 butterflies, 41 moths, 12 damselflies, 21 dragonflies, 28 freshwater fish, 9 amphibians, 27 reptiles, 264 birds and 65 mammals. Also, 121 species of marine fish have been recorded from the coastal waters of the Black Sea.



Of the 264 bird species, 105 are confirmed breeders, 7 are probable and 16 are possible breeders. Yildiz Mountains is the only known breeding locality in Turkey for wood warbler, yellowhammer and green sandpiper, all of which are common breeders.



There are many caves in the Yildiz Mountains due to karst formations and 26 have been surveyed within and peripheral to the proposed Biosphere. These are particularly important for bats, some 40,000 individuals comprising eight species having been recorded in winter

Eight of these taxa (seven species) have not been recorded from within the proposed Biosphere.

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and summer surveys. Dupnisa, one of 12 caves surveyed within the proposed Biosphere, is one of the most important underground cave systems in the region and holds the largest colony of hibernating bats (approximately 25,600 bats, representing five species) known in the Balkans. Forty invertebrate species have been recorded from caves in the region, of which three species are thought to be new to science: one pseudo-scorpion (Neobisium hazalae sp. nova) and two spiders (Harpactea coramani sp. nova and Centromerus bumadi sp. nova). 

Important agro-biodiversity resources include two species of traditional cattle, boz irk (grey cattle) and yerkli kara (local black), and a traditional breed of sheep, kivircik. There is also a local race of honey bee that exhibits unique behaviour associated with hive cleaning and resistance to the Varroa mite. Little is yet known about traditional crop varieties and their wild relatives.

Preliminary Management Plan - vision and objectives The Preliminary Management Plan provides an overall framework for the future management of the proposed Biosphere, based on a 20-year vision and a set of 11 objectives to address the threats and other issues that currently constrain the realisation of this vision. A series of activities have been identified under each objective that represent priorities and/or are readily achievable over the next two or three years. These need to be developed into an Action Plan, with timeframes and responsible bodies (agencies, villages, cooperatives, NGOs etc) clearly defined and agreed, and resources identified. The Plan is necessarily preliminary on a number accounts: 

The time-frame (less than one year) was acknowledged at the outset of the Project as being too short to undertake important scientific research and fully consider its implications in a participatory, consensus-building manner. Such participatory planning processes usually require at least one year and often two years for established conservation areas; sites in the process of being established require significantly longer in order to engage with stakeholders for the first time and develop their capacity. Thus, much more time will be required to refine the management zones in a fully participatory manner.



While a governance structure for the Biosphere has been developed and agreed by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, there was insufficient time in which to establish the Management Committee and its Advisory Committee of key stakeholders (based on the former SWG). Thus, resources for implementing the activities identified in this Plan have yet to be identified, agreed and secured.

The 20-year vision formulated by stakeholders clearly identifies the function of the proposed Biosphere and how it will be managed sustainably through a zonation system to address the needs of nature and people (box, below).

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20-year Vision for Yildiz Mountains Biosphere The Yildiz Mountains will continue to function as an ecologically intact ecosystem, characterised by a predominantly natural landscape that is sustained by clean air, pure water and thriving populations of wild plants and animals for the long-term benefit of its local communities, visitors and society at large. Such benefits will include: ▪ meeting the livelihood needs of local communities, based on sustainable use of its natural resources; ▪ contributing more widely to the needs of society through, for example, provision of timber, carbon sequestration and water, using innovative and equitable mechanisms that return benefits to local communities and others who bear the costs of conservation; ▪ providing for quiet enjoyment of its beauty, and natural and cultural resources by visitors; and ▪ providing opportunities for education and scientific research. The natural, cultural, social and historic heritage of Yildiz Mountains will be protected and interpreted for the benefit of local communities and visitors. Local communities will be socially and economically prosperous. The natural resources will be managed sustainably and protected through partnerships between the local communities and public agencies, and management objectives will be realised through a system of zonation in accordance with the biosphere reserve concept. The integrity of the ecosystem and its sustainable management will be enhanced by cooperation with the authorities and communities responsible for managing the adjacent Strandja Mountains on the Bulgarian side of the international border.

The 11 management objectives for delivering this vision are as follows:  Objective 1: Conservation of biological diversity by protection of important and vulnerable habitats, species, aesthetic and representative landscapes  Objective 2: Conservation of biological diversity by sustainable use of species, habitats and ecosystem goods and services  Objective 3: Sustainable economic and social development of Yildiz Mountains’ communities through sustainable utilisation of the natural and cultural resource base  Objective 4: An enabling environment supportive of biological diversity conservation through protection, sustainable utilisation, and the social and economic development of Yildiz Mountains communities creating a functionally efficient policy, legal and institutional framework and a broad public awareness and support for the Vision  Objective 5: Financial sustainability of the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere in order to implement the management plan and achieve the long term vision  Objective 6: Protection of landscape and ecosystem values from damaging impacts of potential energy and infrastructure development through an appropriate and effective planning procedure  Objective 7: Waste management through reduction, recycling, treatment and disposal  Objective 8: Research and monitoring to increase understanding of social, economic and environmental processes and ensure that management is adaptive  Objective 9: Development of Yildiz Mountains Biosphere as an educational resource for present and future generations  Objective 10: Visitor management to enhance the visitor experience and protect the core values of the Yildiz Mountains  Objective 11: Conservation of cultural values and living heritage by protecting vulnerable archaeological sites and promoting local customs, arts, crafts and traditions

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A framework for monitoring and evaluating the achievement of these objectives and associated activities is provided within this Plan. Preliminary Management Plan – management zones A number of hydrologically important watersheds (shaded green in the map below, left) have been identified that sustain unique floodplain (longoz) forests and associated natural lakes as, for example, represented in the Đğneada Longoz Forest National Park. Any interference with these hydrological regimes, such as withdrawal of water or reduction in water quality from pollution, will threaten the long-term survival of such unique habitats and their biodiversity. Thus, the ecohydrological characteristics of watersheds have been used as a basis for zoning the proposed Yıldız Mountains Biosphere into core areas, buffer zones, and transition areas (map below, right).

Eleven hotspots of high plant species diversity have been identified (map below, left). Nine caves, Bağlar, Ceneviz, Domuzdere, Dupnisa*, Kiz*, Kovantaşı*, Kuru*, Ocak, and Yenesu, merit High Conservation Priority for urgent protection as Nature Reserves and eight caves, Bostanliktarla*, Çatalyol*, Kale III, Kiyiköy*, Mermer*, Pestilin, Tirfez*, and Uzuntarla are proposed for Natural Monument status under the National Parks Law No. 2873. Those nine caves marked with an asterisk lie within the proposed Yıldız Mountains Biosphere. These are shown below in relation to the zonation plan for the proposed Biosphere (map below, right).

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Governance and administration There has been some concern about the legislative basis needed for the establishment of the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere. However, the advice from UNESCO is that, wherever possible, biospheres should be established within the existing legislative structure, the only requirement being that the core areas have legal protection status. It has been agreed that existing legislative provisions in Turkey are sufficient for the protection of the core areas, and that no further legislation is needed for buffer zones and transition areas. Thus, the establishment of Yildiz Mountains Biosphere can proceed without additional legislative intervention. It has been agreed that the management of the Biosphere should be carried out by two committees: an executive Management Committee, responsible for overseeing the planning and implementation of the management plan, including its initial development from a preliminary plan to a full management plan; and an Advisory Committee, in which a wider range of stakeholders will be able to contribute to the decision-making process. A Terms of Reference has been agreed for the Management Committee and the composition of its membership will be as follows:  Kirklareli Governorship (Chair)  Provincial Directorate of Environment and Forestry  Regional Directorate of Forestry  Forestry District Directorates (Demirköy, Kirklareli and Vize)  Kirklareli Province Special Administration  General Directorate of Forestry

 General Directorate of Nature Conservation and National Parks  Provincial Directorate of Agriculture  Provincial Directorate of Tourism and Culture  Representative of municipality mayors  Independent representatives (two is maximum)  Chairperson of Advisory Committee

It has been agreed that the Management Committee should be chaired by the Kirklareli Governorship and that the Deputy Chairperson should be from the forestry sector, which represents the largest economic activity in the Biosphere. The Advisory Committee is the forum for the voices of the people who live and work in the Biosphere to be heard, providing them with an opportunity to contribute to policy and management provisions. It will initially build on the existing Stakeholder Working Group with representatives of villages, cooperatives and unions, municipalities, non-governmental and private sector organisations, hunters, the military, young people and women. The Chairperson and Deputy Chairperson will be elected by the members of the Advisory Committee for an initial term of two years. The Advisory Committee will meet before the Management Committee and will have a similar agenda. The Chairperson of the Advisory Committee, therefore, will attend the Management Committee with a clear idea of the views of the people of the area on the items under discussion, and will be responsible for presenting those views to the Management Committee. It is expected that the Management Committee will reflect the views of the Advisory Committee in its decisions. If this is not the case, then the Chairperson of the Advisory Committee must be given clear reasons as to why the views of the Advisory Committee have been ignored or over-ruled. To support this, a Biosphere Support Unit will be established within the Provincial Directorate of Environment and Forestry. The purpose of this Unit is to initiate activities in support of the Management Committee’s responsibility to achieve the objectives of the management plan. This

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Unit need be no larger than three persons initially, and should be staffed by the secondment of personnel from different agencies already working in the area. Overarching guidance on financial sustainability is provided in the Preliminary Management Plan. The proposed Biosphere is endowed with a number of financial advantages from its outset. These include: Management Committee members with access to budgets that are already being used to greater or lesser extents in the management and development of Yildiz Mountains; and existing mechanisms, notably cooperatives, in place to harvest timber and other products from the forests, with benefits accruing to local communities and the respective government agencies; and partnerships with, for example, a number of academic institutions having a vested interest in surveying and monitoring resources within the Biosphere. Natural resource management In developing a sustainable and equitable approach for the future management of natural resources within the proposed Biosphere, particular account has been taken of the strengths and limitations of existing management systems such as village cooperatives, hunting and bee associations, private enterprises and individual entrepreneurs. A system of community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) is proposed whereby all resource use is directed through the village cooperatives in accordance with management agreements developed with the relevant government agencies, in particular the Forest District Directorates. Implicit in this approach is that, with limited material, human and financial resources, the most effective form of managing natural resources in the Yildiz Mountains will be through a consensual process, with sustainable use providing the primary incentive for wise management. In order to avoid over-exploitation and to ensure that the interests of the local population are being served, it is essential to put in place such management systems for sustainably using natural resources ahead of promoting existing income-generating activities or introducing new enterprises. A framework for a series of management agreements covering a range of natural resources has been developed at a workshop involving cooperatives, associations and provincial government agencies. This provides a basis for piloting CBNRM under the model described in this Preliminary Management Plan.

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Yildiz Mountains Biosphere: Preliminary Management Plan

YÖNETĐCĐ ÖZETĐ

ĐÇERĐK Bu Ön Yönetim Planı, öneri Yıldız Dağları Biyosferi için Avrupa Birliği tarafından finanse edilen Hizmet Sözleşmesi TR 0602.16-01/001, Yıldız Dağları’nın Doğal Kaynakları ve Biyoçeşitliliğinin Korunması ve Sürdürülebilir Gelişimine Teknik Destek projesi kapsamında, Danışman’ın4 Yönetim Planı Hazırlığı için Fizibilite Çalışması yapmak üzere sözleşme yükümlülüğünün bir çıktısı olarak hazırlanmıştır. Faydalanıcı Çevre ve Orman Bakanlığı olup asıl olarak Doğa Koruma ve Milli Parklar Genel Müdürlüğü ve Orman Genel Müdürlüğü’dür. Biyosfer kavramı UNESCO’nun Đnsan ve Biyosfer (MAB) Programı dünyanın en önemli ekosistemlerini temsil eden, biyosfer rezervlerinin global ağı içerisinde sürdürülebilir kullanımı ile doğanın korunmasına odaklanan en yenilikçi ve esnek koruma girişimlerinden birisidir. Biyosferler üç tamamlayıcı işlevi yerine getirmek için tasarlanırlar. Bunlar: 1. Koruma – genetik kaynakların, türlerin, ekosistemlerin ve peyzajların korunmasına katkıda bulunmak, 2. Geliştirme – sürdürülebilir ekonomik ve insani gelişimi teşvik etmek 3. Lojistik destek – yerel, ulusal ve küresel ölçekte doğa koruma ve kalkınma çabalarına yönelik bilimsel araştırma, izleme, eğitim ve bilgi değişimini desteklemektir. Bir alanı biyosfer rezervi olarak tayin etmek için geçerli kriter Dünya Biyosfer Rezervleri Ağı Yasal Çerçevesi 4. Maddesi’nde (UNESCO, 1996) açıklanmaktadır. Biyosfer rezervi uygun bir zonlama sistemi içerisinde aşağıda tanımlanan 3 fonksiyonun hükümlerini yerine getirmek durumundadır. Bunlar; (a) rezerv korunması hedeflerine göre ve bu amaçlara ulaşmak için yeterli büyüklükte, uzun vadeli koruma sağlanmış, yasal olarak kurulmuş çekirdek bölge (ler); (b) sadece koruma hedeflerinin yer alabileceği faaliyetlerle uyumlu, çekirdek bölge ya da bölgeleri çevreleyen ya da onlara komşu, belirgin olarak tanımlanmış bir tampon bölge ya da bölgeler (c) sürdürülebilir kaynak yönetimi uygulamalarının gerçekleştirildiği ya da geliştirildiği daha dış bir geçiş bölgesi [Madde 4.6]

Ayrıca Madde 4.7’de de belirtildiği gibi: “Örgütsel düzenlemeler, bir biyosfer rezervinin tüm fonsiyonlarının tasarlanması ve gerçekleştirilmesinde, bir dizi uygun kamu kurumları, yerel halk ve özel ilgililerin sürece dahil olması ve katılımını sağlayacak şekilde yapılmalıdır.”

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Danışman, AGRER S.A.-N.V. (Brüksel, Belçika), Agriconsulting S.p.A. (Roma, Italya) ve Agrin Danışmanlık ve Ticaret Ltd. (Ankara, Türkiye) firmalarının yer aldığı üçlü bir konsorsiyumdan oluşmaktadır.

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Bir biyosfer rezervinin fonksiyonlarının şematik sunumu ve çekirdek, tampon ve geçiş bölgelerinin dağılımı yandaki diyagramda gösterilmektedir. Daha da önemli olan; bu modelin esnek bir model olması ve yerel sosyo-kültürel ve ekonomik bağlamda5 gerekleri karşılamak için tasarlanabileceğidir.

Metodoloji Bu Ön Yönetim Planı, daha önceki çalışmalar ve Yıldız Dağları Biyosfer Projesinin parçası olarak üstlenilen birçok ek çalışmadan elde edilen bilimsel ve sosyo-ekonomik bulgulara dayanarak oluşturulmuştur. Biyosfer rezervleri belirlenirken, Unesco rehberliğiyle uyumlu olarak başlıca tüm paydaşları (köy halkları ve kooperatifler, devlet, il ve belediyelere bağlı devlet kurumları ve sivil toplum kuruluşları) içeren dokuz aylık bir katılımcı süreç sonucunda geliştirilmiştir. Paydaşlar sürece bir kere dahil edildikten sonra, Yönetim Planlama Birimi (YPB) ile uyumlu olarak bu Planın oluşturulmasına doğrudan katılacak ve paydaşları temsil edecek bir grup oluşturularak, bu yolla Yıldız Dağlarında yaşayan köylülerin ve bu yörede yaşayan deneyimleri ile bilim ve planlama uzmanları arasında bir sinerji kurmak için bir Paydaş Çalışma Grubu (PÇG) kurulmuştur. Bu süreç aşağıda diyagramda gösterilmiştir.

Katılımcı planlama süreci ProjeninTanıtı mı, konuların ve ihtiyaçların belirlenmesi

Vizyonun belirlenmesi, değerler, tehditler

Kooperatiflerin yapısına ilişkin toplum bazlı doğal kaynak yönetimine dayalı SWOT analizi

Plan girdileri

Mart

Nisan

Mayıs

Haziran

Temmuz - Kasım

Köy toplantıları (28 köy)

Toplum temsilcileri ile toplantılar

Toplum+ Kamu kuruluşları (kooperatifler, kadınlar, gençler) + il kuruluşları çalıştayı

PÇG Çalıştayları (9) PÇG Bularistan inceleme gezisi Đzmir ve Aydında kooperatiflere gezi

Köy toplantı ları (28 köy)

Açıkla ma toplan tıları (3 yerleşi m birimi)

Odak grup toplantıları Belediye başkanları ve muhtarlar

1. Tur köy toplantıları

Geri bildirim

Muhtarlar ve il kuruluşları

2. Tur köy toplantıları

Kamu kuruluş ları ile toplantı

Muhtarlar ve koop. başkanları

Kadınlar

Gençler

Toplum ve kooperatif temsilcileri çalıiştayları

YPB

PÇG Toplantıları toplantılar

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Bu esneklik ülkelere biyosfer rezervleri için biyosfer bölgeleri, alanları gibi alternatif terminoloji kullanma 5 seçeneği sağlar. . Yıldız Dağları’nda ise UNESCO MAB ile de fikir birliğine varıldığı üzere, alanın bir çok fonksiyonundan dolayı paydaşlar arasında kafa karışıklığı yaratmamak için “rezerv” kelimesinin çıkartılmasına karar verilmiştir. Böylece Yıldız Dağları’nın adı basitçe Yıldız Dağları Biyosferi olarak anılacaktır.

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Biyosferin Temel Özellikleri 121,800 ha’lık bir alanı kaplayan öneri Yıldız Dağları Biyosferi Türkiye’nin kuzey-batısında yer almakta ve Strandja Dağları olarak bilinen Bulgaristan içlerine kadar uzanan Yıldız Dağları’nın Türkiye kısmını kapsamaktadır. Bulgaristan’daki bu dağ sırasının büyük bir bölümü 116,068.50 ha’lık Strandja Doğal Parkı içerisinde korunmaktadır (aşağıdaki haritada solda). Öneri Biyosfer içerisinde yirmi beş köy bulunmaktadır. Yedi köy de bu alan içersinde arazi sahibi olup çeşitli faaliyetler yürütmektedirler. (aşağıdaki haritada ortada).

Yıldız Dağları zengin bir kültürel mirasa sahiptir (yukarıdaki haritada sağda). Bölgeye ilk olarak M.Ö. 2000 yılında Karadeniz Kıyısı boyunca Traklar yerleşmiştir. M.Ö. 74 yılında bu kıyı yerleşimleri Roma Đmparatorluğuna geçmiştir. Bölge Osmanlılar tarafından ilk olarak 1362-63 yıllarında işgale maruz kalmış ve 1452 yılında Osmanlı egemenliğine girmiştir. Birbiri ardına devam eden göç dalgası, köylerdeki çoğu ailenin farklı kökenleri tarafından yakın zamanlara kadar devam etmiştir (örn. Bosnalılar, Bulgarlar, Yunanlılar). Arkeolojik sit alanları şöyledir: Trakya mezarları özellikle Demirköy çevresinde; dolmenler Demirköy ve Dereköy’de; ve Fatih (Osmanlı) döneminden kalma dökümhaneler. Tarihi varlıklar, Sislioba’da Cenevizliler’den kalma bir kale (Đstanbul’daki Ayasofya’nın küçük bir versiyonu), Vize’de bir mağara manastırı, bir antik tiyatro ve bir kale, ve Kıyıköy’de Aya Nikola manastırını kapsamaktadır. Aya Nikola Manastırı, 1362-63 yılındaki Osmanlı işgalinden önceki Bizans dönemini temsil eder. Đğneada ve Kıyıköy’deki Karadeniz limanları; Bulgaristan sınırında, Sislioba-Karacadağ ve Panayır Denizlimanı arasında bulunan tarihi bir ticaret yolu olması dolayısıyla ayrıca tarihi bir öneme sahiptir. Yıldız Dağları tarafından sunulan başlıca ekosistem mal ve hizmetlerinin değerlendirmesi; istihsal edilen odun ve odun dışı orman ürünlerinin (ODOÜ) yıllık değerlerinin sırasıyla yaklaşık olarak 9.9 milyon €; ve 2.4 milyon €olduğunu göstermektedir. Bu, öneri Biyosfer ormanlarında tutulan Karbon’un 44.0 - 445.5 milyon €luk potansiyel ekonomik değeriyle karşılaştırılmaktadır. Bu tahminler, yaklaşık değerler olmasına rağmen, diğer mal ve hizmetlerin pazar değerinden daha fazla öneme sahip bu ekosistem hizmetinin potansiyel değeri olduğu kadar, özellikle CO2 ve `Sera Gazları`nın oluşmasına karşı koymada, öneri Biyosfer tarafından sağlanan ekonomik anlamdaki önemli fonksiyonları işaret etmektedir. Öneri Biyosferin temel biyolojik çeşitlilik değerleri aşağıdakileri kapsamaktadır:

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Ulusal değere sahip iki Önemli Bitki Alanı, Yıldız Dağları (Istranca Dağları) ve Đğneada Longoz öneri biyosfer içerisinde yer almaktadır; bir üçüncüsü Kasatura ve Terkos kısmen içerdedir.



Güvenilir olarak toplamda 1,378 bitki türü (taksa) (1,295 tür) öneri biyosfer ve onun yakın çevresinde kaydedilmiştir. Bu yaklaşık olarak Türkiye florasının %12’sini, (yaklaşık 10, 590 tür) ve Avrupa florasının %6.3’ünü (yaklaşık 20,590 tür) temsil eder. Onyedi tür endemiktir. Sadece

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Bu taksaların sekizi (yedi tür) öneri Biyosfer içerisinden kaydedilmemiştir.

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Mahya Dağında bulunan Allium rumelicum sp. nova, ve sadece Kıyıköy’de bulunan Jurinea turnica sp. nova da dahil olmak üzere dört tür kritik tehdit, beş tür ise tehdit altındadır. 

Ormanlar toplam alanın %82’sini kaplamaktadır. Bunların da % 81’i kışın yaprağını dökenler, %1’i ise iğne yapraklılardır (çoğunlukla dikilmiş); otlaklar ve tarım alanları %16, su birikintileri %1’dir. Sırasıyla %65 ve %16 ‘lık bir alanı kaplayan meşe ve sahil ormanları çoğunluktadır.



Yirmi altı EUNIS habitat türü temsil edilmekte olup, en baskın olan türler; tüm EUNIS habitat türlerinin %65’ini oluşturan Pannonian-Balkan Türkiye sapsız meşe ormanları, Batı Karadeniz sahil ormanları (%16) ve yarı-doğal kuru otlaklar ve kalkerli yerlerde bulunan bodur çalılıklardır (%16).



Öneri biyosferin faunal envanteri şu türleri içerir: 74 kelebek, 41 güve, 12 kızböceği, 21 yusufçuk, 28 tatlısu balığı, 9 amfibi, 27 sürüngen, 264 kuş ve 65 memeli. Ayrıca Karadeniz kıyı kesimlerinden 121 deniz balığı türü kaydedilmiştir.



264 kuş türünün 105’i yörede üreyen, 7’si muhtemel ve 16’sı muhtemel üreyendir. Yıldız Dağları, orman söğütbülbülü, altın ağaçkakan ve yeşil düdükçün için Türkiye’de bilinen tek üreme bölgesidir.



Yıldız Dağlarında karst oluşumlarına bağlı olarak pek çok mağara vardır ve öneri biyosfer içerisindeki ve çevresindeki 26’sı araştırılmıştır. Bunlar yarasalar için özellikle önemli olup, sekiz türü kapsayan 40.000 yarasa yaz ve kış araştırmalarında kayıt edilmiştir. Öneri biyosfer içerisindeki 12 mağaradan biri olan Dupnisa, bölgedeki en önemli yeraltı mağara sitemlerinden bir tanesidir ve Balkanlar içerisinde bilinen, kış uykusunu geçirmekte olan en büyük yarasa kolonisini barındırmaktadır. (beş türü temsil eden yaklaşık 25.600 yarasa). Bölgede bulunan mağaralardan, bilim için yeni olduğu kabul edilen üç türünde (bir yalancı-akrep Neobisium hazalae sp. nova; ve iki örümcek Harpactea coramani sp. nova ve Centromerus bumadi sp. nova içerisinde yer aldığı kırk omurgasız türü kaydedilmiştir.



Önemli agro-biyolojik çeşitlilik araştırmaları yerli büyükbaş hayvanların iki türünü; boz ırk ve yerli kara ve bir yerli koyun cinsi olan kıvırcığı kapsar. Ayrıca, kovan temizliği ile ilgili eşsiz bir davranış gösteren ve Varroa arı bitine karşı dirençli olan bal arısının yerli bir ırkı vardır. Geleneksel bitki çeşitleri ve bunların yabani akrabaları hakkında henüz çok az şey bilinmektedir.

Ön Yönetim Planı – Vizyon ve Hedefler Yönetim Ön Planı, öneri Biyosferin gelecekteki yönetimi için, 20-yıllık bir vizyonu ve şu anda bu vizyonun gerçekleşmesini engelleyen tehditleri ve diğer kısıtları vurulayan 11 hedefi tanımlamaktadır. Her hedefin altında, öncelikleri gösteren ve/veya önümüzdeki iki üç yıl içerisinde düzenli olarak gerçekleştirilebilir olan bir faaliyetler dizisi tanımlanmıştır. Bunların; açıkça tanımlanmış ve kabul edilmiş, kaynakları tanımlanmış ve sorumlu birimleri belirlenmiş olarak zaman çizelgesine dayalı bir (kurumlar, köyler, kooperatifler STK’lar vs.) Eylem Planı’na dönüştürülmesi gerekir. Plan: 

Proje süresinin (bir yıldan daha kısa) önemli bir bilimsel araştırmanın yürütülmesi ve katılımcı ve görüşbirliğine dayalı bir süreç için çok kısa olduğu Proje’nin başından beri bilinmekteydi. Bu gibi katılımcı süreçler en az bir yıl, koruma statüsü gerçekleştirilmiş yerler içinde iki yıl süre gerektirir. Oluşturma aşamasındaki yıllar ise özellikle paydaşlarla mutabakat sağlamak ve onların kapasitelerini geliştirmek açısından çok daha fazla süre gerektirir. Bu nedenle yönetim zonlarının katılımcı bir yaklaşımla rafine edilmesi için daha fazla zamana gereksinim duyulacaktır.



Biyosfer için bir yönetim yapısı geliştirilip Çevre ve Orman Bakanlığı tarafından kabul edildiğinde bir Yönetim Komitesi ve kilit paydaşlardan oluşacak Danışma Kurulunu (daha önce PÇG’ye

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dayaklı) kurmak için yetersiz zaman kalmıştı. Bu yüzden, Plan içerisinde tanımlanan faaliyetleri yürütmek için gerekli kaynakların tanımlanması, kabul edilmesi ve tahsisi gereklidir. Paydaşlar tarafından oluşturulan 20-yıllık vizyon; öneri biyosferin görevini ve doğa ve insanların ihtiyaçlarını göstermek için bir zonlama sistemi vasıtasıyla sürdürülebilir şekilde nasıl yönetileceğini açıkça tanımlamaktadır. (aşağıdaki kutu)

Yıldız Dağları Biyosferi Đçin 20 Yıllık Vizyon Yıldız Dağları, yöre halkının, ziyaretçilerin ve toplumun uzun dönemde faydalanmaları için devamlı temiz hava, temiz su, yabani bitki ve hayvanların artan miktarları ile, büyük ölçüde doğal peyzaja sahip, ekolojik olarak bütünlük içersinde bir ekosistem olarak işlev görmeye devam edecektir. Bu faydalar şunları kapsayacaktır; •

Doğal kaynakların sürdürülebilir kullanımı temeline dayanan, yöre halkının geçim ihtiyaçlarını karşılamak,



Tomruk, odun, karbon tutulması ve su temini gibi toplum ihtiyaçlarının karşılanmasına geniş ölçüde katkıda bulunmak,



Doğal ve kültürel kaynakların güzelliklerinden ziyaretçilerin başkalarını rahatsız etmeksizin faydalanmalarını sağlamak, ve



Eğitim, öğretim ve bilimsel araştırma için fırsatlar sağlamak.

Yıldız Dağlarının doğal, kültürel, sosyal ve tarihi mirası korunacak ve yöre halkının ve ziyaretçilerin faydalanmasına sunulacaktır. Doğal kaynaklar, yöre halkı ve kamu kurumları arasında tesis edilecek ortaklık yoluyla sürdürülebilir olarak yönetilecek ve korunacak, yönetim hedefleri, biyosfer rezerv kavramına uygun bir zonlama sistemi ile belirlenecektir. Ekosistem bütünlüğü ve bunun sürdürülebilir yönetimi, Bulgaristan tarafındaki Strandja Dağlarının yönetiminden sorumlu yetkililer ve toplumla işbirliği yoluyla geliştirilecektir.

Bu vizyonu yerine getirmek için 11 yönetim hedefi aşağıdaki şekildedir: 

Hedef 1: Önemli ve hassas habitatların, türlerin, estetik ve yöreye has peysajin korunmasıyla biyolojik çeşitliliğin korunması



Hedef 2: Türlerin, habitatların ve ekosistem ürünleri ve hizmetlerinin sürdürülebilir kullanımı ile biyolojik çeşitliliğin korunması Hedef 3: Doğal ve kültürel kaynak esaslarının sürdürülebilir kullanımı ile Yıldız Dağları toplumlarının sürdürülebilir ekonomik ve sosyal gelişimi Hedef 4: Koruma, sürdürülebilir kullanım ve işlevsel etkisi olan politika, yasal ve kurumsal çerçeve ve Vizyon için halkta bir farkındalık ve destek yaratarak Yıldız Dağları toplumlarının sosyal ve ekonomik gelişimi vasıtasıyla biyolojik çeşitliliğin korunmasına yeterli bir çevresel destek oluşturmak Hedef 5: Yönetim planını uygulama ve uzun vadeli vizyona ulaşmak için Yıldız Dağları Biyosferinin finansal sürdürülebilirliğini sağlamak Hedef 6: Uygun ve etkili planlama prosedürü ile potansiyel enerji ve altyapı gelişiminin zararlı etkilerinden tabiat ve ekosistem değerlerinin korunması Hedef 7: Azaltma, geri dönüşüm, arıtma ve yok etme aracılığıyla atık yönetimi Hedef 8: Sosyal, ekonomik ve çevresel sürece ilişkin anlayışı artırmak için araştırma ve izleme ve yönetimin uyarlanabilirliğini sağlamak Hedef 9: Yıldız Dağları biyosferinin günümüz ve gelecek nesiller için bir eğitim kaynağı olarak gelişimini sağlamak

 

    

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Hedef 10: Ziyaretçi deneyimini artırmak için ziyaretçi yönetimi ve Yıldız Dağları ana değerlerinin korunması Hedef 11: Hassas arkeolojik yapıların korunması ve yerel gelenekler, sanatlar, el sanatları ve adetlerin geliştirilmesi ile kültürel değerlerin korunması

Bu hedeflerin ve ilgili faaliyetlerin gelişimini izlemek ve değerlendirmek için gerekli çerçeve ve buna ilişkin faaliyetler bu plan içerisinde verilmiştir. Ön Yönetim Planı – Yönetim Bölgeleri Su basman ormanları ve buna bağlı olarak Đğneada Longoz Ormanları Milli Parkı’nda olduğu gibi doğal göller oluşturan hidrolojik öneme sahip birkaç su havzası (aşağıdaki haritada solda, yeşil gölgeli yer) belirlenmiştir. Bu hidrolojik rejimlere karşı, suyun çekilmesi veya kirlilikten dolayı suyun kalitesindeki bozulma gibi müdahaleler, bu gibi eşsiz habitatların ve onların biyolojik çeşitliliğinin devamını tehdit edecektir. Bu yüzden, su havzalarının eko-hidrolojik karakteristikleri, öneri Yıldız Dağları Biyosferi’nin ana bölgeler, tampon bölgeler ve geçiş bölgelerini içerisine bölgelenmesi için bir temel olarak kullanılmıştır. (Aşağıdaki haritada, sağda)

Yüksek ölçüde bitki türü çeşitliliği olan onbir sıcak nokta tanımlanmıştır. (Aşağıdaki haritada, solda). Dokuz mağara; (Bağlar, Ceneviz, Domuzdere, Dupnisa*, Kız*, Kovantaşı*, Kuru*, Ocak, ve Yenesu), Doğa Rezervi olarak acil koruma için Yüksek Koruma Önceliği hak etmektedir ve sekiz mağara, (Bostanlıktarla*, Çatalyol*, Kale III, Kıyıköy*, Mermer*, Pestilin, Tirfez*, ve Uzuntarla)’nın 2873 sayılı Milli Parklar Kanunu altında Doğal Anıt statüsü alması önerilmiştir. Bu dokuz mağara öneri Yıldız Dağları Biyosferi içerisinde yer almaktadır. Bunlar öneri biyosfer zonlama planı doğrultusunda aşağıda gösterilmiştir. (aşağıdaki haritada, sağda).

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Đdare ve Yönetişim Yıldız Dağları Biyosferinin kurulması için gerekli yasal esaslar hakkında bazı endişeler olmuştur. Ancak, UNESCO’nun önerisi şöyledir; her nerede mümkünse, biyosferler mevcut yasal yapı içerisinde kurulmalıdır, tek gereksinim şudur ki; çekirdek bölgelerin yasal koruma statüsü vardır. Türkiye’deki mevcut yasal hükümlerin çekirdek bölgelerin korunması için yeterli olduğu ve tampon bölgeler ile geçiş bölgeleri için ilave yasalara gerek olmadığı üzerinde mutabık kalınmıştır. Bu nedenle, Yıldız Dağları Biyosferi’nin kurulumu herhangi bir yasal girişim olmaksızın ilerleyebilir. Biyosfer yönetiminin iki komite tarafından yürütülmesi gerektiği konusunda mutabık kalınmıştır. Bunlar, yönetim planının planlama ve yürütmesini denetlemek ve bu planın bir hazırlık planı olmaktan çıkıp tam bir yönetim planı şeklinde gelişmesinden sorumlu bir idari Yönetim Komitesi ve karar verme aşamasında geniş bir paydaş grubunun katılabileceği bir Danışma Komitesidir. Yönetim Komitesi için bir görev tanımı üzerinde anlaşılmıştır ve bunun üyelik düzenlemesi aşağıdaki gibi olacaktır.    

Kırklareli Valiliği (Başkanlık Makamı) Đl Çevre ve Orman Müdürlüğü Orman Bölge Müdürlüğü Đlçe Orman Müdürlükleri (Demirköy, Kırklareli ve Vize)  Kırklareli Đl Özel Đdaresi  Orman Genel Müdürlüğü

 Doğa Koruma ve Milli Parklar Genel Müdürlüğü  Tarım Đl Müdürlüğü  Kültür ve Turizm Đl Müdürlüğü  Belediye Başkanlıklarının temsilcileri  Bağımsız temsilciler (en fazla iki)  Danışma Komitesi Başkanı

Yönetim Komitesi’nin başkanlığının Kırklareli Valiliği tarafından yürütülmesi gerektiği ve Başkan Yardımcısının Biyosfer içerisindeki en büyük ekonomik faaliyeti temsil eden ormancılık sektöründen birisi olması gerektiğinde anlaşılmıştır. Danışma Komitesi, Biyosfer içerisinde yaşayan ve çalışan insanlara politika ve yönetim hükümlerine katılma fırsatı sağlayan, bu insanların seslerini duyurabileceği bir forumdur. Öncelikle köylerin temsilcileri, kooperatifler ve birlikler, belediyeler, sivil toplum ve özel sektör kuruluşları, avcılar, askeriye, genç insanlar ve kadınlar ile mevcut Paydaş Çalışma Grubu üzerinde kurulacaktır. Başkan ve Başkan yardımcısı başlangıçta iki yıllık bir sure için Danışma Komitesinin üyeleri tarafından seçilecektir. Danışma Komitesi, Yönetim Komitesi’nden önce toplanacak ve benzer bir toplantı gündemi olacaktır. Bu nedenle Danışma Komitesi’nin başkanı Yönetim Komitesi’ne, tartışılan konular hakkında yöre insanlarının görüşlerini bildiren net bir fikirle katılacak ve bu görüşlerin Yönetim Komitesi’ne sunumundan sorumlu olacaktır. Yönetim Komitesi’nin alacağı kararlarda Danışma Komitesi’nin görüşlerini yansıtacağı umulmaktadır. Aksi halde, Danışma Komitesi Başkanı’na, Danışma Komitesi’nin görüşlerinin neden yok sayıldığı veya reddedildiğine dair açıklayıcı sebepler verilmelidir. Bunu desteklemek için Đl Çevre ve Orman Müdürlüğü bünyesinde bir Biyosfer Destek Birimi kurulacaktır. Bu birimin amacı, Yönetim Komitesi’nin yönetim planı hedeflerini başarma sorumluluğuna katkıda bulunmak için faaliyetler başlatmaktır. Bu birimin başlangıçta üç kişiden daha fazla olması gerekmemektedir. Personel gereksinimini bölgede şu anda var olan diğer kurumlardan yapılacak görevlendirmeler karşılamalıdır.

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Finansal sürdürülebilirlik hakkında öneriler, Ön Yönetim Planı içerisinde sağlanmıştır. Öneri Biyosfer bir takım finansal avantajlarla donatılmıştır. Bunlar; Yıldız Dağları’nın yönetimi ve gelişiminde büyük ve küçük miktarlarda kullanılan bütçeleri Yönetim Komitesi üyelerinin kullanım hakkı ve mevcut mekanizmalar, özellikle bölgede bulunan kereste ve ormanlardan elde dilen diğer ürünleri hasat etmek için kooperatifler, yerel halk ve ilgili hükümet birimlerine gelen faydalar ve ortaklıklar; örneğin Biyosfer içerisindeki kaynakları araştırma ve izlemede kazanılmış hak sahibi olan bir takım akademik kuruluşlardır. Doğal kaynak yönetimi Öneri Biyosfer içerisindeki doğal kaynakların, gelecekteki yönetimi için sürdürülebilir ve adilane bir yaklaşım geliştirirken, köy kooperatifleri, avcılık ve arıcılık birlikleri, özel girişimler ve kişisel girişimler gibi mevcut yönetim sisteminin güçlü yönleri ve sınırlamaları hesaba katılmıştır. Tüm kaynak kullanımının, ilgili hükümet birimleri ve kısmen Orman Đşletme Müdürlükleri ile geliştirilen yönetim anlaşmalarıyla uyumlu olarak köy kooperatifleri üzerinden yönlendirilmesi ile, Toplumesaslı bir doğal kaynak yönetim planı sistemi önerilmiştir. Bu yaklaşımın içeriği; sınırlı malzeme, insani ve finansal kaynak ile Yıldız Dağları’ndaki doğal kaynakların en etkili yönetim biçimi, akıllı yönetim için teşvik sağlayan sürdürülebilir kullanım ile karşılıklı anlaşmaya dayalı bir süreç üzerinden olacaktır. Aşırı sömürmeye engel olmak ve yerel nüfusun haklarının teslim edildiğinden emin olmak amacıyla, mevcut gelir üretme faaliyetleri veya yeni kuruluşların tanıtılmasının ötesinde, doğal kaynakların sürdürülebilir kullanımı için bu gibi yönetim sistemlerini devreye sokmak zaruridir. Doğal kaynakları kapsayan bir dizi yönetim anlaşmaları için bir çerçeve, kooperatifler, birlikler ve il kamu kurumlarını kapsayan bir çalıştayda geliştirilmiştir. Bu çerçeve, Başlangıç Yönetim Planı içerisinde açıklanan örnek altında, pilot TEDKY (toplum esaslı doğal kaynak yönetimi) için bir esas teşkil etmektedir.

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1.

INTRODUCTION

1.1. RATIONALE FOR SELECTION OF YILDIZ MOUNTAINS AS A BIOSPHERE The proposed Yildiz Mountains Biosphere (121,800 ha7) lies in north-western Turkey, an area commonly referred to as European Turkey, Trakya or Eastern Thrace. The Yildiz Mountains abut the Black Sea and extend into Bulgaria where they are known as the Strandja Mountains, much of which are protected within Strandja Nature Park (116,068.50 ha), Bulgaria’s largest nature park. Thus, establishment of the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere will contribute to the formation of a single, contiguous, trans-border protected areas system of some 237,869 ha (Figure 1.1).

Figure 1.1 Potential trans-border biosphere complex comprising Strandja Nature Park in Bulgaria and proposed Yildiz Mountains Biosphere in Turkey In 1992 at a conference of European Ministers for the environment, held in Lucerne (Switzerland), Yıldız Mountains was identified as one of the five most important areas in Central and East Europe for conservation of European natural heritage. Biologically the Yildiz Mountains represents the far west end of the Euxin flora elements range and the furthest southern edge of the Balcanic and Middle Europe types. Yıldız Dağları (Istranca Dağları) and Iğneada Longoz are two nationally Important Plant Areas (IPAs) within the proposed Biosphere; and a third IPA, Kasatura and Terkos, lies partly inside the area (Figure 1.2). 7

The area of the proposed Biosphere was originally estimated to be 130,000 ha but this was revised to 121,800 ha, based on spherical GIS measurements with a geographic projection (Latitude-Longitude WGS-84 Datum).

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Figure 1.2 Location of IPAs in proposed Yildiz Mountains Biosphere: Iğneada Longoz (top right), Yıldız/Istranca Mountain (bottom left) and Kasatura and Terkos (bottom right) The fauna is very typical of middle European fauna. The location of the proposed Biosphere along the western coast of the Black Sea lies within an important section of a major Palaearctic migratory flyway for birds. There are many tertiary relicts among the plant and invertebrate species although the invertebrate fauna is still poorly investigated. An extensive area of karst formation is contained within and adjoins the proposed biosphere. A recent survey has as so far revealed twenty-six caves, documented 40 invertebrate cave-dwelling species of which three are thought to be new to science (2 spiders, Araneae, and 1 pseudoscorpion, Pseudoscorpionida). In addition to this it is estimated that approximately 42,000 bats use many of these caves as either nursery and hibernation roosts. 4 of the caves (Tirfez, Kuru, Pestilin, and Ceneviz caves) have also revealed significant archaeological finds. The Yildiz Mountains have a rich human history. People have been a part of the landscape and ecosystem for millennia; indeed, their activities have shaped the landscape and their activities are responsible for many of the values that people now seek to protect. The communities of Yildiz Mountains are part of this heritage and the future management of the area.

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1.2. BIOSPHERE CONCEPT UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme is one of the most innovative and flexible initiatives that focuses on the reconciliation of biodiversity and natural resources preservation through protection with their sustainable use. In other words, it is concerned with conservation in the full sense of this word8. The Programme is based on the establishment of a world network of biosphere reserves, of which there are currently 531 in 105 countries. Biosphere reserves are defined as9: “areas of terrestrial and coastal/marine ecosystems or a combination thereof, which are internationally recognized within the framework of UNESCO’s Programme on Man and the Biosphere (MAB).” The biosphere reserve concept addresses the need to reconcile preservation of biodiversity within protected areas, often at a level larger than a single ecosystem, with the human development needs of the local and wider community. As such it represents an innovative approach to conservation (UNESCO10): “Biosphere reserves are much like laboratories where new and optimal practices to manage nature and human activities are tested and demonstrated. They outpace traditional confined conservation zones, combining core protected areas with zones where sustainable development is fostered by local dwellers and enterprises. Their governance systems are often highly innovative. In some cases, new legislation can be introduced.” In accordance with the Statutory Framework of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves: Individual biosphere reserves remain under the sovereign jurisdiction of the States where they are situated. Under the present Statutory Framework, States take the measures which they deems necessary according to their national legislation. (Article 2.3) Furthermore, States are encouraged to elaborate and implement national criteria for biosphere reserves which take into account the special conditions of the State concerned. Such flexibility includes the option for States to use appropriate alternative terminology, such as biosphere regions, areas etc for the term biosphere reserves11. In the case of Yildiz Mountains it has been agreed to omit the term ‘reserve’ because this generates confusion among stakeholders that this is about protection rather than conservation of biodiversity and natural resources. Thus, the term biosphere is used throughout this document with reference to Yildiz Mountains.

8

Conservation is defined in the World Conservation Strategy as: “the management of human use of the biosphere so that it may yield the greatest sustainable benefit to present generations while maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of future generations. Thus conservation is positive, embracing preservation, maintenance, sustainable utilization, restoration, and enhancement of the natural environment. Living resource conservation is specifically concerned with plants, animals and microorganisms, and with those non-living elements on which they depend. Living resources have two important properties the combination of which distinguishes them from non-living resources: they are renewable if conserved; and they are destructible of not.” (IUCN-UNEP-WWF, 1980). 9 Statutory Framework of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves (UNESCO, 1996) 10 http://portal.unesco.org/science/en/ev.php-URL_ID=6941&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html 11 “At all levels, the term biosphere reserve is recommended for use, while respecting the wish of individual MAB National Committees and/or biosphere reserve authorities to use appropriate alternative terminology, such as biosphere regions, areas, territories, etc.” (Madrid Action Plan for Biosphere Reserves, 2008-2013)

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Biospheres are designed to fulfil three complimentary functions: 

Conservation – to preserve genetic resources, species, ecosystems and landscapes.



Development – to foster sustainable economic and human development.



Logistic support – to support demonstration projects, environmental education and training, research and monitoring related to local, national and global issues of conservation and sustainable development.

Figure 1.3 Schematic representation of the functions of a Biosphere Reserve and their distribution within core, buffer and transition areas. Importantly, this model is flexible and can be designed to accommodate the local socio-cultural and economic context. Physically, as shown in Figure 1.3, a Biosphere Reserve should contain three elements (UNESCO, 1996): 

one or more core areas, which are securely protected for biodiversity conservation, monitoring minimally disturbed ecosystems, and undertaking non-destructive research and other low-impact uses such as education;



clearly identified buffer zones, which usually surround or adjoin core areas, and are used for co-operative activities compatible with sound ecological practices, including environmental education, recreation, ecotourism and research; and



flexible transition areas, or areas of co-operation, which may contain a variety of agricultural activities, settlements and other uses in which local villages, management agencies, scientists, non-government organisations, cultural groups, economic interests and other stakeholders work together to manage and sustainably develop the area’s resources.

Although originally envisaged as a series of concentric rings, the three zones have been implemented in many different ways to meet local needs and conditions, emphasising the creativity and flexibility with which the concept has been realised around the world. Some countries have enacted legislation specifically to establish Biosphere Reserves but many others apply existing national legislation to designate core areas and buffer zones as protected areas. The minimum requirement is that the core area must be legally constituted or devoted to long-term protection according to the conservation objectives of the biosphere reserve and large

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enough to meet these objectives. Ownership arrangements are also flexible. Core areas are mostly state-owned but can also be privately owned or belong to non-governmental organisations. Buffer zones tend to be in private or community ownership, and this is generally the case for transition areas. Further details concerning the general criteria for an area to be internationally recognised as a Biosphere Reserve are defined in Article 4 of the Statutory Framework of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves, which is reproduced in Box 1.1. Box 1.1

Statutory Framework of World Network of Biosphere Reserves (UNESCO, 1996)

Article 4 – Criteria General criteria for an area to be qualified for designation as a biosphere reserve: 2. It should encompass a mosaic of ecological systems representative of major biogeographic regions, including a gradation of human interventions. 3. It should be of significance for biological diversity conservation. 4. It should provide an opportunity to explore and demonstrate approaches to sustainable development on a regional scale. 5. It should have an appropriate size to serve the three functions of a biosphere reserves, as set out in Article 3. 6. It should include the functions, through appropriate zonation, recognizing: (a) a legally constituted core area or areas devoted to long-term protection, according to the conservation objectives of the biosphere reserve, and of sufficient size to meet these objectives; (b) a buffer zone or zones clearly identified and surrounding or contiguous to the core area or areas, where only activities compatible with the conservation objectives can take place; (c) an outer transition area where sustainable resource management practices are promoted and developed. 7. Organizational arrangements should be provided for the involvement and participation of a suitable range of inter alia public authorities, local communities and private interests in the design and carrying out the functions of a biosphere reserve. 8. In addition, provisions should be made for: (a) mechanisms to manage human use and activities in the buffer zone or zones; (b) a management policy or plan for the area as a biosphere reserve; (c) a designated authority or mechanism to implement this policy or plan; (d) programmes for research and monitoring, education and training.

1.3. 20-YEAR VISION FOR YILDIZ MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE A 20-year vision for Yildiz Mountains Biosphere has been developed by stakeholders during the process, described in Section 2.5, of developing this Preliminary Management Plan. The vision, presented in Box 1.2 incorporates the following principles: 

Maintaining the integrity of the Yildiz Mountains ecosystem is of paramount importance for its effective, long-term functioning. Thus, the sustainable management of the natural resources within an area that is large enough to encompass the diversity of habitats and species that comprise the ecosystem and allow for plant and animal populations to remain viable is fundamental.



Maintaining the integrity of the Yildiz Mountains ecosystem can be further enhanced by cross-border cooperation with Bulgaria to ensure that the Biosphere and adjacent Strandja Nature Park are managed by the respective state authorities and local communities in a consistent and integrated manner.

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Box 1.2

20-year Vision for Yildiz Mountains Biosphere

The Yildiz Mountains will continue to function as an ecologically intact ecosystem, characterised by a predominantly natural landscape that is sustained by clean air, pure water and thriving populations of wild plants and animals for the long-term benefit of its local communities, visitors and society at large. Such benefits will include: ▪ meeting the livelihood needs of local communities, based on sustainable use of its natural resources; ▪ contributing more widely to the needs of society through, for example, provision of timber, carbon sequestration and water, using innovative and equitable mechanisms that return benefits to local communities and others who bear the costs of conservation; ▪ providing for quiet enjoyment of its beauty, and natural and cultural resources by visitors; and ▪ providing opportunities for education and scientific research. The natural, cultural, social and historic heritage of Yildiz Mountains will be protected and interpreted for the benefit of local communities and visitors. Local communities will be socially and economically prosperous. The natural resources will be managed sustainably and protected through partnerships between the local communities and public agencies, and management objectives will be realised through a system of zonation in accordance with the biosphere reserve concept. The integrity of the ecosystem and its sustainable management will be enhanced by cooperation with the authorities and communities responsible for managing the adjacent Strandja Mountains on the Bulgarian side of the international border.



The natural and cultural heritage will be conserved by means of: protecting the unique, threatened and rare elements or features; and sustainably using natural resources in accordance with appropriate management regimes.



Such regimes will be based on models of community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) that involve partnerships between cooperatives, associations and other types of registered community-based or common interest groups and the relevant government agencies responsible for the resource.



The Yildiz Mountains ecosystem provides a wide range of services that benefit its residents, visitors and society at large. Such services as carbon sequestration and clean water are usually taken for granted but they are dependent on the agencies and local communities involved in the management and custodianship of these resources. Thus, mechanisms need to be developed to ensure that benefits of such services enjoyed by society at large are also shared with the local communities via the responsible government agencies. Also, such benefits should only be made available to society at large if they can be sustained without impacting the ecological functioning of the Yildiz Mountains ecosystem. Thus, for example, water should only be diverted from rivers and other water bodies in Yildiz Mountains Biosphere if it is environmentally sustainable. Moreover, some financial or other benefit should be provided by the users of this water in return for its supply. While it is recognised that existing legislation and policies do not support such an approach, this is part of the long-term vision for Yildiz Mountains Biosphere.

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2.

BACKGROUND

2.1. YILDIZ MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE PROJECT Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project, the abbreviated name for Service Contract TR 0602.1601/001 Technical Assistance for Protection and Sustainable Development of Natural Resources and Biodiversity in the Yildiz Mountains in Turkey (EuropeAid/125289/D/SER/TR), was implemented between December 2008 and November 2009 as a first step towards planning the establishment of the proposed Biosphere. The overall objective of the Project, as stated in the Terms of Reference, is: “Sustainable cross-border cooperation developed and strengthened for the conservation, and sustainable development of natural resources and biodiversity of the Yildiz Mountain”. Its purpose is: “To serve the long term and large scale protection of biodiversity of Yildiz Mountains (Istranca forest) on the Turkish side of the region by carrying out inventories and mapping, designing zonation, developing management plans and implementing management within the established UNESCO Man and Biosphere Reserve”. Key results expected from the Project were: 1. Inventory and the planning of the Yildiz Mountains as a biosphere reserve, including the preparation of the nomination dossier for submission to UNESCO, and this feasibility study for the preparation of a management plan for the area. 2. Improved cooperation between relevant Turkish and Bulgarian institutions with respect to the conservation and sustainable use of natural resources in the Yildiz Mountains. 3. Training and awareness raising by means of: (a) Establishing a fully operational Training Centre in Kirklareli; (b) Increasing the institutional capacity of Ministry staff responsible for the Project; and (c) Increased nature protection consciousness and ecological understanding in the crossborder region. 4. Supervision of renovation works for the establishment of a new training centre at Dereköy. The main activities and their principal components undertaken as part of the process of establishing a functioning biosphere are summarized in Box 2.1. An important distinction between this Project and a previous GEF II Project (Section 2.2) has been its main thrust to establish plans for a much larger biosphere reserve, with considerable emphasis on local stakeholder participation in its planning and management. Furthermore, there has been much greater importance placed upon community-based sustainable use as a conservation tool and the need to establish a strong system of governance within the proposed Biosphere. By contrast, the GEF II Project, which was concerned primarily with the establishment of Iğneada Longoz Forest National Park, necessarily adopted a different approach to conservation by seeking to offset opportunity costs of protecting the Longoz Forest with a programme of alternative livelihoods and resource replacement activities. In short, whereas the GEF II Project was concerned with the establishment of a core area, within which there are no permanent settlements, the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project has had to embrace both ‘parks and people’.

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Box 2.1

Activities undertaken by Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project (12.08-11.09)

1. Inventory and planning of Yildiz Mountains as a biosphere reserve  Biodiversity, landscape and hydro-ecological surveys  Land use/vegetation, habitat and landscape surveys  hydro-ecological surveys  biodiversity (flora, vertebrate fauna, cave fauna, butterflies and dragonflies)  Stakeholder participation in management planning  Ecosystem services assessment and socio-economic surveys  Information management system, including GIS and website  Management planning and biosphere reserve nomination  Monitoring frameworks 2. Cross-border cooperation with Bulgarian counterparts in Strandja Nature Park 3. Environmental training, education and awareness  Training courses and materials for 11-15 year-old children  Business plan for Dereköy Nature Training Centre 4. Capacity building  Capacity building among MoEF in conservation and sustainable development  Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) 5. Awareness/communication/information 6. Supervision of the Dereköy Nature Training Centre renovation works

2.2. PREVIOUS PROJECTS Biodiversity and Natural Resource Management Project, GEF-II, Đğneada (2000 – 2007) This was a joint Turkish-World Bank Project primarily aimed at the conservation of selected forest, wetland, steppe and alpine ecosystem representative of Turkey’s four major biogeographic regions. One of the pilot sites was Đğneada, with its alluvial forest and associated aquatic and coastal ecosystems of the Thracean Black Sea coast. Objectives for Đğneada included preparing a participatory management plan, supporting income generation activities and building capacity. Twinning Project - Capacity Building in the Field of Environment for Turkey, Component 3: Nature, TR02-EN-01 This aimed to establish the necessary institutional capacity to transpose and implement the EU Nature Conservation Directives, namely the Birds Directive (79/409/EEC) and the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC), as well as the CITES Convention and related European Regulations (EEC/362/82, EEC/3418/83 and EC/338/97) has resulted in a number of national and international initiatives relevant to the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project: 

LIFE Project concerning the establishment of a biosphere reserve in Çukurova Delta.



The signing of a memorandum of understanding between the Turkish Ministry of Environment and Forestry and the Bulgarian Ministry of Environment and Water.



Cultural exchanges between the museums in Kırklareli and Brushlian.



Co-operation agreements signed between Plovdiv (Filibe) University and Trakya University, as well as between the Bulgarian Centre for Agricultural Sciences and the Turkish Directorate General for Agricultural Research.



Cooperation between the Ministry of Environment and Forestry in Ankara (responsible for several biosphere reserves in Turkey) and the Ministry of Environment in Sofia (responsible for biosphere reserves in Bulgaria).

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2.3. BIOSPHERE EXPERIENCE IN TURKEY There have been a number of recent initiatives in Turkey that have generated a body of experience relating to biosphere reserves, notably: 

The establishment of Camili Biosphere Reserve in 2005, Turkey’s first biosphere reserve12.



Joint project between MoEF and Çukurova University to plan Çukurova Delta Biosphere Reserve.



A workshop on Biosphere Reserves organised by Ministry of Environment and Forestry in cooperation with UNESCO MAB in Ankara on 13-14 May 2004.



A seminar on “MAB Biosphere Reserves and Cooperation between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey” hosted in Edirne on 6-8 July 2005 by MoEF and UNESCO.

The experience in establishing the Çukurova Delta Biosphere Reserve has emphasised the importance of a participatory process in planning and developing a sound governance system to ensure the needs of stakeholders are equitably represented in the decision-making process.

2.4. STAKEHOLDER PARTICIPATION IN MANAGEMENT PLANNING Conservation of biodiversity and natural resources, including their sustainable use, take place in a complex arena of driving forces which can be broadly identify as socio-political (or socioadministrative), economic and ecological. Implicit in any conservation strategy are a vast number of trade-offs between the socio-political, economic and ecological values that members of society judge to be important. As if this is not complicated enough, these values may change over time and their relative importance to each other creates an additional and dynamic layer of complexity. Explicit in the biosphere approach is the recognition of a broad and meaningful participation by all stakeholders, so that these value judgements can be transparently incorporated into a planning and management system that is the framework for the decision-making process. This is extremely important to the success or failure of a biosphere - because the decisions that are made by planners and managers will impact upon the stakeholders for better or worse. Stakeholder participation in the planning and management of the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere, therefore, is a critical component in its establishment and management. To ensure that meaningful participation takes place there has been an initial scoping exercise to identify the primary, secondary and tertiary stakeholders (Annex 1). This list is based on previous work undertaken for the Đğneada Longoz Forest National Park Management Plan, as part of the GEF II Biodiversity and Natural Resources Management Project. It has been updated and developed with respect to the much wider scope of the present Project, including re-analysis following its review at a process plan design workshop described in Section 2.5. Given that a biosphere is essentially an area managed by broad consensus, rather than any strict regime of enforcement, it is critical that there is an inclusive and meaningful engagement of stakeholders in the planning process and subsequent management of the biosphere.

12

http://www.unesco.org/mabdb/br/brdir/directory/biores.asp?mode=all&code=TUR+01

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2.5. PARTICIPATORY PROCESS A crucial part of the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project included the design of a participatory process to enable stakeholders to engage in the formulation (and subsequent implementation) of this Preliminary Management Plan. This process began with a workshop comprising members of the Project Support Unit (Ankara), Local Project Management and Implementation Unit (Kirklareli), Forestry District Directorate (Demirköy), local NGOs, Technical Assistance Team and other Experts. This workshop determined that: 

those residing in villages within or immediately peripheral to the boundary of the proposed biosphere may be considered to be the primary stakeholders because they are likely to be the most dependent on the area’s natural resources;



those living and working within the catchment area beyond the proposed Biosphere may be the secondary stakeholders, having a vested interest in the Yildiz Mountains but in most cases probably less direct dependence on their natural resources; and



national and international agencies and NGOs may be the tertiary stakeholders, distant from the resource but often having considerable influence over the way in which primary stakeholders are able to interact with the resource.

In designing a participatory process it is important to be aware of the different types of engagement with stakeholders, ranging from information provision with no opportunity for stakeholders to influence the outcome to open dialogue in which stakeholder aspirations can be met and decisions shared (Table 2.1). Processes were designed to be as open as possible, beginning with dialogue bounded only by existing legislation and policies, then moving into consultation mode as outputs, such as this Preliminary Management Plan, are drafted. Table 2.1 Spectrum of types of engagement with stakeholders and their respective potential for influencing decisions (Source: Harris, n.d.) ENGAGEMENT

FEATURES

Open dialogue

Decisions shared by stakeholders

Bounded dialogue

Decisions influenced by stakeholders

Consultation

Stakeholders have limited influence

Opinions

Information gathering Stakeholders provide info to inform decisions - no influence



Information giving

Stakeholders have opportunity to react

RESPONSES Needs/ aspirations 

Reactions

With respect to engaging with the primary stakeholders (31 villages), an initial event for giving and receiving information, followed up by meetings with different social and interest groups within the community provided the basis for establishing a dialogue in each village (Figure 2.1). These villages are listed in Table 2.2 and their locations can be found in Figure 3.1.

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Figure 2.1 Stakeholders engaging in the management planning process: Derekoy meeting (top left); ‘drop-in’ event (top right); cooperatives and muhtars examine CBNRM at workshop in Đğneada (bottom left); and women’s group (bottom right). Table 2.2 Villages surveyed during implementation of Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project

#

Village

Village

Village

Aksicim* Armağan* Armutveren Avcılar Balaban Beğendik Beypınar* Boztaş Cukurpınar* Demirköy Dereköy

Evciler* Gökyaka Hamdibey Hamidiye Incesırt Đğneada Karacadağ Karadere Karanlıkköy# Kışlacık Kıyıköy

Kızılağaç Kurudere* Limanköy Sarpdere Sislioba Sivriler Şükrüpaşa Yenice* Yeşilce Yiğitbaşı

Hamlet with only one old couple remaining; unable to engage in the process. * Lies outside proposed Biosphere.

Commensurate with the ongoing dialogue with villages, there was a series of events for government agencies, non-governmental organisations, research and educational institutions, private enterprises and members of the public to solicit their inputs to the management planning process. Issues involving conflicts of interest that emerged early on in the process were addressed through facilitated workshops, while other issues of common interest were the subject of focus groups. Meetings with individual organisations were also carried out throughout the process as time and resources allowed. This initial phase led to the establishment of a

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Stakeholder Working Group, providing a mechanism whereby representatives of village, government agencies, NGOs and other interest groups were able to engage with the management planning process. The establishment of the Stakeholder Working Group was followed by the appointment of a Management Planning Unit to provide technical inputs and guidance to the development of the Preliminary Management Plan. Outputs from the Stakeholder Working Group were input to the Management Planning Unit, incorporated into the plan as appropriate and output back to Stakeholder Working Group in an iterative, consensus manner. The Management Planning Unit comprised two representatives of the Stakeholder Working Group. The composition of these two groups is provided in Annex 2. Once a dialogue had been established with stakeholders, the process was designed to generate information about their perceptions concerning the values of the natural and cultural context in which they live and work, the threats to such values and the ways in which such threats may be alleviated, reduced or mitigated. This process provided the material from which to develop a common vision for the future of Yildiz Mountains and a series of objectives and associated activities to achieve the vision. An important and necessary outcome of this consensusbuilding process is that key stakeholders (village communities and provincial agencies) own the Preliminary Management Plan and are expecting to support its implementation. The entire process is shown in Figure 2.2 and fully described in YMBP Report Series No. 7 (2010).

Participatory planning process Introduce project, identify issues&needs

March Village meeting s (28 villages)

Open house meetings 3 settlemen ts)

Focus group meetings

Mayors+ muhtars

1st round of village meetings

Identify vision, values, threats

SWOT on cooperative mechanism - generate consensus for community-based natural resource management

April Village meetings (28 villages)

May

June

Meetings with Meeting with community provincial representative agencies s

Workshop for community reps (coops, women, youth) + provincial agencies

Outputs from SWG workshops= inputs to management planning process

July-November 9 SWG workshops SWG study tour to Bulgaria Study tour to coops in Izmir and Aydin

Feedback Muhtars+ Cooperative Heads Muhtars+ provincial agencies

2nd round of village meetings

Women

MPU Youth

Workshops with community + cooperative representatives

Stakeholder Working Group workshops

Figure 2.2 Participatory process of engaging with village communities, government agencies and NGOs in the formulation of the Preliminary Management Plan

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3.

DESCRIPTION AND PHYSICAL FEATURES OF YILDIZ MOUNTAINS

3.1. LOCATION AND EXTENT The proposed Yildiz Mountains13 Biosphere lies in north-western Turkey, an area commonly referred to as European Turkey, Trakya or Eastern Thrace. The area comprises the Turkish part of the Yildiz Mountains, which abut the western side of the Black Sea and extend into Bulgaria where they are known as the Strandja14 Mountains. The highest peak, Mahya Dağı (1,031 m), is in Turkey. The proposed Biosphere encompasses a total area of approximately 121,800 ha, situated between 41o55’ and 42o34’ north and 27o21’ and 28o05’ east (Figure 3.1).

Figure 3.1 Proposed boundary of Yildiz Mountains Biosphere with village locations There are 25 villages15 located within the proposed Biosphere, of which Demirköy, Yenice and Kıyıköy are classified as urban settlements and the rest as rural settlements. In addition, some cultivated areas are owned by inhabitants of seven villages peripheral to the proposed Biosphere (Figure 3.1). The total population within the proposed Biosphere is approximately 18,100 inhabitants16.

13

Yıldız Dağları or Istranca in Turkish Stranja in Bulgarian 15 Karanlıkköy a small hamlet, now occupied by only one elderly couple, is included in this total. 16 This estimate is based on information from village profiles, generated during the participatory planning process. 14

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3.2. CLIMATE The geographic position of the Yildiz Mountains, subjected to the influences of the Black Sea and the Mediterranean, is responsible for its warmer and milder climate compared to other mountain chains in the region. Climatic conditions differ between the coastal and mountainous parts. The mean annual temperature in the coastal area is 13 °C and relati ve humidity is high (80%). The annual rainfall is 800 mm, with the rains in December-January and dry period in July-August. Towards the mountains, away from the coast in Đğneada and the broad flats in the Vize region, the impact of the sea lessens and the mean annual temperature is lower (7-9 °C). Annual rainfall, however, is higher, reaching 900 mm on the top of Mahya Dağ and along the northern slopes. Generally, winds are from the north in winter and from the south and south-east in summer. Climatic data are summarised in Table 3.1. Table 3.1 Climatic parameters from weather stations in the region (compiled by Serengil, 2009 using data from State Meteorological Service, DMI and State Hydraulic Works, DSI) Weather Station

Armağan

Ayvacık

Demirköy

Đğneada

Kıyıköy

Sislioba

Years of operation

1965-2009

1970-2009

1956-1988

1950-1990

1959-1990

1965-2009

41° 57’ 27° 26’

41° 31’ 27° 57’

41° 49’ 27° 46’

41° 53’ 27° 59’

41° 38’ 28° 06’

41° 58’ 27° 56’

395

238

300

20

20

40

Mean annual precipitation (mm)

645.9

706.3

803.6

821.9

827.6

927.2

Daily max. Precipitation (mm)

102.1

196.5

104.7

115.3

165.6

182.4

16

19

12

9.0

7.9

20

No. snow covered days

23.8

17.7

11.7

Mean Temperature (°°C)

11.5

12.6

12.3

Maximum Temperature (°°C)

38

39.8

34.6

Minimum Temperature (°°C)

-14.5

-13.6

-13.0

Relative humidity (%)

72

73

75

Cloudiness (0-10)

5.2

5

6.5

Major wind direction

NE

NW

W

Mean wind power (Beaufort)

2.0

1.6

2.1

Geographic location (Latitude-Longitude) Altitude (m)

No. snowy days

3.3. GEOLOGY AND GEOMORPHOLOGY The Yıldız Mountains are generally composed of granite, with some limestone in the southern and south-western parts. There are alluvial accumulations along the rivers and coast, and shallow lakes behind the coastal dunes. The bedrock is rich in copper and iron minerals. According to Turoğlu (1997), the lithologic units of this area are consolidated generally into three main groups: metamorphic formations, gneiss and quartzite from the Palaeozoic period; Mesozoic volcanic units in the Cretaceous period; and Cenozoic sedimentary units from the Eocene, Pliocene and Holocene periods.

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Among the most important geological features of the area are karst formations, responsible for the many caves in the region. Corrosion of surfaces around and inside the Istranca Massif during the Pliocene has resulted in palaeo valleys, and karstic poljes, uvalas and caves. These formations are located at 400-500 m in the north and 150-300 m in the south in Yıldız. The surfaces are cut deeply by Quaternary rivers along a northwest-southeast axis across the area. In the eastern regions, where limestone is also found, dense karst has developed. Here, the rivers lie in deep stream beds due to the changes in the level of sea water. Falling sea level has rejuvenated the rivers and increased their corrosive effects, with the result that cave expansion has accelerated in recent times and new caves have been formed. Dupnisa, one of the twolayered caves, is a good example of this development. Caves were formed in the northern part where Jura-Kretase marbles are thickened, the main dense karstification occurring in the Miocene limestone. Shallower parts have not lent themselves to the formation of cave systems. However, impermeable layers just below the limestone elevate the karst floor base, which leads to the formation of shallow and horizontal karst. Karstification that began in the Pliocene and continued throughout the Quaternary Period has given the area its current landform.

3.4. SOIL The upper and middle catchment of the proposed Biosphere is covered by medium depth or shallow soils, with a well-defined A Horizon and small amounts of clay accumulation in the B Horizon. They are generally brown forest soils without lime. In flat areas of the lower catchment, azonal ‘alluvial-colluvial’ soils are dominant. These young soils, with weak profile development, are formed by the river sediments. The main soil types are shown in Figure 3.2.

Figure 3.2 Distribution of soils within proposed Yildiz Mountains Biosphere

3.5. HYDROLOGY The proposed Biosphere corresponds with the catchment basins of the southern and southwestern slopes of Yildiz Mountains and comprises three sub-catchments:

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1.

Pabuçdere in the south.

2.

Demirköy - Balaban in the north, with Bulanıkdere (82.5 km²), Efendidere (33.6 km²), Değirmendere and Elmalıdere (47.2 km²), Arnavutdere (38.4 km²), Sultanbahçedere (23.200 km²), Eriklidere (15.0 km²) and Çilingozdere (18.0 km²) as the main rivers., These rivers drain rapidly to the Black Sea, as the catchment is inclined, and tend to flood, especially in spring with the snow melt. The shallow coastal lakes and longoz forests are especially susceptible to sedimentation from soil erosion (e.g. run-off from forest tracks).

3.

The small Kabindere - Dereköy watershed in the west, which drains into the Armağan Dam, providing drinking water for Kirklareli Town.

An eco-hydrological survey was undertaken under the auspices of the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project (YMBP Report Series No. 2). Indicators of human impacts (based on measures of the intensities of settlements, farmlands, roads and road-creek crossings) and hydrological diversity (based on the number and area of water bodies and the number and length of streams) are shown in Figures 3.3a and 3.3b with respect to the different watersheds. These indicators can be combined to develop an index of biodiversity potential, as shown in Figure 3.3c.

Figure 3.3 (a) Human impacts (left), (b) hydrological diversity (centre) and (c) biodiversity potential (right) of watersheds, represented by shading (dark = high; light = low) The human population in the Yildiz Mountains is low compared to Turkey’s average and its impacts are relatively lower. However, erosion and sedimentation caused mainly by roads (observation) and forestry activities are an important threat, as indicated in Figure 3.3a, to hydrological diversity (Figure 3.3b). Moreover, the Yildiz Mountains catchment comprises a number of hydrologically unique watersheds, with high biodiversity potential (Figure 3.3c). Some of the creeks that drain these hydrologically unique watersheds regularly flood in the rainy season, supporting floodplain forests and natural lakes that connect to the Black Sea. Flooding is a mechanism whereby these fluvial systems discharge sediments into the sea. In case of lagoons, such as Erikli, Mert, and Saka that are formed by sediment accumulation barring their exit to the sea, this mechanism is vital because otherwise sediments and nutrients will become trapped and the lagoons converted into swamps within a few decades. In winter and spring their sediments are flushed out to sea, but in summer the connection to the sea is cut off by sand bars. The natural functioning of such lagoons is very sensitive to changes in the volumes and quality of water that they receive and, therefore, any human interventions must be evaluated with respect to their potential eco-hydrological impacts. For example, Istanbul Water and Sewerage Administration has permission from the General Directorate of Forestry to extract water from Yavuzdere River which feeds Lake Saka. Ultimately, this could result in the loss of the lagoon system.

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Water quality is also an issue in some locations. For example, Erikli and Mert receive sewage discharged from Đğneada. There is only one treatment plant in the town, with the result that sewage water flowing into Erikli is untreated. Sewage from Kıyıköy is discharged into a cave; and in Demirköy sewage is discharged directly into streams. At least second degree treatment plants must be constructed for the towns of Đğneada, Kıyıköy, and Demirköy. Otherwise, Mert and Erikli lakes will dry up and, ultimately, this would affect tourism in Đğneada. Thus, the Yıldız Mountains region includes a number of hydrologically important watersheds that sustain unique floodplain (longoz) forests and associated natural lakes as, for example, represented in the Đğneada Longoz Forest National Park. Any interference with these hydrological regimes, such as withdrawal of water or reduction in water quality through pollution, will potentially threaten the long-term survival of such unique habitats and their biodiversity. For this reason, the eco-hydrological characteristics of watersheds provide an important basis for zoning the proposed Yıldız Mountains Biosphere (see Section 8.5.3, Figure 8.3).

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4.

BIODIVERSITY VALUES

4.1. BIOGEOGRAPHY (INCLUDING TRANS-BORDER ASPECTS) The proposed Biosphere Reserve encompasses the Yildiz Mountains, which represent the Turkish part of the Strandja Mountains that abut the Black Sea and extend into Bulgaria.

Figure 4.1 Section of a map of the Palaearctic Biogeographical Realm (Udvardy, 1975), showing the location of Yildiz Mountains within the Mediterranean Sclerophyll Province (17) that abuts the Balkan Highlands Province (33). According to Udvardy’s (1975) global classification of biogeographical provinces of the world that provide a basis for the establishment of a network of biosphere reserves representative of world’s biotic areas, Yildiz Mountains are representative of the Mediterranean Sclerophyll Province and abut the Balkan Highlands Province along the border with Bulgaria (Figure 4.1). In phytogeographic terms the area includes the far western end of the Euxin flora distribution and the southern extremity of the Balkanic and Middle Europe types.

4.2. LAND COVER AND VEGETATION There are seven main land use/cover types, based on an initial classification and interpretation of satellite imagery using forest management plans that were validated at approximately 200 locations in the field by a team from the Department of Landscape Architecture, University of Cukurova (YMBP Report Series No. 1). Forests cover 82% of the total area, of which deciduous is 81% and coniferous (mostly plantation) is 1%; grasslands and agricultural land cover nearly 16%; and water bodies 1% (Table 4.1). The results of a more detailed classification of forest and other vegetation in Table 4.2 shows that oak forest is predominant, comprising 65% of land cover, and beech forest is next in its extensiveness (16% cover). The distribution of the main forest types and other forms of land cover is shown in Figure 4.2,This land cover map also provides the basis for mapping habitats and landscape (Sections 4.3 and 4.4).

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Table 4.1 Main land use/cover types and their characteristics within the Project area Land Use/cover types

Main characteristics and dominant species

Other important species

Deciduous forest

Oak (Quercus sp.) and beech (Fagus orientalis), (beech forests from 550 m)

Alder (Alnus sp) (around rivers), ash (swamp forests) hornbeam (Carpinis sp.) (swamp) (Longoz forests and valleys), poplar (Populus sp.) (around farms)

Crimean pine (Pinus nigra) (afforestration)

Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)

Coniferous forest

Grasslands/agriculture/ Irrigated, rainfed and abandoned meadows agricultural areas, semi-natural grasslands and meadows

Area (ha)

97,318 (80.6%)

1,530 (1.3%) 18,816 (15.6%)

Settlements/road networks

Cities, villages, sand and rock pits, road networks

1,888 (1.6%)

Water

Inland water and rivers

1,194 (1.0%)

Total *120,746 *The small difference between this total area and the area of the proposed Biosphere (121,800 ha) is due to inland waters and cloud.

Table 4.2 Main forest and grassland/meadow types within the Project area Land use/cover type

Forest and grassland/meadow types Area (ha)

Deciduous forest

Oak (Quercus sp.)

76,831

65.3%

Beech (Fagus orientalis)

18,966

16.1%

154

0.1%

1294

1.1%

Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga sp.)

25

0.0%

Alder (Alnus sp.)

28

0.0%

Poplar (Populus sp.)

34

0.0%

1,487

1.3%

43

0.0%

1,8227

15.5%

Bulrush

324

0.3%

Sand dunes

251

0.2%

1,194

1.0%

117,664

100%

Ash (Fraxinus sp.) Hornbeam (Carpinus sp.)

Coniferous forest

Crimean pine (Pinus nigra) Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)

Grasslands/agriculture/ meadows

Water

Grassland-agriculture-bareground

Water

Total

Area (%)

The main threats to the vegetation are considered to be: 

Loss and degradation of wetlands (e.g. longoz forest and associated vegetation) caused by interruption of upstream water sources (dams and water transfer schemes) and pollution from sewage and nutrient enrichment, as described in Section 3.5.



Sand dune plant communities impacted by large scale sand extraction and, more localised in the vicinity of coastal resorts, damage from high numbers of tourists.

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Widespread free-range grazing by cattle, especially in fragile habitats such as wetlands.



Former, inappropriate, such as forest management practices that, for example, have resulted in a decline of old growth forests which are a vitally important to the proper structure and functioning of forest ecosystems.



Introduction of non-indigenous tree species and exotics (e.g. Pinus and Populus species) for use in plantations.

Figure 4.2 Land cover map, based on interpretation of 2009 satellite imagery The five main indigenous vegetation types in the proposed Biosphere, coastal sand dunes, lagoons and lakes, swamp (longoz) forests, oak forests and beech forests, are described in Box 4.1. Typically, forests of higher altitudes are beech and oak, while flooded forests in the lower alluvial lands comprise ash Fraxinus angustifolia., accompanied by other deciduous trees such as hornbeam Carpinus orientalis and maple Acer spp. Conifers are rare, exceptions being black pine Pinus nigra and common yew Taxus baccata at higher altitudes around Demirkoy and Mahya Dagi. Pine forests occurring elsewhere are generally plantations, as are the stands of exotic poplar Populus sp. that are hybrids of P. Canadensis.

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Box 4.1

Brief description of the main vegetation types in Yildiz Mountains

Coastal sand dunes are dynamic but fragile buffers of sand and vegetation that protect the land high tides and storm waves. They are habitat for many rare species, such as the endemic Centaurea kilaea, Crepis macropus and Silene sangaria, as well as non-endemics of international and national importance, such as Sand Lily (Pancratium maritimum), Crambe maritima, Jurinea kilaea, Centaurea arenaria, Ophrys oestifera, Aurinia uechtritziana, Peucedanum obtusifolium and Polycnemum verrucosum are found in these dunes. The wetland system along the Black Sea coast includes a number of lakes and lagoons that are seasonally or permanently isolated from the Black Sea by coastal dunes. They include Erikli Lake (43 ha), Mert Lake (266 ha), Saka Lake (5 ha), which are brackish as they are connected to the Sea, and Hamam Lake (19 ha) and Pedina Lake (10 ha) which are freshwater. Reedbeds of Phragmites australis and Schoenoplectus lacutris fringe these lakes and support Euro-Siberian freshwater flora rarely found in Turkey, such as the threatened Trapa natans.

Dune system abutting Igneada Longoz forest

Mert Lake, adjacent to the town of Igneada

Longoz forests grow on acidic soils with high organic content and high water table. They occur rarely in Turkey but good examples are found here in the vicinity of Mert Lake, Erikli Lake and the Saka Lake. Characteristic tree species include Caucasian ash (Fraxinus angustifolia subsp. oxycarpa), Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis), common oak (Quercus robur), sessile oak (Q. petraea), common hornbeam (Carpinus betulus), field maple (Acer campestre), plane- leaved maple (A. pseudoplatanus), rowan (Sorbus aucaparia) and linden (Tilia argentea).

Igneada Longoz forest, protected as a national park

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Oak forests occupy the relatively drier southern slopes, which have been coppiced for decades to meet the needs for wood and charcoal. Two species, Turkey oak (Quercus cerris) and Strandja oak (Q. hartwissiana) are indigenous to the region; other more widely distributed species include Hungarian oak (Q. frainetto), Cyprus oak (Q. infectoria), sessile oak (Q. petraea) and common oak (Q. robur). Common hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) is also associated with this forest type. Forests of Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis) occur at higher altitudes on the northern slopes, which are relatively humid. The understory is generally dominated by rhododendron (Rhododendron ponticum). This humid forest vegetation is typical along the Black Sea coast of Anatolia but it is probably the only example of its kind in Eastern Europe. Yildiz Mountains is also unique with respect to its overlapping geographical distributions of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Oriental beech.

Beech forest in autumn

4.3. HABITAT A classification and mapping of habitats has been conducted in close collaboration with experts from Strandja Nature Park in order to ensure compatibility with the Bulgarian classification. The habitat classification is based on principles of the EU Natural habitat types of community interest whose conservation requires the designation of special areas of conservation. The EUNIS codes, and descriptions and extent of each type of habitat occurring within the Yildiz Mountains are shown in Table 4.3. The predominant habitat types are Pannonian-Balkanic turkey oak-sessile oak forests, comprising 65% of all EUNIS habitat types, Western Pontic beech forests (16%) and semi-natural dry grasslands and scrubland facies on calcareous substrates (16%). Some habitat types, such as grassland, were surveyed in a generalised form, so more detailed subclassification of such types will require further field work in future. The distributions of the 26 EUNIS habitat types determined from this study are shown in Figure 4.3. Table 4.3 Habitat classification for the proposed Yildiz Mountains EUNIS code

EUNIS habitat type

1130 1150 1170 1210 1220 1240 1310 2110

Estuaries Coastal lagoons Reefs Annual vegetation of drift lines Perennial vegetation of stony banks Vegetated sea cliffs of the Mediterranean coasts with endemic Limonium spp. Salicornia and other annuals colonizing mud and sand Embryonic shifting dunes

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Area (ha) 3 48 1 1 5 18 328 2

Area (%) 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.28 0.00

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2120 2130 2190 3250 4030 5210 6210 62A0 6440 8210-82208230 8330 91AA 91EO 91FO 91GO 91MO 91SO 91ZO Total

Shifting dunes along the shoreline with Ammophila arenaria (white dunes) Fixed coastal dunes with herbaceous vegetation (grey dunes) Humid dune slacks Constantly flowing Mediterranean rivers with Glaucium flavum European dry heaths Arborescent matorral with Juniperus spp. Semi-natural dry grasslands and scrubland facies on calcareous substrates (Festuco-Brometalia) Eastern sub-Mediterranean dry grasslands (Scorzoneratalia villosae) Alluvial meadows of river valleys of the Cnidion dubii Calcareous rocky slopes with chasmophytic vegetation-Siliceous rocky slopes with chasmophytic vegetation-Siliceous rock with pioneer vegetation of Sedo-Scleranthion or Sedo albi-Veronicion dillenii Submerged or partially submerged sea caves Eastern white oak woods Alluvial forests with Alnus glutinosa and Fraxinus excelsior (Alno-Padion, Alnion incanae, Salicion albae) Riparian mixed forests of Quercus robur, Ulmus laevis and U. minor, Fraxinus excelsior or F. angustifolia, along the great rivers (Ulmenion minoris) Pannonic woods with Quercus petraea and Carpinus betulus Pannonian-Balkanic turkey oak-sessile oak forests Western Pontic beech forests Moesian silver lime woods

258 20 8 231 26 2 18,686 34 3

0.22 0.02 0.01 0.20 0.02 0.00 16.06 0.03 0.00

3

0.00

8 14

0.01 0.01

26

0.02

22

0.02

1,524 76,161 18,923 10 116,365

1.31 65.45 16.26 0.01

Figure 4.3 Distribution of EUNIS habitat types, based on interpretation of 2009 satellite imagery

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4.4. LANDSCAPE A preliminary survey of landscape types, involving their identification and description, was undertaken under the auspices of the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project by members of the Landscape Architecture Department, University of Ankara (YMBP Report Series No. 1). Landscape types were identified using the land cover (Figure 4.2) and topographic maps of the Project area, in conjunction with the results of field surveys based on 150 locations. The main types of landscapes identified are described in Table 4.4 and illustrated in Figure 4.4. This work provides the basis for the future undertaking of a full Landscape Character Assessment. Table 4.4 Landscape classification for the proposed Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Landscape types

Description of character of landscape type

A.1 Agricultural fields surrounded by meadows A.2 A.3 A.4 B.1 C.1 C.2 C.3 C.4 C.5 D.1 D.2 D.3 D.4 E.1 E.2 E.3 E.4 F.1 F.2 F.3 G.1 G.2

Agricultural domination, cultivated, enclosed, diverse in scale, contrasting patterns between agricultural fields and meadows Meadows Treeless open space, uncultivated, homogeneous and small scale diverse Meadows enclosed by forest Enclosed, diverse in scale, contrasting patterns between forests and meadows, uncultivated, colourful, large scale, heterogeneous Agricultural fields Cultivated, small scale diverse, enclosed fields Gallery forests Intensive vegetation, corridors, contrasting patterns with the surrounding landscapes, diverse in scale, uncultivated Mountains –hills covered by forest Wild, rough, relatively enclosed, heterogeneous, contrasting patterns between hills and valleys, colourful Plain areas Enclosed, distinctive spaces within and with forests, relatively cultivated, diverse in scale. Narrow valleys enclosed by forest Enclosed, heterogeneous, contrasting patterns between hills and valleys, permanent water existence, small scale openness Vast valleys surrounded by forest Enclosed, heterogeneous, contrasting patterns between hills and valleys, permanent water existence, large scale openness Terraces Vista, rough, semi-open forests Roads enclosed by forest Enclosed, diverse in vegetation, uniform, colourful Valley roads (with quite intensive vegetation) Enclosed, linear, quite intensive vegetation, heterogeneous, colourful Roads parallel to streams Enclosed, linear, quite intensive vegetation, heterogeneous, colourful, permanent water existence, small scale openness Highly curved roads Linear, semi- enclosed by forest, vista, distinctive division between different landscape types (e.g. forests and agricultural fields) Steep seashores Sharpness, contrasting patterns between different landscape types, relatively bare lands Dunes and beaches Connectivity, semi-enclosed, openness, scattered vegetation, treeless Estuaries Diverse in vegetation, fertile Coastline integrated with forest Complexity, connectivity, intensive vegetation Open water surfaces Mirror effect, extremely open, flat Water surfaces enclosed by marshes Inaccessible uncultivated wetland, contrasting patterns between water and marshes, mirror effect, enclosed Streams Linear, mirror effect, smooth, integrated with vegetation Settlements with distinctive features Traditional architectural style, Mystic effect landscape Historical heritage, distinctive granite forms, intensive forest, rough

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Figure 4.4 Some examples of landscape types in the proposed Yildiz Mountains Biosphere

4.5. PLANTS A total of 1,378 plant taxa (1,295 species) have been reliably recorded in the proposed Yildiz Mountains Biosphere and immediate vicinity, based on (a) a recent thorough review of the literature, (b) documenting of available herbarium records and (c) field surveys of 11 locations considered to be flora hotspots (YMBP Report Series No. 3). This represents approximately 12% of Turkey’s flora (approximately 10,590 species) and 6.3% of European flora (approximately 20,590 species). A list of these species is provided in Annex 3, together with details of their conservation status. Specimens of many of these species are held in the herbaria of Istanbul University, Department of Pharmacy (ISTE) and Thrace University Science Faculty (EDTU). These historic collections comprise 2,185 specimens (880 taxa) at ISTE and 1,347 specimens (557 taxa) at EDTU, to which a further 2,547 specimens were added from surveys undertaken by the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project.

Figure 4.5 Survey locations from which plant specimens were collected during the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project. Eight taxa recorded outside the proposed boundary of the Biosphere have not been recorded within it.

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Of the 1,378 taxa recorded within Yildiz Mountains, eight taxa have been recorded at various locations outside the south-western periphery of the proposed boundary but not within the Biosphere (Figure 4.5). Thus, the inventory for the proposed Biosphere currently comprises 1,370 taxa. Summary details of these species with respect to their distribution and conservation status in global, European and national terms are summarised in Table 4.5. Seventeen species are endemic, of which four are critically endangered and five are endangered, including the newly described Allium rumelicum sp. nova, known only from Mahya Mountain, and Jurinea turcica sp. nova, known only from Kıyıköy. As indicated in Table 4.6, most of these endemics have restricted distributions in fragile, threatened habitats that require specific measures for their conservation. Table 4.5 Vascular plant species surveyed by the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project, and a complete inventory with historical data from published sources and herbarium records INVENTORY

TOTAL TURKEY THRACIAN BERN IUCN RED LIST TAXA ENDEMIC SPECIES Convention OF THREATENED SPECIES

THREATENED

NEW RECORDS

NEW SPP.

CR EN VU NT LC Global Europe Turkey Yildiz European Turkey Turkey

Project survey

782

11

36

6

Full inventory

1378

17

71

10

1

7 30 1 1

8

4

62 248

12

10

2

4 13 49 1 10

16

7

94 345

15

7

2

KEY TO THREATENED SPECIES: CR critically endangered; EN endangered; VU vulnerable; NT near threatened; LC least concern; Global = Endemic, CR or EN, and Berne listed; Europe = VU and Berne listed; Turkey = occurs only in European Turkey and considered to be at risk.

Table 4.6 Conservation status, habitat and distribution of the 17 endemic species present in Yildiz Mountains [square brackets indicate proposed RDB status] Endemic species 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

IUCN RDB status

Habitat

Distribution

Allium rumelicum M. Koçyiğit and N. Özhatay, sp. nova [CR] forest Mahya Dağ, Yildiz Anthyllis vulneraria L. ssp. variegata (Boiss.)Beg. & Diratz. LC forest/calcareous rocks Asperula littoralis Sm. VU sand dunes Thracean coastal dunes Centaurea hermanii F. Hermann EN road sides in macchia Thrace, Istanbul vicinity Centaurea kilaea Boiss EN sand dunes Thracean coastal dunes Cirsium baytopae Davis et Paris VU road sides Thrace, Istanbul vicinity Erysimum sorgerae Polatschek sand dunes Thracean coastal dunes Euphorbia amygdoloides L. var. robbiae (Turril.) Radcliffe-Smith NT forest/calcareous rocks Isatis arenaria Azn. EN sand dunes Thracean coastal dunes Jasione heldreichii Boiss. & Orph. ssp. papillosa J. Parnell CR sand dunes Thracean coastal dunes Jurinea kilaea Janka VU sand dunes Thracean coastal dunes Jurinea turcica B. Doğan & A. Duran sp. nova [EN] stony slopes Kıyıköy, Yildiz Lamium purpureum L. var. aznavourii Gand. ex Aznav. CR sand dunes Thracean coastal dunes Peucedanum obtusifolium Sm VU sand dunes Thracean coastal dunes Silene sangaria Coode & Cullen VU sand dunes Thracean coastal dunes Symphytum pseudobulbosum Aznav. CR road sides in macchia Thrace, Istanbul vicinity Verbascum degenii Hal. CR sand dunes Thracean coastal dunes

While much was known about the flora prior to the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project, to the extent that Istranca Mountains, Iğneada Longoz and Kasatura & Terkos had been identified as nationally Important Plant Areas (see Figure 1.2), 11 sites were confirmed by botanical experts as plant hotspots, based on one or more of the following criteria:

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presence of populations of rare, threatened or endemic species,



presence of exceptionally high diversity of species, and



presence of threatened habitat(s).

Of these 11 hotspots, three had been surveyed in recent years by the Central Anatolian Forestry Research Institute, one (Iğneada Longoz Forest) by the GEF II Project and the remaining seven were inventoried under the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project (Figure 4.6).

Sites surveyed in 2009 Sites surveyed pre-2009

Sites identified as plant hotspots based on recent field studies (within last five years) 1. Đğneada Longoz (GEF II Project) 3. Dupnisa Cave (Central Anatolia Forest Research Centre)

2. Taxus baccata Forest (Central Anatolia Forest Research Centre) 4. Velika River (Central Anatolia Forest Research Centre)

Potential plant hotspots, surveyed in 2009 5. 7. 9. 11.

Rezve River (including Karacadağ) Mahya Mountain Panayır iskelesi Dereköy-Hudut

6. Demirköy Foundry 8. Kasatura Bay (Kırklareli) 10. Tekkaya 12. Kıyıköy

Figure 4.6 Locations of recently surveyed sites of potential conservation importance for flora These 11 surveyed sites are considered to be important with respect to the diversity and conservation status of their flora, among which are endemic and threatened species. A twelfth site, Demirköy Foundry, was not significant in this respect though its cultural heritage is important. A summary of these sites is provided in Table 4.7 and further details can be found in Annex 4. Key management implications that emerge from these recent flora surveys include the following: 

Đğneada Longoz Forest is a very important centre of plant diversity, recently acknowledged by its designation as a national park in 2007 (Section 7.3).



The coastal zone, with its extensive sand dunes habitat, supports among the highest diversity of rare and endemic plant species. Particularly important are the sand dunes at Kasatura and Kıyıköy, which are threatened by high levels of inappropriate visitor use.

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Mahya Mountain and the nearby hotspots of Balaban, Taxus baccata Forest, Tekkaya and Dupnisa Cave–Sarpdere, which feature old deciduous forest and open areas of calcareous rock outcrops, merit consideration for management as a single conservation unit.



Current use of herbicides roadside verges is potentially a serious threat to several species that populate the temporary ponds of the waysides. These include Verbascum purpureum (protected under the Bern Convention), Cirsium candelabrum (the only known locality for this species in the region) and Cardamine penzesii (considered as a Balkan and northwestern Black Sea endemic that occurs along the edge of the Çukurpınar-Üsküp highway).



Exotic species, such as Robinia pseudoacacia (Black Locust) and Galinsago parviflora, have penetrated deep inside the forest where they may outcompete local species.

Table 4.7 Conservation values, in terms of flora diversity and endemism, of 11 surveyed sites Location

Area (ha)

No. Taxa

No. Conservation Conservation status Endemic importance

Balaban (Velika) River 21 100 0 Moderate None, IPA Derekoy Vicinity 20,000 426 4 Moderate Gene Protection Forest, IPA Dupnisa Cave and Sarpdere Vicinity 107 102 0 Moderate 2nd Degree Natural Site Đğneada Longoz Forest 5,757 472 4 Critical NP, IBA, IPA Kasatura Bay 0 365 4 Critical NR, IPA Kiyiköy 6 152 7 Critical None Mahya Mountain 13,800 367 2 Moderate None, IPA Mutlu (Rezve) River 12,000 224 2 Critical None, IPA Panayir River 2,000 100 4 Urgent None Taxus baccata Forest 145 52 0 Moderate Gene Protection Forest Tekkaya 980 133 1 Moderate None, IPA IPA Important Plant Area; IBA Important Bird Area, NP National Park, NR Nature Reserve

4.6. ANIMALS The results of a review of the existing state of knowledge of the fauna within the proposed Yildiz Mountains Biosphere was undertaken at the outset of the Project area in order to identify gaps in knowledge and prioritise further survey work. The results of this review are summarised in Table 4.8, in term of species diversity and its spatial distribution, and the main locations in which different taxonomic groups had been surveyed prior to the Project are shown in Figure 4.7. Key findings from this review and surveys undertaken by the Project are considered below. Table 4.8 Known diversity of fauna for vertebrates, Odonata and Lepidoptera at start of Project Taxonomic group Mammalia Aves Reptilia Amphibia Pisces Vertebrates Odonata Lepidoptera 1 Survey

Survey locations1

Order

1-7, 9-11, 15-26, 27 1-22, 24-27 1-9, 11, 15-16, 19-23, 25 1-25 2-7, 9-14, 16, 21-22, 26 1-11, 13, 15-16, 19-20, 25 1-9, 12, 15-20, 23-26

8 20 2 2 5 37 1 1

Family 18 53 9 5 11 96 8 13

Species 65 197 27 9 28 326 27 131

Endemic species 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0

Cr En2 1 1

2

Vu2 9 1 4 2 16

locations are shown in Figure 4. species according to IUCN/European Red List (2000) – Vu Vulnerable, Cr En Critically Endangered.

2 Threatened

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Figure 4.7 Main localities in which vertebrates (mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fishes) and invertebrates (dragonflies and butterflies) had been surveyed pre-2009. Fauna – excluding birds and cave-dwelling bats Terrestrial mammals, tree-dwelling bats and dormice, reptiles, amphibians, marine and freshwater fish, butterflies, moths, dragonflies and damsel flies were surveyed by teams from Zonguldak Karaelmas and Trakya universities (YMBP Report Series No. 4). An inventory of all faunal species recorded from within the proposed Yildiz Mountains Biosphere is provided in Annex 5, based on these surveys and previous records complied in the above review. Key findings include: 

Very few fauna species endemic to Turkey are found within the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere. A small number of species are globally threatened, including three endangered species of marine fish Acipenser spp.



Survey results indicate that animal diversity is highest in longoz forest and declines in the following order: open areas - shrubs along streams - pine plantations - mixed forest agricultural areas.



There are signs of overfishing in the inland waters of the Black Sea. Fishermen report a sharp decline in populations of highly esteemed food fishes, such as turbot and Atlantic bonito. This information is supported by official fishery statistics (e.g. Atlantic bonito production fell drastically from 30,000 tonnes in 2005 to 1,500 tonnes in 2007). The Kirklareli coasts are neglected in terms of ichthyologic research and urgent action is required to determine the current status of these threatened fishes in order to take appropriate conservation measures.

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Similarly, there have been significant declines in deer populations (red deer and roe deer) due to overhunting.

Birds A total of 264 bird species have been reliably recorded in the proposed Biosphere, of which 105 are confirmed breeders, 7 are probable and 16 are possible breeders. These findings are based on an extensive avifaunal survey undertaken under the auspices of the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project from March to August 2009 (YMBP Report Series No. 6). Key findings include: 

8 species were observed for the first time in the region.



Wood warbler, yellowhammer and green sandpiper commonly breed in the proposed Biosphere. This is the first breeding record of these species in Turkey.



The study provides the first evidence of icterine warbler, Baillon’s crake, stock dove, garden warbler and common rosefinch breeding in Thrace.

Implications for management with respect to conserving and enhancing the diversity of birds in the Yıldız Mountains include the following: 

The patchiness and structural diversity of agricultural lands and forest clearances should be maintained and enhanced because such habitats support most bird species.



Detailed studies of agricultural lands are required to determine the extent to which traditional farming practices should be maintained in the interests of bird (and possibly flora) diversity. This may result in the need to subsidise such practices in future in the interests of biodiversity conservation.



Mature forest stands with old and decaying trees should be protected and extended. They are well known to be a critical component of forest biodiversity and, in the Yıldız Mountains, they support a higher diversity of birds than younger, well-managed stands, especially oak (versus beech) stands.



Coastal areas support among the highest diversity of bird species on account of their swamp forests, coastal forests, estuaries, sand dunes, reed beds and meadows. Appropriate measures need to be taken for their protection, especially the sand dunes along the coastline from Lake Mert to the estuary of Bulanık River that are under significant pressure from tourists and their vehicles in summer.



Conifer plantations are not natural to the Yıldız Mountains and are characterised by very low bird species richness. This management practice should be abandoned.



Poplar plantations, with the lowest diversity of bird species of the surveyed habitats, are replacing open forest patches and agricultural lands, especially in close proximity to streams. Their extent needs to be regulated in relation to the extent of open forest patches and agricultural lands which support a higher diversity of bird species.



Lake Mert, Lake Erikli and their surrounding swamp forest are under several pressures: untreated sewage effluent from Đğneada in the case of Lake Erikli; interference with the natural hydrological cycle of Lake Mert by local fisherman, resulting in extremely low water levels in the Lake and drought in the swamp forest during summer; and hunting during the bird migration period. These malpractices within the Đğneada Longoz Forest National Park need to be addressed.

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Yıldız Mountains lie along on one of the main bird migration bottlenecks of the Palaearctic Region. Thus, the construction of wind farms could have far-reaching negative consequences for avifauna within this entire biogeographic Region and should certainly be avoided within the proposed Yıldız Mountains Biosphere, given its strategic location with respect to bird migration

4.7. CAVE FAUNA Many caves occur within the Yildiz Mountains due to the karst formations and, owing to the biogeographical significance of the region (Section 4.1), their fauna is particularly interesting.

Figure 4.8 Caves in Yildiz Mountains Biosphere and vicinity, of which all have been surveyed except Sergen Suçıkan (Coraman et al., 2009). Note that the locations of some caves are not evident in this map because they are overlying at this scale of resolution. Twenty-six caves in the region were surveyed by Boğaziçi International Speleological Society under the auspices of the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project, of which 12 occur within the proposed Biosphere (YMBP Report Series No. 5). Their locations are shown in Figure 4.8. Key findings with respect to the cave fauna include the following: 

More than fifty animal species were recorded, including 40 invertebrate species (Annex 5). Approximately 42,000 bats were recorded in winter and summer surveys, representing eight species. Of the 18 invertebrate species identified to date, seven are new records for Turkish Thrace of which five are also new for Turkey. The remaining species are in the process of being identified. Three potential new species for science, two spiders and one pseudo-scorpion, were discovered.

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The commonest bat species is Miniopterus schreibersii, with a total winter population of approximately 21,300 individuals, of which some 20,000 hibernate in Dupnisa. The rarest, found only in Kıyıköy Cave where a single individual was recorded, is Myotis emarginatus. Details of the winter bat populations within each cave are summarised in Table 4.9.

Table 4.9 Diversity and estimated populations of bats in caves surveyed in winter Cave Bağlar Bektaş* Bezirgan Bostanlıktarla Çatalyol Ceneviz Domuzdere Dupnisa Kale 1 Kale 2 Kale 3 Kıyıköy Kız Kızılağaç Kızlar Kocaçayırlar* Kovantaşı Kozarka Kuru Kurudere Maden* Mermer Ocak Pestil Tirfez Uzuntarla Yenesu Yeşillik* TOTAL No. CAVES

Minsc

Myomy

Rhife

Rhieu

Rhibl

Rhihi

Myoca

Myoem

Total

5 0 0 1260 0 0 20000 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 21 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 0 21297 6

2 0 0 2 0 0 3000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3010 6

20 6 1 50 200 167 1600 0 0 0 7 0 3 0 76 0 22 6 0 7 0 16 0 0 2181 14

600 25 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 93 0 1 0 0 0 9 0 350 0 0 0 0 0 1078 6

200 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 800 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 300 300 1601 5

0 3 0 0 5 2 3 0 0 0 3 0 1 3 3 21 84 0 1 1 2 6 1 6 145 16

0 0 0 0 0 0 1000 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 6 0 1 0 0 0 0 15 0 0 1023 5

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1

827 34 1 1312 205 169 25603 0 0 0 105 801 5 3 109 21 118 7 352 8 2 47 301 306 30336

No. spp. 5 3 1 3 2 2 5 0 0 0 5 2 3 1 5 1 5 2 3 2 1 4 2 2 -

Key: Miniopterus schreibersii (Minsc), Myotis myotis/blythii (Myomy), M. capaccinii (Myoca), Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (Rhife), R. hipposideros (Rhihi), .R. euryale (Rhieu), R. blasii (Rhibl), M. emarginatus (Myoem) *Not surveyed



Dupnisa is one of the most important underground systems in the region, holding the largest colony of hibernating bats (approximately 25,600 bats, representing five species) known in the Balkans. Çatalyol, Bağlar, Domuzdere, and Kıyıköy are also important caves for bats; and Yenesu, Kurudere (Domuzdere), Ceneviz, and Kız are the most interesting caves in terms of their geomorphologic formations.



A greater mouse-eared bat was observed with white nose syndrome, known in Europe but the first reported case in Turkey. This is important conservation implications as it can be transmitted by humans and, therefore, raises questions about provision of public access. Meanwhile, the Cavers Union has been informed and an information sheet prepared to provide guidance to cavers.

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The most common threats to caves in the Yıldız Mountains are treasure hunting, quarrying, and tourism. According to an evaluation of biospeleological, archaeological, and geomorphological conservation values, nine caves (Bağlar, Ceneviz, Domuzdere, Dupnisa*, Kız*, Kovantaşı*, Kuru*, Ocak, and Yenesu) merit High Conservation Priority for urgent protection as Nature Reserves and eight caves (Bostanlıktarla*, Çatalyol*, Kale III, Kıyıköy*, Mermer*, Pestilin, Tirfez*, and Uzuntarla) are proposed for Natural Monument status under National Parks Law No. 2873. Those nine caves marked with an asterisk lie within the proposed Yıldız Mountains Biosphere.

4.8. AGRO-BIODIVERSITY The long human history of human activity within the Yildiz Mountains has resulted in important agricultural biodiversity resources (agro-biodiversity) that now form part of this living landscape within the Biosphere that should be conserved, in line with the Convention on Biological Diversity17. For example, two species of traditional cattle, boz irk (grey cattle) and yerkli kara (local black), and a traditional breed of sheep, kivircik, still graze the mountain pastures and forests. Traditional agricultural practices, although fast disappearing, continue to shape the landscape. Among the various agricultural biodiversity (agro-biodiversity) values of the Yildiz Mountains is a local race of honey bee that exhibits unique behaviour associated with hive cleaning and resistance to the Varroa mite. The economic importance of this race has already resulted in the development of an innovative bee barrier, based on a partnership between government agencies, academic institutions and the local bee-keeping association to prevent its genetic erosion. However, the existence of specific land races of conventional field and fruit crops requires further investigation18 (see Maxted and Kell, 2009). The Biosphere can play an important role in the conservation of agricultural systems diversity and agricultural biodiversity (i.e. crop wild relatives and land races, traditional breeds of livestock and the farming systems that perpetuate them). This requires two distinct approaches, characterised as “genetic reserve conservation” and “on farm conservation, that need to be developed in the context of the wider ecosystem because these resources are vulnerable on a number of levels. The two activities can be described thus: 

Genetic Reserve Conservation: the location, management and monitoring of genetic diversity in natural wild populations of crop wild relatives within defined areas designated for active, long-term conservation.



On-farm Conservation: the sustainable management of genetic diversity of locally developed crop varieties (land races)19, with associated wild and weedy species or forms, by farmers within traditional agricultural, horticultural or agro-silvicultural systems. (Maxted et al., 2002)

There has been little study of any extant land races in the Yildiz Mountains. However, the three traditional breeds of livestock and the unique honey bees mentioned above are worthy of note. Realising the economic and utilitarian values of agro-biodiversity is most immediately and equitably met through innovative policies and marketing strategies that capitalise on the plants’ or animals’ unique characteristics (e.g. organic, traditional, tried and tested, naturalness, etc.) as these offer a more direct, equitable and tangible benefit to farmers that encourages on-farm conservation of these resources. 17

http://www.cbd.int/agro/ http://pgrforum.org/documents/Global_in_situ_CWR_conservation_network.pdf 19 Including traditional breeds of livestock 18

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5.

CULTURAL AND LIVELIHOOD VALUES

5.1. ARCHAEOLOGY Yildiz Mountains is very rich in archaeological and historical sites, which are testament to the importance of its wealth and diversity of natural resources. There are a large number of Trachian graves from B.C., especially around Demirköy. Graves in Sivriler, Gökyaka, Sarpdere and Avcılar have not been extensively surveyed so far. There are dolmens in Demirköy and Dereköy, Rampana grave yard, four tumuli near Saka Lake, again four tumuli and a castle in the forested area of Hamam and Pedina Lake. Since 2001 archaeological excavations and research have been conducted on iron foundries from the early Fatih (Ottoman) period. Apart from these, other historical assets include a Genoese castle in Sislioba, a small version of Haghia Sophia (Istanbul), a cave abbey, an antique theatre and castle in Vize, Haghia Nichola Abbey in Kıyıköy,and Volçan bridge over Mutlu brook in Sislioba-Karacadağ. Haghia Nichola Abbey is representative of the early Byzantium period, prior to occupation by the Ottomans in 1362-63.

5.2. HISTORY Trachians were the first to settle in the coastal part of the region in B.C. 2000. One of the tribes of Trachia, called Thynias, established the settlement today known as Đğneada. Later on, these coastal settlements were increased by Ions to build up to 90 trade colonies in the 6th and 7th centuries B.C. The Thracian coastal settlements joined the Atik-Delos Sea Union in 476 B.C. and the Roman Empire in 74 B.C. The region was first occupied by the Ottomans in 1362-63, but dominance was only established in 1452. Since the 16th and 17th centuries the inhabitants lived in farms in the forest and engaged mainly in agriculture and animal breeding. Gradually other professions developed, such as coach repair, blacksmithing, brick-making and adobe brickmaking. The Black Sea ports of Iğneada and Kiyikoy are also historically important. Successive waves of immigration have continued into more recent times, as reflected by the diverse origins of many families in the villages (e.g. Bosnians, Bulgarians, Greeks). The diversity of communities, their traditions, cultures and practices, are juxtaposed alongside the natural diversity of the area, providing an opportunity for the proposed Biosphere to protect this cultural and historical heritage for future generations while also meeting their present social and economic needs.

5.3. LOCAL LIVELIHOODS Socio-economic survey data were collected from 31 settlements within the proposed biosphere area during the process of establishing a dialogue with these communities through participatory workshops, meetings with relevant government agencies and interviews. The data have been compiled into a set of ‘village profiles’ (Annex 6), which also include villagers’ values and aspirations for Yildiz Mountains and their perceived threats based on outputs from meetings and workshops. These data are examined using a Sustainable Livelihoods Approach in Section 5.3.2. 5.3.1

Local livelihoods opportunities

Forest labour is the most important source of income in the area. Forest management is planned by the Forest District Directorate. Forest work is organised through a number of channels. In the recent past forest labour was organised directly by the Forest District Directorate and the Muktars or the Agricultural and Development Cooperatives (if one exists). The villagers would cut and

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consolidate timber according the Forest Management Plan, under the supervision of the Forest District Directorate Chief, and the Directorate would pay them directly for their labour. However, recently this arrangement has been changed in favour of one where the villagers and other private contractors are sold a standing timber concession and they are responsible for cutting and selling the timber, while the Forest District Directorate inspects the work to ensure there is strict compliance with the Forest Law and the Forest Management Plan. There is an inherent disadvantage in this mechanism as cooperatives may not have sufficient capital to tender for the work, with the result that private contractors secure the bid, hire local labour and then benefit from the profits at the expense of the local communities. Apart from this, the local people are also engaged in harvesting non-timber forest products (e.g. mushrooms, berries, herbs). Mushrooms are a considerable economic resource and are widely collected, although this is a seasonal activitiy and production levels may vary considerably between years depending on weather patterns. Currently, most of the processing takes place outside the Yildiz Mountains and there appears to be a profitable export market to Europe. On average each family cultivates 1-1.5 ha in the area, producing mainly wheat, 80 percent of which is sold, barley for animal feed and vegetables for personal consumption. Anecdotal evidence suggests that maize has become a more widespread crop probably as a result of the winter stall-feeding needs of imported Holstein cattle. There is no regular irrigation system but occasionally water is pumped from the rivers/springs. Crops that can be easily marketed are produced with high efficiency but, in general, marketing of agricultural produce is limited and commercial production in the Biosphere is low. Thus, use of agricultural chemicals is very low, and related pollution levels are low (estimated at 25%of the national average). The low application of fertilizers and pesticides in the proposed Biosphere provides an appropriate environment for organic agriculture. To this end, some village projects were supported under the small grants programme of the GEF II Biodiversity and Natural Resources Management Project. Towns along the coast (Đğneada, Limanköy and Kıyıköy) hold dynamic fishing communities, while summer tourism has become a growth industry, with family guesthouses, restaurants, resort complexes, small hotels and a camp ground. Developments are mainly unplanned, and traditional houses are not being developed for tourism. In recent years there has been a programme and Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs and sheep and cattle breeding and bee keeping carried out by ORKÖY (General Directorate of Forest Village Relations) with subsidies available for Holstein cattle (the subsidies are not available for local breeds). As a result many villagers have given up the local breeds in favour of Holsteins. However, during many of the interviews with villagers the unsuitability of the Holstein cattle for the conditions in Yildiz Mountains was a reoccurring theme along with the high husbandry costs of these imported animals and vulnerability to low temperatures, poor hygiene conditions and low conversion rates when pastures are poor. The importance of agro-biodiversity and potential livelihood opportunities are discussed in Section 4.8. ORKÖYs’ (General Directorate of Forest Village Relations) aim of promoting economic development in forest villages to reduce dependencies on forest resources that can lead to deforestation and other damage is being fast outstripped by changes in the way that state forests are managed by the Forest District Directorate. The Forest District Directorate now sells standing timber directly to villagers (this was given as one of the reasons that the villages were encouraged to form cooperatives). This approach is an explicit recognition of the forest villagers’

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dependence on these resources and implicit of a change in the approach of management from state being directly involved in enterprise to the state agencies playing a greater regulatory and service provider role but refraining from participating directly in commercial enterprise. In recent years, ORKÖY’s support has focused on the development of alternative energy sources by popularising the use of solar panels. The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs and Kırklareli Provincial Directorate of Agriculture also support sustainable development in the proposed Biosphere, providing training on agriculture and handicrafts. The Kirklareli Provincial Directorate of Agriculture provides product-based premiums and runs agricultural development support programmes (e.g. soil analysis for farmers) and training and extension programmes on vineyards, bee-keeping, agro-chemical usage and irrigation. In addition, T.C. Ziraat Bank and Agricultural Credit Cooperatives provide low-interest investment and business credits for agricultural insurance, fuel and fertilisers. 5.3.2

Sustainable livelihoods approach

A biosphere reserve offers potential benefits to communities included within its boundaries, such as long-term security of access to resources through appropriate regulatory and partnership mechanisms and income-generating opportunities provided from tourism. Longterm evaluation of the effects of inclusion requires the development of a baseline characterization of the social and livelihoods structure of these communities by means of indicators that can be used to develop an index of ‘well-being’ (social and economic prosperity) of village communities. This has been explored using a sustainable livelihoods approach (SLA)20 to analyse data collected during the course of engaging with village communities in planning the future management of the proposed Yildiz Mountain Biosphere. This survey was a product of the participatory process, much of the data being provided by villagers in order to develop a profile of their village. Social profiling was carried out with great care and sensitivity. On the one hand it is important that an accurate picture of the villager’s socio-economic status is established, while on the other hand it is important to respect the dignity and privacy of people. The SLA is a way to improve understanding of livelihoods at various scales (e.g. households or communities). It draws on the main factors that affect people's livelihoods and the typical relationships between these factors. The two key components of the SLA are: 

a framework that helps in understanding the complexities of livelihoods



a set of principles to guide action to address and overcome poverty

Key socio-economic indicators, based on population size, household income, education, agricultural land holding and proportion of the population within the working age range of 26-40 years, were used to develop a composite index of well-being, from which three classes of villages were differentiated: Class 1 - relatively socially disadvantaged (5 villages), Class 2 – intermediate (17 villages) and Class 3 - relatively advantaged (9 villages). The distribution of well-being among villages in and peripheral to the proposed Biosphere is shown in Figure 5.1. The statistics used to generate this index are provided in Annex 7.

20

More general information on the application of the SL approach in characterization and monitoring is found at the Livelihoods Connect website hosted by the Institute of Development Studies (Sussex University).

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Figure 5.1 Location of villages in and peripheral to Yildiz Mountains Biosphere, classified by wellbeing a well-being index derived from socio-economic data There are some obvious explanations that account for certain villages falling within certain wellbeing classes. For example, people living in larger (e.g. Demirköy) and coastal villages (e.g. Iğneada, Kiyiköy ) tend to have higher incomes and attain higher educational levels, presumably as a result of better employment opportunities, infrastructure and facilities that are associated with a district headquarters or tourist destination. The converse holds for several smaller, remoter villages (e.g. Sislioba). While there are short-comings with this preliminary classification in terms of the reliability and availability of data, this analysis demonstrates the potential value of the SLA framework in providing an assessment of where resources might best be targeted to achieve sustainable livelihoods and other objectives of planning and managing the Biosphere. This initial assessment needs to be shared with village communities (a) to check that they agree with the data (much of which they have provided) and (b) to solicit their interpretation of why their village falls within a particular well-being class. Only in this way will the framework become more robust as village communities begin to understand its value and, therefore, be encouraged to provide more accurate and reliable data for its refinement and further development. Thus, the process by which this framework is applied and developed is crucially important to the development of meaningful indicators and an overall index of well-being.

5.4. RECREATION AND TOURISM Recreation and tourism remain largely under developed within the proposed Biosphere. The principle recreation and tourism destinations are the coastal towns of Đğneada, Limanköy and Kıyıköy. Other tourist attractions include the old civilian architecture examples in Vascular and Handier villages and Dupnisa Cave.

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Iğneada and the surrounding areas are reckoned to attract around 20,000 visitors in the summer period, some of who may break their journey en route. But a combination of this meandering behaviour and a lack of obvious forest-related visitor attractions imply that there are few deliberate (sole purpose) visits to the forest area. Summer tourism along the accessible coastline has become a growth industry, with family guesthouses, restaurants, resort complexes, small hotels and a camp ground being developed. However, these developments remain largely unplanned, and there are no attempts to conserve traditional houses for tourism purposes. Undoubtedly there are considerable opportunities for developing recreation and tourism, particularly eco-tourism. Some of the features of particular interest to the eco-tourist are shown in Figure 5.2. The proposed biosphere has a number of logistical features that can be capitalised upon for the development of recreation and tourism including: 

Access to the Black Sea coast and coastal villages and towns.



Proximity to Istanbul.



Location in respect to Bulgaria (and the European Union).



Individual character of the dispersed villages as a result of their cultural roots and heritage.

Figure 5.2 Natural, cultural and historic features of potential interest to visitors, especially colourists Recently, a number of villages have developed tourism facilities through their own initiative and with assistance of the Provincial Directorate of Agriculture and facilitation of the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project. For example, a picnic site at Sivriler, a museum of traditional costumes, crafts and tools at Cukupinar and the Dupnisa Cave which is operated by the Provincial Directorate of

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Tourism and Culture. Although these are relatively small initiatives they mark a clear willingness of local villagers and agencies to engage with tourists and with tourism as a future livelihood opportunity. Ecotourism should certainly be encouraged and there is plenty of scope for developing opportunities for hiking, mountain biking and other appropriate non-polluting and nonintrusive outdoor activities for those who wish to enjoy and explore the forests. By way of example, a few of the routes available to the keen walker or trekker are shown in Figure 5.3. The establishment of the Biosphere is likely to increase the number of visitors and it is critical that there is a transparent and equitable planning process in place to guide the future development of the tourism and recreation industry. During the stakeholder meetings a threat to the Biosphere vision was identified as: incomers settling in villages and unplanned development. There are considerable risks that the opportunities for tourism and recreational development are taken up by individuals from outside the area and the private sector. It is important that policies and programmes are put in place to ensure that there is a level playing field for the participation of village communities, rather than the market being captured by outside interests.

Figure 5.3 Some examples of historic and other walking/trekking routes of potential interest to ecotourists. Locations of villages and features of interest are also shown.

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6.

ECOSYSTEM GOODS AND SERVICES

The Yildiz Mountains has considerable importance locally and regionally on account of its provision of ecosystem goods and services. The Biosphere protects a number of important water catchment areas, provides timber resources for local industry and biofuel, and the forests in Demirkoy and Vize districts (covering approximately 98,225 ha), for example, have a notional carbon capture value of approximately €4,455 million. An assessment of ecosystem goods and services delivered by the Yildiz Mountains was undertaken by the Project (YMBP, 2010) in order to provide a basis for understanding the value and trade-off that are possible within a stakeholder-driven management plan. Existing data sources were used to demonstrate the economic values of such goods and services, which are sometimes equated with well-being. While only some of these goods and services currently have a market value (e.g. timber but not water or sequestrated carbon), it is important to appreciate their potential value with respect to future management planning so that opportunities for changes in policies can be explore with a view to possible welfare trade offs arising from alternative designation and zonation plans for the proposed Biosphere. Estimates of some of the main goods and services delivered by the Yildiz Mountains are summaries in Table 6.1. While these estimates are based on available data and would require extensive research to generate more accurate and detailed measures, they highlight the importance of carbon values by one or more orders of magnitude relative to the market values of other goods and services. While no attempt has been made to derive a signal value for biodiversity, which is arguably the principal reason for a conservation designation, biodiversity can be understood in several ways (e.g. species and ecosystems) and is typically associated with a high existence value. Such values are often complex to derive and typically controversial. Rather than estimating these values directly, therefore, an interesting thought exercise is simply to ask how large or small such values would need to be in order to make a difference to the overall designation decision in cost-benefit analysis terms. Table 6.1 Summary of estimated values of some goods and services of Yildiz Mountains ecosystems Goods / services Timber Carbon

Non timber forest products Water household Water agriculture Recreation Hunting Biodiversity

Total value (2008) €9.9 million €445.5 million

€/ha

Comment

99.5 €448 - €4,535

€24

High value based on Shadow Price of Carbon (SPC) – low value based on a notional value of € 2/tonne/CO2e for forest carbon credits in voluntary market Average combined value for all products

€122,275/year €12558/year €80,500/year Estimates not included see text for rationale

It is also important to note that only some of the values outlined in Table 6.1 can be captured by current market mechanisms. Maximizing other values (e.g. carbon and non-timber forest products) will depend on specific institutional arrangements that can be developed between stakeholders as part of the development of the Biosphere initiative (e.g. community-based

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approaches to natural resource management). In demonstrating these potential values, the other contribution of this study is in identifying potential ’economic futures’ for sustainable financing of the Biosphere. The existence of these values offers a range of alternative management options. Clearly, some economic pathways could represent a considerable departure from current use arrangements. For example, it is important to note that any decision to explore carbon markets may have implications for the intensity of timber exploitation; that is, the development of some values is essentially mutually exclusive. For example, it is often difficult to maximize biodiversity as well as timber extraction. Each of the main ecosystem goods and services is considered below in more detail.

6.1. CARBON Carbon sequestration or ‘carbon capture’ is an area that is fast developing in response to global concerns about climate change or ‘global warming’. The familiar arguments state that CO2 emissions have been increasing as a result of increased human reliance upon fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas. This has led to an increase in atmospheric carbon which traps the Sun’s heat in the Earth’s atmosphere, raising temperatures and dramatically affecting the climate. This phenomena has been described as the ‘greenhouse effect’, leading to the widely used term ‘greenhouse gases’ or ‘emissions’. There is now a large body of evidence to support this and international governments and agencies have put in place mechanisms designed to reduce, mitigate and offset the human induced CO2 emissions21. The most relevant of these for financing conservation management and, thus, most relevant to the proposed Biosphere are described below. There are two carbon prices that can be used to value the forest carbon content. These are the shadow price of carbon (SPC)22 or, alternatively, costs of purchasing emissions allowances in any trading regime such as the European Trading Scheme (ETS). The SPC is the notional value assigned to the damage caused by the release of a marginal (one extra) tonne of carbon dioxide. This value is calculated by future damage cost modelling, and discounting or converting the damages to a present value equivalent. The SPC is used by several national governments to appraise projects or policies with a greenhouse gas release or mitigation element. In this context, it provides a suitable unit value of the damage avoided because of the carbon stored in the forests at the project site. SPC values of carbon are shown in Table 6.2. Table 6.2 Shadow prices of carbon (SPC), based on 2% annual increase on 2007 prices (Source: Defra, 2007 23) Year £/t CO2e

2007

2010

2015

2020

2025

2030

2040

2050

25.4

26.9

29.7

32.8

36.2

40.0

48.8

59.6

The ETS is a trading scheme set up by the European Union as part of an (emissions) cap and trade scheme. This means that the EU has effectively set a limit on the amount of carbon emissions allowable from certain EU industries (e.g. energy providers) that must purchase permits if they want to emit additional carbon. This permit price provides another basis for valuing the Yildiz Mountains carbon biomass. Notionally, the value of a permit can be equated with the

21

http://www.thegef.org/projects/Focal_Areas/climate/climate.html For the UK, guidance on the shadow price of carbon is provided by Defra http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/ climatechange/research/carboncost/pdf/HowtouseSPC.pdf. Similar guidance is provided in other EU countries, e.g. France http://www.strategie.gouv.fr/article.php3?id_article=830 23 www.defra.gov.uk/environment/climatechange/research/carboncost/step2.htm 22

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value that a polluter might have to pay a forest community to avoid the release of or offset a tonne of carbon. The SPC tends to be higher than the ETS €15.24/tonne carbon24 as the latter is determined by specific demand and supply conditions relating to the initial allocation of emissions permits and the current recession which has lead to higher prices for pollution permits. Since valuation is in terms of units of carbon dioxide equivalent CO2e, 1 tonne of carbon emissions is equivalent to 1 x (44/12) = 3.67 tonnes of CO2e. Thus 61.1 t/C/hectare = 224 t/ CO2e /hectare. Hence, the notional (approximate) carbon value per hectare for the biosphere can be estimated 224 t/ CO2e /hectare x £25t/ CO2e = £5,600/hectare (approximately € 4,536) If this is multiplied by a representative forested area (e.g. 98,225 ha for Vize and Demirkoy districts), the estimated value is about €445.5 million using the higher SPC. The actual value that might be captured by the Project area depends on whether there is a willing buyer for the avoided emissions. Ultimately the willingness to pay will be something less that the notional carbon value derived above. There is currently no formal mechanism to transact the forest carbon other than a voluntary market, which is slowly growing in global terms and subject to on-going discussion about the quality25 of carbon that can be credited (Ecosystem Market place 2009)26. In essence, it is likely that only a fraction of this value might be translated into actual returns to the communities involved. Even for this to happen, the proposed offset needs to be verifiable or certified as bona fide credits. These credits must then be purchased by a willing buyer in the voluntary offset market.

6.2. WATER Yildiz Mountains generate of a certain quantity and quality of water that supplies rivers and ground water, which in turn supply irrigation and recharge wells. This water has multiple uses and is valued differently depending on use. Principal uses are by households, industry and agriculture within the Project area. Water is also impounded in reservoirs/dams and exported from the Biosphere to consumers elsewhere in Turkey. Baskent et al. (2009) suggest that, as a rule of thumb27, water usage in Turkey can be broken down on the basis of municipal (15%), agricultural (75%) and industrial (10%). In terms of valuing the volume of water inside the Project area, therefore, it is of interest to consider the value assigned by the largest volumetric user (agriculture) followed by household demand and lastly industry (if significant). Fortunately, there is relatively good data on water consumption that can be used to estimate the economic value. To estimate household value (or willingness to pay) for supply, it is possible to transfer a benefit estimate from a study conducted by Bilgic et al (2008), which used both avoidance behaviour28 and stated preference29 methods to estimate willingness to pay (WTP) for water improvements in the south-eastern Anatolian region of Turkey. Strictly speaking, this study refers to an improvement in existing quality of water 24

th

http://www.pointcarbon.com/ 4 September 2009

25

Here, quality refers to issue of the issues of certification and permanence of the carbon sequestered. 26 Fortifying the Foundation: State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2009 http://ecosystemmarketplace.com/documents/cms_documents/StateOfTheVoluntaryCarbonMarkets_2009%20ExecSumm.pdf 27 A rule of thumb is a term for a principle with broad application that is not intended to be strictly accurate or reliable in every situation. It is an easily learned and applied procedure for approximately calculating or recalling some value, or for making some determination. 28 Averting behaviour requires expenditures that would be made if faced with the environmental health risk. 29 Stated preference or contingent valuation is a survey-based economic technique for the valuation of nonmarket resources such as environmental preservation or the impact of contamination.

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supply, which is slightly different to how villagers in the proposed Biosphere value their current water supply in terms of quantity and quality. Nevertheless, the Bilgic study provides some insight into how households value their supply (irrespective of source), using statistical models to explain WTP based on such variables as income, education, perception about water features and household living conditions. This information (relative income in particular) provides an adjusted WTP from the Anatolian study using a simple unit value transfer. The WTP estimate was around 6.43 TL per month for a good supply. Since income is typically the main driver of WTP, a simple transfer value can be derived as follows: Adjusted WTPbiosphere = WTPA. *(Ybiosphere/YA)e where Y is household income.

In this case the Anatolian estimate is usually called the study site, the Biosphere is the target or policy site, and ‘e’ is the income elasticity of demand. The significance of this elasticity is in representing the relationship between income levels and the WTP for water. In essence, the smaller this assumed elasticity, the lower the influence of income differentials on the transfer value. This parameter can be varied. Thus, to demonstrate with an assumed value = 0, and an Anatolian (study area) monthly income = 1,032 TL (as reported by Bilgic et al) and a Yildiz Mountains Biosphere average maximum household income = 600 TL, then: Implicit adjusted household WTP/month = 6.43 x 0.6/ 1.032 = 3.7 TL The assumption that all households are notionally willing to pay this value per month provides the basis of a total valuation of household water consumption, which is: 44.4 TL/year x c. 5,921 households = 262,892 TL/year or €122,275 /year Agriculture relies on water for a variety of purposes, although this is largely provided by precipitation, with some additional irrigation of arable and fruit. Owing to its associated costs, irrigation is generally limited to improving the yield and quality of high value crops, such as potatoes, field vegetables and soft fruits, and it is particularly important during summer periods of low rainfall. Water is also used by farmers for livestock watering and for cleaning equipment.

Agricultural water use can be inferred from knowing the total water supply for the Biosphere, based on the hydro-ecological study of Yildiz Mountains (YMBP, 2010), and applying a percentage to agricultural uses. The valuation undertaken in this exercise is restricted to irrigation of a range of the most important crops in the Biosphere. For the profit-maximising farmer, demand for irrigation water is dependent on the area of irrigated crop; availability of natural soil moisture from rain; evaporation; crop yield; and crop price. These factors increase or reduce total irrigation water requirement year-to-year in order to generate a constant level of yield or quality. High crop yields may decrease the price one year, causing reduced crop areas in the next year as farmers respond to lowered prices. However, once a farmer has decided his total crop area, the most influential factors are the climatic conditions; these dictate how a farmer responds to day-to-day water needs. Net-back analysis can be used to derive a bound on farmer willingness to pay for water. The analysis calculates the maximum ability to pay for water use from the price of farm output less other farm costs. In order to calculate the net-back, first the total costs of crops, cultivated in villages in restricted area, excluding the cost of water are calculated, then by subtracting the costs from the gross income of farm, the criterion of maximum ability to pay is calculated. For this purpose the following model is used (Bate and Dubourg, 1997):

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N = (P * Q) – C

where, N = net back or net total revenue, Q = crop output, P = price of crop and C = total production cost of horticultural and field crops. (P * Q) is gross total revenue (sales revenue) and (P * Q) divided by production area (ha) is gross revenue/ha.

Net-back, in this way, shows the maximum ability that each farmer could pay for the use of irrigation water. It can be inferred from the previous agriculture calculations that the maximum willingness to pay (per ha) must be something less than the reported gross margins (per ha). In other words less than 282.4 TL/ha and 207 TL/ha for cereals and forage crops, respectively. There are a number of other water-related issues that merit future consideration. These include the following and further details can be found in the ecosystems services report (YMBP, 2010): 

There is an assumed loss of income due to water being transferred from the Project area to Istanbul. This value is simply the volume of water multiplied by a weighted average of household and industrial water tariffs in force in Istanbul. The issue at stake is proprietary rights over water from the Biosphere but it may be inappropriate to try to secure a compensation procedure as this would set a precedent nationally. Yildiz Mountains municipalities, as in other parts of Turkey, probably do not have a property right that can veto national demands and plans for water distribution.



Potentially, more important are losses in land and usufruct rights (e.g. timber and Non Forest Timber Products) when a valley is flooded for water supply or irrigation purposes, as has already happened within the boundaries of the proposed Biosphere. This may have significant impacts on village economies.

Such issues might be addressed through a payment for ecosystem services (PES) arrangement, as happens increasingly in other parts of the world. In the case of water transfer schemes, an alternative is for Istanbul residents to be given a choice to pay a conservation premium to fund development and water-friendly practices in Yildiz Mountains representing the savings that would be made from not having to treat the water.

6.3. TIMBER A variety of timber species are harvested, the main species marketed being pine, beech, oak, poplar, alder and hornbeam. Since the 1980s the Project area has been operating under a notional forest management plans that regulate harvest rates and, therefore, guarantee a sustainable yield. Standing timber and harvest volumes in 2008 are shown in Tables 6.3 and 6.4, respectively, for each forest district within the Project area. Harvested volumes in 2008 are combined with the respective market prices and shown in Table 6.5. From these data a tentative annual timber harvest value of TL 21.3 million (€9.9 million) is estimated. Ideally this value would be based on a three-year average to reduce any significant fluctuations in price or volume data.

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Table 6.3 Standing timber volumes in Project area, classified by forest district, in 2008 Demirköy

Vize

17,254,083

974,773

1,866,845

Increase (m³/yr)

52,0102

29,225

47,910

Planned logging (m³/yr)

176,573

15,620

14,512

Total land area (ha)

84,412

24,035

11,203

Forest area (ha)

75,543

22,725

8,936

Open area (ha)

8,868

1,310

2,267

Standing stock of timber (m³)

Kirklareli

Table 6.4 Volumes of timber harvested from Project area, classified by forest district, in 2008 Forest District Vize

Industrial wood production (m³)

Fuel wood production (m³)

Total timber + wood (m³)

14,150

26,375

40,525

Demirköy

175,200

45,750

220,950

Kirklareli

14,165

17,894

32,059

203,515

90,019

293,534

Total

Table 6.5 Estimates of timber value harvested from Project area in 2008 Price of fuel wood (TL per m³)

Price of wood (TL per m³)

Value Industrial Wood (TL)

Value Fuel wood (TL)

Total Value (TL)

55

70

990,500

1,450,625

2,836,750

55

70

12,264,000

2,516,250

15,466,500

55

70

991,550

984,156

2,244,113

14,246,050

4,951,031

20,547,363

Total

Note: Some of the timber harvest will have been destined for production that adds value (e.g. wood charcoal). This added value is not included here.

6.4. NON-TIMBER FOREST PRODUCTS A range of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are important as local income generating resources. The economic value of these products often depends on harvesting and transportation costs that can sometimes offset the product value at point of sale. There is currently no comprehensive survey of the range of goods and services that are routinely used from the Biosphere, though for some products (e.g. mushrooms) there is clearly extraction on an organized commercial scale. Key products harvested from the Project areas are: fuel wood, mushrooms, honey, berries and vine leaves and medicinal plants. Also, livestock are grazed informally in the area. The Forest District Directorate report formal data on the harvests of some products (e.g. shrubs, vine leaves) although the data appear to fluctuate over recent years. There is a lack of data on informal collection and use of products. The total resource value will be the sum value of formal and informal harvests and a combination of data sources provides an indication of values. For this it is possible to refer to the international literature for relevant information derived from other parts of Turkey. Croitoru (2007) provides estimates of the value of Turkish NTFPs, set out in

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Table 6.6, which can serve as proxies in the absence of comprehensive data for the Project area. Using these and other data, including supporting data from the Project area, the value of NTFPs harvested from the Biosphere is estimated to be 24 €/ha. Table 6.6 Estimate of total value of non-timber forest products harvested from Project area, based on values of NTFPs in Turkey derived from Croitoru (2007) and other sources Product Firewood

Value €/ha Comments on valuation method used by study (2005) 3

Based on an undistorted market price for firewood.

Grazing

12

Based on a substitute good (for forest fodder) – fodder converted to barley equivalent then value based on market value of barley.

Mushrooms

*1

Best estimate from local market prices. Estimate supported by local data (Table 6.7).

Honey

*4

No value provided in the Croitoru study. Based on 2009 estimate for Biosphere (see text below)

Other NTFPs

Total for Project area

4

*24

Mean - Eastern Mediterranean

20

Mean - Northern Mediterranean

41

Products such as chestnuts, berries, acorns and medicinal plants. Based on values derived by Turker et al. (2005) *Total includes estimates for honey, mushrooms and wood fuel derived from data for Project area. NB Includes Turkey

NTFP values can be skewed by over-optimistic assessments of harvest rates or the value of some products (e.g. medicinal plants), the valuation of which is often controversial and dependent on the rates of discovery and how we choose to value products that replace conventional pharmaceuticals. In the analysis conducted by Croitoru, an average value for Turkey is derived, accounting for regional differences in forest productivity. Note also that Turkey is classified as an Eastern Mediterranean country, whereas the Biosphere has much more in common with the Northern Mediterranean and combined values that are as high as 41 €/hectare. In the case of honey and mushrooms, data are locally available from the Forest District Directorates and have been incorporated into Table 6.6. A breakdown of the mushroom harvest for the Biosphere is provided in Table 6.7, from which it is estimated that approximately 1.6 kg mushrooms is annually harvested per hectare, valued at approximately €1 per kg before taking into account transport and harvesting costs (i.e. wages). An estimate for honey is based on anecdotal information from informants at a stakeholder workshop in Demirköy (15/09/2009). The consensus was that a typical bee-keeper annually produced 500kg from 40 hives (approximately 12.5 kg/hive), having a value of 20 TL/kg. Assuming each of 31 villages has on average 3 producers; then value is approximated as 31 * 3* 500 = 52500 * 20 = 1,050,000 TL. Expressed in terms of the forest area (98,225 ha), this translates into a value of 9.5 TL/hectare (approximately €4).

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Table 6.7 Mushroom volumes harvested from forest districts in the Project area in 2008 Species of fungi

Vize kg

Boletus

707,017

Hydnum repandum

Forest area (ha)

Demirköy Kirklareli Kg kg 3,200

74,380

108,713

75,543

3,000

Districts total

Total in Harvest Project area kg/ha/year

713,217

158,894

74,380

1,636

787,597

160,530

184,256

99,460

1.6

The distribution of these benefits is far more tangible than in the case of the more elusive carbon values and there is evidence of cooperative arrangements for large scale harvest. It is less clear how well access to these resources is regulated, with a view to maintaining some optimal level of regeneration or equitable access.

6.5. AGRICULTURAL BIODIVERSITY Estimates of the value of wild crop relatives to global annual food production have been put as high as US$115 billion (Maxted, N. and Kell, S.P., 2009). Future use values and benefits that might accrue from access and benefit sharing, and the genetic value to plant breeders and livestock breeders are less easily or immediately captured by farmers. However, the purpose of the Biosphere should be to put in place a framework that enables not only agricultural biodiversity to be conserved but also its values to be secured for the future benefit of local stakeholders (principally local farmers but also their associated local or provincial government agencies). There is no empirical estimate of the value of Yildiz Mountains’ agro-biodiversity. The benefits of agro-biodiversity can often be masked by other subsidies and policies that make it hard to calculate and compare the benefits to farmers or society in general. For instance, it is not possible to reasonably calculate the economic value of the traditional breeds of Yildiz Mountains’ cattle without stripping away the subsidy and land use policy and other distorting factors, such as the exposure of farmers to risk resulting from cattle unsuited to the harsh conditions and low quality winter feed, or the vulnerability of maize (necessary for winter stall feeding Holstein cattle) to wild boar damage, or even the opportunity costs of developing a Yildiz ‘brand’ based upon traditional breeds and agricultural products.

6.6. RECREATION AND TOURISM There is no specific record of forest recreational use in the Biosphere though nearby Iğneada and the surrounding area is reported to attract around 20,000 visitors in the summer period30, some of whom may break their journey en route. A combination of this meandering behaviour and a lack of obvious forest-related visitor attractions imply that there are few deliberate (sole purpose) visits to the forest area. This suggests that a low recreational value can be attached to the forest area in its present state. Existing benefit estimates can be used to provide an extrapolation of a potential recreational value for the forests. For example, Pak and Turker (2001) derive recreational use values for Sazalan Forest Recreation near Trabzon by using Travel Cost and Contingent Valuation methods. Their study derived a value per visit of 9 TL, based on a travel cost demand function. This study suggests deliberate travel behaviour from significant distances to the forest site 30

Source: GEF II Project

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studied (around 3,000 visits a year). Based on a conservative assumption that a similar number of visits are made to the Yildiz Mountains forests once the Biosphere is designated and advertised, then this implies a value of 27,000 TL or €12,558 per year. Note that this value is additional to anything that tourists might actually spend on accommodation, food or other purchases. Turkey supports a remarkable diversity of ecosystems, plants and animals and Yildiz Mountains is among its strongholds as summarised in Section 4. In addition, the flora include many relatives of important domestic species, including food crops, timber, and a variety of medicinal, aromatic, industrial, and ornamental plants. This biodiversity has value because the international community, for example through the Global Environmental Facility, and individuals are often willing to pay to conserve more of it for a variety of reasons. These may be use-related motives (visitation and viewing) or more intangible reasons, such as existence and bequest motives, or a view that other life forms have intrinsic value that lies beyond any metric imposed by humans. The biosphere concept recognises the spectrum of motives in its underlying rationale. The designation status suggests that a site is part of a global patrimony and, therefore, highly valued by the host nation and the wider global community. As a hotspot, the Yildiz Mountains may be rich in rare species, which can be taken to represent one observable measure of biological diversity that is also tangibly linked to human activity (e.g. viewing of charismatic species). Incidence of some species may influence visitation behaviours, but this is a poor proxy for biodiversity value. Irrespective of the designation, the biodiversity value can be expected to be high, although it is controversial to assign a value based on valuation studies conducted elsewhere.

6.7. HUNTING Records for Kirklareli Province show 3,320 registered hunters, though this is probably only half of the numbers actually hunting informally. The hunting association charges a fee (45 TL/yr) to hunt in the Province. However, the true economic value comprises this value plus the so-called consumer surplus. From international studies the true willingness to pay is typically 20-50 % higher than this value, suggesting a potential willingness to pay value of 54-90 TL (€ 25-42). Thus, a conservative value for hunting is estimated to be €25 x 3320 = € 80,500 per year. As noted, communal arrangements offer the potential for communities to add value to the hunting experience.

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7.

LEGAL AND POLICY FRAMEWORK

7.1. PREVAILING LEGISLATION The proposed Biosphere will necessarily be managed under the prevailing national strategies, plans, laws, regulations and international conventions to which Turkey is signed up. The most relevant of these are listed in Box 7.1 and, together with other existing legal and policy provisions, they provide the enabling environment for the effective functioning of the Biosphere. Importantly, it is not considered necessary to create any new laws in order to establish Yildiz Mountains as a biosphere, as agreed among senior Ministry of Environment and Forestry officials during the development of a governance protocol for the Biosphere (see Section 8.1). Box 7.1

Strategic, policy and legal environment for management of Yildiz Mountains (with dates of ratification or enforcement)

Relevant international conventions ratified by Turkey:  Convention on Biological Diversity (1997)  Convention on Combating Desertification (1998)  Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Flora and Fauna (CITES) (1996)  Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention) (1984)  Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (World Heritage Convention) (1983)  Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar Convention) (1994)  European Landscape Convention (2001)  Framework Convention on Climate Change (2004) Enabling framework of relevant strategies and plans:  Five Year Development Plans and annual programmes prepared by State Planning Organisation  National Environmental Strategy and Action Plan (2006)  National Desertification Action Plan (2005)  The National Forest Programme (2004)  The National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (2001)  National Program for Accession to EU (2003)  Tourism Strategy of Turkey - 2023 (2007) Enabling framework of relevant national legislation:  Law on Coastal Shores - 3621 (1990)  Law on Cooperatives - 1163 (1969)  Law on Environment - 2872 (1983)  Law on Fishery Products - 1380 (1971)  Law on Forestry - 6831 (1956)  Law on Terrestrial Hunting - 4915 (2003)  Law on Military Prohibited Areas and Security Zones - No.2565 (1981)  Law on National Parks - 2873 (1983)  Law on Protection of Cultural and Natural Heritage - 2863 (1983)  Law on Range - 4342 (1998)  Law on Soil Conservation - 5403 (2005)  Law on Tourism Promotion - 2634 (1982)

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 Law on Underground Waters - 167 (1961) Other relevant national environmental regulations:  Regulation on Air Pollution Control (1986)  Regulation on Collecting, Protection and Usage of the Plant Genetic Resources (1992)  Regulation on Control of Harmful Chemicals and Products (1993)  Regulation on Environmental Impact Assessment (1993)  Regulation on Environmental Pollution Prevention (1985)  Regulation on Hazardous Waste Control (1995)  Regulation on Landfill Guidelines (1999 Revision)  Regulation on Medical Waste Control (1993)  Regulation on Noise Control (1986)  Regulation on Solid Waste Control (1991)  Regulation on Water Pollution Control (1988)  Regulation on Wetlands (2005)

7.2. LAND OWNERSHIP The majority of land within the proposed Biosphere is owned by the State (Treasury), except in the case of settlements and cultivations. Most of the area is forested and managed by the General Directorate of Forestry (DGF-OGM), Ministry of Environment and Forestry. Within these managed forests are a number of glades (open areas) occupied by small farms, where villagers enjoy traditional usufruct rights that includes livestock grazing and collection of non-timber forest products for domestic (but not commercial) use. The total area of these farms is 1,200 ha although, in practice, such traditional activities spread over a larger area. A total of 31 villages have land assets within the Biosphere, including six villages that lie outside its proposed boundary. Over 90% of the Biosphere consists of dense forests, therefore agriculture is practiced only in a limited number of areas, such as in rural settlements where usufruct arrangements exist, privately owned land that is mostly around rivers and unsuitable for forestry31 and in lowland areas. The agricultural area available per family and the resulting crops and agricultural income from these areas are normally insufficient for their livelihood, so villagers also tend to engage in free-range grazing and animal breeding. This is mainly done in forest areas and the protected longoz forest and coastal dunes because of the limited availability of grassland to village communities. The unresolved issue of the certificate of ownership of cultivated land is a very real concern to the Yildiz Mountains communities. According to general opinion, there is several times more land under cultivation than officially recorded at the land registry office. This continues to be a source of conflict between the Forestry District Directorate and the villagers. Moreover, as the certificate of ownership is required in order to access credit by whatever means, a large number of small producers are denied access to credit. The forest cadastral survey in the area is largely completed; apparently resolving this issue to a great extent but not without incurring hardship and loss of livelihood earnings for some villagers and therefore the certificate of ownership of cultivated lands continues to be a contested issue from the perspective of the communities.

31

An important development within the biosphere has been the planting of poplar trees on these privately owned river side meadows.

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7.3. EXISTING DESIGNATED AREAS There are two principle laws providing for the establishment of a variety of protected areas, namely the National Parks Law No. 2873 and the Law on the Protection of Cultural and Natural Values No. 2863. In addition, Forestry Law No. 6831 provides for seed stands and gene protection forests. Provisions for the various designations under these laws are given in Box. 7.1. Box 7.1

Provisions for protected areas designation under Turkish legislation

National Parks Law, No.2873  National Park - a natural area that, from scientific and aesthetic standpoints, has natural and cultural values of rare national and international status, with provisions for tourism/recreation.  Nature Reserve - a natural area designated for use only for scientific and educational purposes that contains endangered, threatened or rare ecosystems, species and outstanding examples of natural phenomena, which should be strictly protected.  Nature Park – a natural area containing characteristic vegetation and wildlife features, which is suitable for public enjoyment of its scenery and recreational activities. (Sometimes referred to as a Recreational Area.)  Natural Monument – a natural area having characteristics and scientific values brought about by natural phenomena and protected within the framework of the principles for national parks. Law on the Protection of Cultural and Natural Values No. 2863  First Degree Natural Site - a fully protected site where activities are limited to scientific studies for conservation purposes. Construction is strictly prohibited except where it is deemed necessary to provide infrastructure services such as sewage, cable railway, drinking water supplies, power cable lines etc. for which permission must be obtained from the Protection Board. Permission can also be granted for public recreational facilities, such as restaurants and cafeterias, toilets, footpaths and open parking lots, etc., subject to proposals being in accord with the Environmental Regulatory Plan and Public Improvement Plan.  Second Degree Natural Site – may be used for purposes other than strict protection, taking into account the wider interests of the public. Facilities may be constructed subject to the approval of the Protection Board. Existing agricultural practices and animal husbandry are permitted.  First Degree Archaeological Site - a fully protected site where activities are limited to scientific studies for conservation purposes. Similar provisions apply to construction activities as for First Degree Natural Sites, with the additional provision that Protection Board must receive the views of the Museum Directorate or Excavation Chairman before deciding on proposed activities.  Second Degree Archaeological Site - a fully protected site where activities are limited to scientific studies for conservation purposes. New constructions are not allowed but maintenance activities may be allowed for existing infrastructure. Forestry Law No. 6831  Seed Stand - a stand located in a specific geographical region where specimen trees are selected and subject to special management for seed production purposes.  Gene Protection Forest - a natural stand of trees of a specific species designated for in-situ conservation of its genetic diversity.

The proposed Biosphere encompasses two protected areas designated under the National Parks Law No. 2873, managed by the General Directorate of Nature Conservation and National Parks (GDNCNP), Ministry of Environment and Forestry, as shown in Figure 7.1. They are as follows:  Đğneada Longoz Forest National Park (established 13.11.2007, area 3,155 ha)32; and  Kasatura Bay Nature Reserve (established 18.04.1987, area 329 ha). 32

Đğneada National Park was created by enlarging the borders of the former Saka Lake Longoz Nature Reserve.

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Figure 7.1 Location and extent of protected areas designated under National Parks Law 2873 A number of natural sites and cultural assets are protected by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism under the provisions of the Protection of Cultural and Natural Heritage Law No. 2863, as follows: 

First Degree Natural Sites: Erikli Lake, Saka Lake, four tumuli and Saka swamp (1991), Mert Lake (1994);



Second Degree Natural Site: Dupnisa Cave (2001)33;



First Degree Archaeological Site: Rampana burial ground (1991);



Second Degree Archaeological Site: the area between Erikli Lake and the sea (1994);



Registered Cultural Heritage Site: Demirköy Fatih Iron Foundry (1991); and



Registered Cultural Heritage and Natural Sites: Hamam Lake, Pedina Lake, Genoese Castle in the forest and four tumuli (1990).

The locations of these protected areas are shown Figure 7.2. In some instances more than one protection status may apply. For example, Saka Lake is designated as a First Degree Natural Site and a National Park.

33

Originally established as a First Degree Natural Site in 1992, covering an above ground area of 1.68 ha.

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Figure 7.2 Location and extent of protected areas designated under the Protection of Cultural and Natural Values Law 2863, with insets of the larger natural sites. There are a number of seed stands and gene protection forests in the proposed Biosphere are managed by GDF, for example: Sorbus aucuparia (10 ha) and Taxus baccata (70 ha) gene protection forests, both of which were designated in 2007. Mert Gölü Recreation Area (10 ha), which abuts Longoz Forest National Park, is purely for recreational purposes.

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8.

STRATEGY FOR DEVELOPMENT OF YILDIZ MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE

A main objective of the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project has been to identify, develop and, in so far as time permits, pilot appropriate structures and mechanisms for the governance of the proposed Biosphere and management of its resources. These are considered in Sections 8.1 and 8.2, respectively. A zonation strategy to manage these resources is outlined in subsequent sections.

8.1. GOVERNANCE A working group, comprising senior officials from the Ministry of Environment and Forestry and the Provincial Governorship of Kirklareli, was tasked with developing a governance structure for the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere as part of a study tour in France to visit a cross-border biosphere reserve and the Man and Biosphere secretariat at UNESCO Headquarters, Paris in October, 2009. The output from this working group, referred to as the ‘Paris Accord’ which documents what was agreed by all members of this independently facilitated task force, is provided in Annex 8 and summarised below. It has been agreed that the management of the Biosphere should be carried out by two committees: an executive Management Committee, responsible for overseeing the planning and implementation of the management plan, including its initial development from a preliminary plan to a full management plan; and an Advisory Committee, in which a wider range of stakeholders will be able to contribute to the decision-making process. The membership and roles of these committees is outlined below. 8.1.1

Guiding principles

It is important that any biosphere governance structure should operate according to an agreed set of principles and a code of conduct. It is agreed that the guiding principles for the management of the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere will be: 

Openness: all stakeholders to have confidence in the decision process.



Inclusivity: all stakeholders to have access and appropriate involvement



Integrity: all officials to be honest and trustworthy.



Accountability: all committee members to be held responsible for their actions and decisions.

8.1.2

Management Committee

Responsibility for overseeing the planning and management of the Yildiz Mountain Biosphere will be with a Management Committee, which will have executive powers. Membership will comprise representatives of the main government departments, supported by representatives of the municipalities and by the Chairperson of the Advisory Committee to ensure that all stakeholders are able to influence the decision-making process. While it may be appropriate for the membership of the Management Committee to change over time, it will be established initially with a membership of 15, representing the following stakeholders:  Kirklareli Governorship (Chair)  Provincial Directorate of Environment and Forestry  Regional Directorate of Forestry

34

 Forestry District Directorates (x three )  Kirklareli Province Special Administration  General Directorate of Forestry 34

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 General Directorate of Nature Conservation and National Parks  Provincial Directorate of Agriculture  Provincial Directorate of Tourism and Culture  Representative of municipality mayors

 Independent representatives (maximum of two)  Chairperson of Advisory Committee

In agreeing this membership of the Management Committee, the following points have been taken into account: 

The role of Chairperson of the Management Committee is to ensure that decisions are made and implemented in a fair and professional manner, by involving all members of the Committee in the discussion and decision-making. The Chairperson is expected to coordinate and facilitate discussion leading to joint decisions.



The Management Committee will appoint a Deputy Chairperson, who should represent the forestry sector that is the largest economic activity in the Biosphere.



The appointment of the Chairperson and Deputy Chairperson will initially be for a period of two years. After two years, the Committee will elect the Chairperson and Deputy Chairperson from among its members.



If the Chairperson is unable to attend a meeting, it will be chaired by the Deputy Chairperson.



Decisions will be made on the basis of a vote, with each member having one vote.



The Management Committee will need to decide how many persons need to be present for any decisions to be valid: it is recommended that a minimum of eight persons in favour is necessary for a decision to be valid.



The majority control of resources will continue to rest with the provincial forestry operations, and their representatives will therefore have, in practice, a power of veto over the operations of the Management Committee.



The Management Committee will not have the power to operate in a way that is contrary to the policies and guidelines of the Forestry District Directorates.



The municipalities within the Biosphere will be responsible for selecting one of their number to sit on the Management Committee. It is expected that this role will be rotated among the municipalities.



It is important independent representatives are appointed to the Management Committee, as this will broaden its membership and raise its credibility within the region.



The Chairperson of the Advisory Committee will represent the views of the Advisory Committee on matters discussed and decisions made by the Management Committee. If decisions are made contrary to the views of the Advisory Committee, the reasons must be clearly set out and communicated back to the Advisory Committee.



The Management Committee will have the right to invite technical specialists to attend or address its meetings, or to appoint technical groups to study specific areas of policy.

The Terms of Reference for the Management Committee are included in Appendix B of the Paris Accord (Annex 8).

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8.1.3

Advisory Committee

Although the Management Committee will make decisions and is responsible for the operations of the Biosphere, it is the effectiveness of the Advisory Committee that will decide its success or failure. The purpose of the Biosphere is to conserve the important ecology of the Yildiz Mountains and to encourage the sustainable development of the area. The central and provincial government will have an important role in providing logistical support, but the contributors to and beneficiaries of the Biosphere will be the people who live and work in the area. The Advisory Committee is the forum for their voices to be heard and their contribution to policy and management to be made. The Advisory Committee will meet before the Management Committee and will have a similar agenda. The Chairperson of the Advisory Committee, therefore, will attend the Management Committee with a clear idea of the views of the people of the area on the items under discussion, and will be responsible for presenting those views to the Management Committee. It is expected that the Management Committee will reflect the views of the Advisory Committee in its decisions. If this is not the case, then the Chairperson of the Advisory Committee must be given clear reasons as to why the views of the Advisory Committee have been ignored or over-ruled. There are therefore two main requirements for the success of the Advisory Committee: 

It must include representatives of local stakeholders in the Biosphere who are able and willing to express their views clearly to the Advisory Committee.



The Chairperson must have the skills to manage the discussion in the Advisory Committee so that all members have the opportunity to express their views, and to present these views clearly and fairly to the Management Committee.

Provided these two requirements are met, the precise composition and procedures of the Advisory Committee are less important. The Advisory Committee should initially build on the existing Stakeholder Working Group with representatives of villages, cooperatives and unions, municipalities, non-governmental and private sector organisations, hunters, the military, young people and women. The Chairperson and Deputy Chairperson will be elected by the members of the Advisory Committee for an initial term of two years. The Terms of Reference for the Advisory Committee are included in Appendix C of the Paris Accord (Annex 8). 8.1.4

Legislative framework

There has been some concern about the legislative basis needed for the establishment of the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere. However, the advice from UNESCO is that, wherever possible, biospheres should be established within the existing legislative structure. It has been agreed that existing legislative provisions in Turkey are sufficient for the protection of the core areas, and that no further legislation is needed for buffer zones and transition areas. The establishment of the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere, therefore, can proceed without additional legislative intervention. 8.1.5

Biosphere Support Unit

It is intended that that the Biosphere should utilise existing resources to conserve ecologically important areas and to encourage and support sustainable development. The benefits will be obtained by improving the liaison and cooperation between the activities of different agencies and the local population, by establishing partnerships with shared aims and, if appropriate, seeking

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additional funding for identified projects. It will be the responsibility of the Management Committee to obtain these benefits. To support this, a Biosphere Support Unit will be established within the Provincial Directorate of Environment and Forestry. The purpose of this Unit is to initiate activities in support of the Management Committee’s responsibility to achieve the objectives of the management plan. This Unit need be no larger than three persons initially, and will be staffed by the attachment of personnel from different agencies already working in the area. 8.1.6

Recommendations for policy development

It is the expectation in Turkey that protected areas should operate according to a management plan. Moreover, a management plan is a requirement for any biosphere nominated for inclusion in the World Network of Biosphere Reserves that is coordinated by the UNESCO Man and Biosphere Programme. The process of preparing a plan has been begun by the consultants. To be completed, this Feasibility Study for a Management Plan needs to be developed into a comprehensive management plan with a full set of activities that addresses local priorities and needs, in accordance with the visions and objectives agreed to date. 8.1.7

Stakeholder Working Group feedback on the Paris Accord

The Paris Accord concerning the future governance of the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere was shared with members of the Stakeholder Working Group at its meeting on 5 November 2009. There was broad agreement with the governance structure, to which the following comments and recommendations are submitted for further consideration: 

As the working group on governance did not include representatives from sectors other than forestry and environment, policies and guidelines from other sectors such as agriculture and tourism may need to be taken into account.



The Management Committee should be transformed into a more democratic structure by increasing the number of civil members, particularly community representatives. It is proposed that the Management Committee should consist of 20 members plus a Chairperson, with no more than 10 being from the public agencies and the rest from the village communities.



Criteria for selection of members of the Advisory Committee should include the following:  an ability to clearly express themselves;  knowledge and familiarity with the problems of the Biosphere;  those who have internalized the objectives of the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project;  those who participated in the Stakeholder Working Group regularly;  those who are well recognized in their locality;  at least 30% representation by women;  Cooperative heads where there are cooperatives; and  Muhtars where there are not any cooperatives  Advisory Committee members who do not attend three consecutive meetings without any acceptable reason should be replaced.

8.2. COMMUNITY-BASED NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT In developing a system and approach for the future management of resources within the proposed Biosphere, particular account has been taken of the strengths and limitations of existing

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management systems such as village cooperatives. Their development is based upon a number of principles, namely:   

the costs and benefits of conservation management should be equitably shared; the authority and responsibility for resource management must reflect the de facto managers; and security of tenure encourages investment in sustainable management, and pricing of natural resources can and does affect their values to rural communities.

The main purpose of these principles is to ensure that either protection or utilisation is applied as a management strategy and to avoid at all costs having to abandon a resource, either by choice or as a result of neglect. Implicit in this approach is that with limited material, human and financial resources the most effective form of managing the natural resources of the Yildiz Mountains will be through a consensual process, with sustainable use providing the primary incentive for wise management. 8.2.1

Social and economic development of Yildiz Mountains communities

The local communities’ needs are very closely linked with the sustainability and well-being of the natural resource base. Any premise that rural people have little interest in natural resource management and, therefore, must be offered incentives to encourage them to participate is baseless. In fact, rural people regard biodiversity and other natural values as an important part of their livelihood and its sustainable use is of real concern to them. What is at stake is the nature of their participation. Passive participation will incur significant time costs and alternative livelihoods, based on untried and untested enterprises and markets, are likely to expose them to significant economic risks which they will be unwilling to incur. In order to maximise the effectiveness of management and the efficiency of local incomegenerating livelihoods, it will be important to develop different approaches to management and to distribute management costs and benefits equitably amongst stakeholders to reward good management. In order to meet both the aspirations of local communities and conserve biodiversity, as well as benefit from other natural values and ecosystem services, it must be assumed that the state will protect those resources or areas most vulnerable. The remainder will need to be managed by those people closest to the resources (i.e. village communities). What is being described is community-based natural resource management (CBNRM), whereby the local communities are given a greater role in managing the natural resources in Yildiz Mountains and, in return, benefit to a greater extent from them. CBNRM consists of three major components, namely: 1. income generation and employment creation through small/medium enterprises; 2. capacity building of community institutions, improved internal governance, accountability and equitable distribution of benefits; and 3. management of natural resources at the community level. The proposed Biosphere must not just focus on the first component of CBNRM, the development of enterprises and income generation, which is the activity that will provide the motivation, or incentive, for sustainable management. Support programmes can readily implement this component when there is sufficient organisation at the community level to adequately manage the natural resources upon which any of these enterprises are reliant. It is imperative that

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structures and mechanisms for sustainable managing these precious resources are established ahead or, at the very least, at the same time as income generating activities are developed. The organisation of the community and the dynamics between what is a common pool property and what is a common benefit or private benefit or enterprise, as well as the sustainable management of biodiversity, requires specialist knowledge of ecology, society and the economy. Such knowledge needs to be applied in developing the communities’ internal organisational capacities to sustainably manage the natural resources and equitably distribute the benefits. Thus, income generation must be linked to the wise management of the natural resources and the benefits must reflect the costs of management, otherwise there is a significant risk of overexploitation as users discount the resource in return for short term gains. Moreover, the rights of access to the resources must be clearly defined and regulated, otherwise outsiders will benefit disproportionately from the resources at the expense of the local population. 8.2.2

Defining the community

The term community is very often ill-defined; indeed, it means many things to different people. This lack of clear definition of community is one of the critical factors that affect common property resource regimes. Therefore, if the wild resources in Yildiz Mountains are to be effectively managed by the community, it is imperative to define community. If the “community” can be defined spatially, numerically and legally, this equates to a unit of management for a common property regime. One such structure that can be utilised for this purpose in the Yildiz Mountains is the village cooperative system. This has been explored by the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project to determine whether it might be an effective and equitable community-based institution that can conditionally manage the biodiversity resources as a common property, in partnership with the state agencies. There are number of features of cooperatives that lend themselves to common property management: 

The Cooperative has a membership that legally may include all members of a village. In practice, it is generally accepted that the head of the household is a member of the cooperative, thereby ensuring that each household has a fair share in the forestry entries.



The Cooperative is spatially defined – at least in terms of the Forestry District Directorates (FDDs) and this is generally accepted among different cooperatives and other agencies. There is some question about whether these boundaries are legally defined by mapping, irrespective of which they need to be mapped to provide for clarity and accountability.



The Cooperative, therefore, has a membership, which is broadly representative of the community. It has an Executive Board, which by law must comprise at least three Directors who are elected. The composition of the Board is determined at the time of a Cooperative’s establishment and specified in its constitution. In some Cooperatives in Yildiz Mountains, there are four Directors, one President and two inspectors/auditors. Thus, the Cooperative has accountability and the ability to make decisions; essentially it is a democratic organisation, although many cooperatives continue to be challenged by their internal governance. Also specified in the Constitution are the functions of the Cooperative, which may include a degree of purchasing power for agricultural inputs, as well as negotiating timber extraction concessions and allocating the benefits amongst its membership.

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Importantly, this structure can be conditionally given a proprietary role in the management of a range of natural resources for an agreed purpose – economic development and biodiversity conservation. The cooperative already allocates resources within the system, in as much as it buys standing timber from the FDD; cuts, transports and sells the timber; and distributes the income amongst the membership after repaying the FDD. Critically, the timber is allocated by the FDD using a system that allows the cooperative to pay the FDD incrementally post sale to the buyer, indicative of a level of sophistication and trust already in existence. However, the cooperatives current relationship with the FDD is not an equal one in that it has very little influence over the management of timber resources and, in its current situation, is essentially a mechanism to organise the distribution of payments from the FDD to the community members. The cooperative is a legal entity established under the provisions of the Law on Cooperatives, No. 1163. It is recognised by the state as a body corporate under the authority of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs. As such it can operate in much the same way as a private company (conditionally), “owning” assets (natural resources) on behalf of the state. The assets of the cooperative are those natural resources which it can manage and utilise for profit. The profit belongs to the cooperative; it should be taxed by the state and distributed amongst the membership and/or reinvested by the community for development and management of the assets. Cooperatives have been subject to a considerable amount of review by stakeholders during the course of Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project, including a series of evaluations of their strengths and weaknesses. The results of these evaluations are summarised in Annex 9. 8.2.3

A diversity of assets and associated enterprises

No single income generating opportunity will resolve the economic development challenges faced by the Yildiz Mountains communities. Neither is there a single management activity that will result in the sustainable management of the various biological and physical resources. Rather a diversity and multiplicity of income generating and management activities is required to sustain local livelihoods. The natural or biodiversity resources and landscape characteristics of Yildiz Mountains within a spatially defined area comprise the sum of a village’s economic assets and their management must be by way of a comprehensive village plan developed by the membership of the cooperative in partnership with the state agencies. Critical aspects of this approach are that good management practices are rewarded by the income generating activities and that equal shares do not override issues of uneven distribution of opportunity. The cooperative should be able to: 

Integrate specific interests and user groups into the organisation at the level of the community.



Develop a spatial plan for the coherent management of all these assets in accordance with the Forest Management Plans, Grazing Plan, Đğneada Longoz Forest National Park Management Plan (under preparation) and this Preliminary Management Plan.



Define what is a common asset and thus a cooperative income.



Define what is a private asset and thus a private income.



Collect user fees on behalf of the membership.

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Collect user fees on behalf of the state for the use of these assets (recognising that the state agencies play an important role in providing the policy and regulatory framework for this to take place).

Some examples of existing assets (resources), associated management activities and potential enterprises that could be developed under Village Resources Management Plans35 are listed in Table 8.1. Table 8.1 Assets available from Yildiz Mountains, related management activities and potential income generating enterprises Biosphere Management Plan - Strategic and Policy Framework (Management Committee) Forest Management Plans (FDD) Village Resources Management Plans - Site Management Plans (Village Cooperatives) Resources (assets) Management activities Enterprises Flora and mushrooms

Grazing management Inventory Harvesting techniques Set aside areas Forest management Enforcement Agreed control of other forest activities

Trees

Forest management Inventory Enforcement

Rivers, streams and fish

River and water management Sewage disposal Enforcement Forest management Cover crops Crop protection (fencing, etc.) Enforcement Agreed control of other forest activities Planning Rubbish collection Enforcement

Game species

Landscape

8.2.4

Animal husbandry Cheese production Meat production Medicinal and aromatic plant collection Wild fruit collection and processing Mushroom collection and processing Wild flower collection Beekeeping Marketing Timber extraction processing Round timber Charcoal (and pyrolysis products) Shingles Flooring Building timber Marketing Fishing, Hospitality services Marketing Hunting Taxidermy Guiding Hospitality services Marketing Tourism Hospitality services Marketing

Common property

An important facet of the proposed system is that it distinguishes between what is a common pool resource or asset and what is essentially a private enterprise, while clearly recognising the states’ overarching ownership of these resources. In a free market economy it is likely that private enterprises will be most efficient and have the greatest chance of success. Indeed the temptation for the individual to maximise profit was identified by Garrett Harding in the 1960s when he wrote The Tragedy of the Commons, painting 35

Village Resources Management Plans currently do not exist but they will be an inevitable consequence of a community-based approach to the management of natural resources.

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a bleak picture for common pool resources and suggesting that the individual was locked into a system that would exploit without limit. However, it has since been shown that this somewhat negative picture need not necessarily be the outcome for common pool resources. Indeed, the recent award of the Nobel Prize for Economics to Professor Elinor Ostrom has clearly demonstrated that common property systems can operate effectively given the right conditions. Professor Ostrom challenged the established assumption that common property is poorly managed unless it is either regulated by government or privatised. She has shown how disparate individuals can, and do, band together and form common property management regimes that protect the resource at hand for the benefit of the membership or commonage. The system proposed for Yildiz Mountains villages is intended to allow for collective decisionmaking over those resources that “belong36” to the community. The model provides for both the appropriate authority and responsibility for the resources to be assigned to the cooperative; it apportions costs and benefits; and it provides for security of tenure to invest in managing the resources, as well as a transparent pricing system that provides the financial motivation for wise management. In effect the villagers will become the de facto custodians of the resources, while the state remains the de jure owner of the resources. An opportunity to develop such a system is fundamental to the establishment of the proposed Biosphere. While many of the basic components of the system already exist, it will require: 

a programme of capacity building with cooperatives and provincial government agencies;



changes to the regulations (but probably not the Laws)37;



time to develop the system through the Biosphere management planning process; and



the inclusion of all the natural resources (protected and sustainably utilised) within a single village/cooperative-level resource management plan (in accordance with the Biosphere Management Plan and the relevant Forest Management Plan).

However, it is important not to exaggerate the economic gains from community-based management. In certain circumstances the income generated by sustainable use of biodiversity can be extraordinary but, in most instances, utilisation of wild products offers no more than modest, sustainable and secure incomes to local communities. That said, linking the economic benefit with the management of the resources has the effect of substantially empowering local communities, particularly women, and producing significant and lasting social capital. 8.2.5

Trust – a basis for good governance and good management

It is important at the initial stage of this process of developing a system of governance and managing natural resources that these descriptions do not become too prescriptive. It is far more important to allow these management structures to grow organically, than produce an ideal “blue print” which stakeholders cannot necessarily realise. Arguably, there is an inherent weakness in the proposed system because it will depend largely on trust within the communities themselves, and between the state agencies and communities. However, trust is a key component of any governance system, as it is in any commerce. Trust increases efficiency and significantly reduces transaction costs. Therefore trust should be a worthy goal of the Biosphere approach. 36

It should be clearly stated that ownership of these resources will remain with the state but there will be an agreed and conditional right for members of the cooperative to manage and benefit from the resources. 37 For example, Article 37 of the Forestry Law currently allows private individuals to collect mushrooms, subject to signing an agreement with the Forestry District Directorate and paying a fee. Such provisions need to be amended so that everything is managed via the cooperative.

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The issue of trust has been central to the process of establishing the proposed Biosphere (broad participation in the process, village meetings, formation of Stakeholder Working Group and Management Planning Unit, transparency in reporting, etc.) and the selection of the village level cooperatives as a proposed unit of management. The proposed conditional transfer of the day-today management of these resources from agency to village level has been intentional in order to meet a fundamental principal of sustainable use, namely that: The unit for collective management should be as small as practicable and functionally efficient within ecological and socio-political constraints. From a social dynamics perspective, scale is an important consideration: large-scale externally imposed structures tend to be ineffective, increasing the potential for corruption, evasion of responsibility and lethargy in respect of broad participation. Where collective management structures are based on existing collective decision-making structures and are at a scale that ensures regular contact of the members, it becomes possible to enforce conformity to rules through peer pressure and control individual actions through collective sanction. 8.2.6

Common property and private enterprise

The distinction between the common property and private enterprise is critical to how the system will work. Collective enterprises are much harder to sustain and it should be clearly understood that in most instances the cooperative will concern itself with management of, and controlling access to, the resources. The sale of these assets will be a common benefit to be distributed amongst the membership – although it is important to note that the distribution of benefits amongst the membership should reflect the costs incurred. For instance, a villager growing maize may incur greater costs from managing wild boars than a villager without maize fields. The cooperative is situated at a level at which appropriate can decisions can be made about the management of the resources, including the decision to sell the resources and to apportion the benefits of sale amongst the membership. Once the cooperative has sold the resource it becomes, for all intents and purposes, a private property to be disposed of as the purchaser sees fit, within reason and prevailing legislation. 8.2.7

Piloting CBNRM

The existing ways in which village cooperatives, hunting associations, private enterprises and individual entrepreneurs are involved with government agencies in the management of natural resources in the Yildiz Mountains is shown schematically in Figure 8.1. The proposed system of CBNRM, in which all resource use is directed through the village cooperatives and subject to their management agreements with the government agencies, is shown in Figure 8.2. Further details about the principles that underpin CBNRM can be found in YMBP Report Series No. 8.

As explained in Section 8.2.1, it is necessary to put in the place the management systems for sustainably using natural resources ahead of promoting existing income-generating activities or introducing new enterprises. As part of the current Project’s capacity building programme to develop CBNRM, cooperatives and various association (e.g. hunting, bee-keeping) were invited to a two-day facilitated workshop to work with provincial government agencies and define the framework for a series of management agreements covering a range of natural resources. The outputs from this workshop, presented in Annex 10, provide the basis for developing such agreements and piloting CBNRM under the model described in this Section 8.2 and summarised in Figure 8.2.

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Individuals buy standing timber from FDD

Cooperative buys standing timber from FDD

Forest Management Plan National Park

Individual Enterprise

Forest District Directorate

Other Members of Village

Cooperative Director and Board Village Membership Group Enterprise to Cut and Sell Timber (including villages without Coops)

Game Animals

Other Village Natural Resources: Tourism Resources, etc.

External Hunters

Figure 8.1

External producers (MDF, mushroom producers, etc.) pay cooperative for resources

Hunters pay for licence to hunt to MoE Processors are able to control prices paid for resources from village lands

Current resource management in the Yildiz Mountains

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External Industry & Processors

Mushrooms

Medicinal & Aromatic Plants

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Forest District Directorate

Advisory Committee (including Cooperative representation)

Ministry of Environment & Forestry

External Industry & Processors Core Areas e.g. National Park

Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Management Plan Biosphere Management Committee Cooperative pays FDD agreed price for standing timber and mushrooms

Forest Management Plan Village Resource Management Plans Group Enterprise

Cooperative pays MoE (Biosphere Reserve fund) proportion of fees paid by hunters

Common Management Village Natural Resources: Trees, Game Animals, Mushrooms, Medicinal & Aromatic Plants, Pastures, Fish, Tourism Resources, etc. Hunters pay cooperative for licence (set by cooperative) to hunt and group or individual members for hunting services

Figure 8.2 Proposed resource management in Yildiz Mountains Biosphere

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Cooperative Director and Board Village Membership

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External produc (MDF, mushroo producers, etc.) negotiates with cooperative for resources suppl membership

External Hunters

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8.3. ZONATION Biodiversity conservation managers are faced with an immeasurable and complex set of issues, all of which impact upon the values they are trying to conserve with unpredictable and uncertain outcomes. It is against this background that managers must frame their decisions. Moreover, it is important to remember that these decisions are not made in isolation and are heavily influenced by other, often external, issues such as financing, public opinion, and local or national priorities. Thus, a rational framework to guide decision-making is an essential first step in conservation planning and management. This framework can be a set of options that are available to managers – a bigger picture – against which the many value judgements and priorities can be measured, thereby providing a basis for the distribution of management zones within the proposed Biosphere. It is based on the reasonable assumption that with limited financial resources available for managing biodiversity and cultural natural values, three options are available to managers. The three options are protection, utilisation or abandonment, each of which is elaborated below. Protection38: Given that the particular circumstances of a resource, such as scarcity, level of threat, historic events etc., result in a precarious situation where utilisation of the resource is considered too risky, protection through protected area designation and other means is a valuable tool to ensure its security and maintenance. However, this is a costly option and these costs (prohibition, enforcement, management, opportunity costs39 etc.) are both definable and measurable. Hence, sustainability of this option can be measured against the ability of society and government to meet these costs. In the light of scarce finances, protection needs to be considered against a range of issues. When protection is the preferred means of management it is important to realise that normally authority and responsibility rest entirely with the state, though the administration can of course decide to outsource protection activities (i.e. safeguarding the resource) to service providers, including community associations, but under these arrangements the financing invariably falls upon state budgets. Utilisation: Use can improve the status of a resource. If a resource can withstand a level of utilisation that is biologically sustainable, it is possible to establish a management regime that maintains the resource at an acceptable level, providing those who incur the management or opportunity costs are the primary beneficiaries of its utilisation. When managers opt for sustainable use instead of protection, they open the possibility for involving users in the management of a resource. Sustainable use of a resource requires a clear framework and adequate pricing mechanisms, whereby the benefits of wise management are equal to or greater than the costs of management and these are captured at a local level by those who are incurring the costs of management. Abandonment: If a resource cannot be utilised sustainably and society is either unable or unwilling to incur the costs of protecting the resource, then the resource must be abandoned. Thus; there is a high risk of biological or economic extinction. While it is unlikely that any society would knowingly advocate abandoning a resource (i.e. a species, population or ecosystem), when protection measures are applied without adequate material resources or capacity to 38

In this instance protection is taken as the absolute prohibition of any form of use of a resource or natural value. However, it should also be stressed that when a resource is utilised it is often given greater protection in terms of sustainability than if its use were to be prohibited. 39 The value of an opportunity that is lost or sacrificed when the choice of one course of action requires that another must be given up.

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effectively carry this out, there is a high risk of abandonment by default. This situation exists in many protected areas around the world where competition for scarce financial resources across all policy sectors (health, education, infrastructure, defence, etc.) results in under-funding, leading to a gradual degradation of the habitat and/or species loss as a result of uncontrolled and opportunistic illegal activities.

8.4. ZONATION - PROCESS The involvement of stakeholders is critical in the design of an agreed process for identifying and establishing management zones within the Biosphere that is transparent, fair and accountable. Such a process has been developed by the Management Planning Unit and agreed by the Stakeholder Working Group with respect to core areas during the present Project. It is elaborated in Box 8.1 and applies equally to buffer zones and transition areas, in instances requiring conflicts of interest to be resolved. This process can be expected to take at least year in the case of minimal conflicts of interest that can be relatively easily addressed without any requirement for a socio-economic impact assessment, if it is considered necessary to legally designate the core as a protected area. Where access to resources is highly contested, it may be necessary that socio-economic impact assessments are required and mitigation measures prove necessary, the process may need several years in order to ensure consensus among stakeholders. Box 8.1

Process for establishment of management zones in Yildiz Mountains Biosphere

Phase 1 Identification of potential core area and conflicts of interest: 1. Identify potential core area for protection of biodiversity, in accordance with Article 4 of the Statutory Framework of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves (Box 1.1). [Identification of needs to be based on ecological principles and the available supporting evidence.] 2. Establish a working group comprising relevant scientific experts, government agencies, landowners and community representatives to examine core area on the ground and identify: (a) Potential boundaries of the proposed area; and (b) Potential conflicts of interest that need to be addressed. 3. A report is prepared, based on the findings of this working group, and submitted to the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Advisory Committee and, subsequently, with the views of the Advisory Committee, to the Management Committee. Phase 2 Resolution of conflicts of interest and establishment of core area(s): 4. The report on the justification for the core area, its proposed boundaries and any potential conflicts of interest is reviewed by the Management Committee, taking into consideration the views of the Advisory Committee. (a) In the case of there being significant social and/or economic issues relating to the establishment of the core area, the Management Committee will commission an independent socio-economic assessment of the potential impacts of its establishment. (b) In the absence of any significant issues, the Management Committee proceeds with the designation of the core area using appropriate legal and/or policy instruments. 5. In the case of 4(a), the independent socio-economic study will evaluate potential social and economic costs, while taking into account environmental benefits (including biodiversity protection). Potential mitigation and, in the event of no other alternatives, compensation measures will be identified. 6. The results of the socio-economic study will be reported to the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Advisory Committee and, subsequently, with the views of the Advisory Committee, to the Management Committee.

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7.

8.

9.

10.

The Management Committee will establish an independently facilitated process to settle outstanding issues through the identification of a set of terms and conditions that address the interests of the affected parties. The outcome of this process of negotiated settlement of disputes will be reported to the Advisory Committee and, subsequently, with the views of the Advisory Committee, to the Management Committee. [Note that there may need to be an iterative process of negotiation, reporting back to the Advisory and Management committees for their guidance and continuation with the process of negotiation.] The Management Committee, taking into account the views of the Advisory Committee, will take the measures necessary to address the socio-economic impacts in accordance with the negotiated settlement. Once these measure have been taken, the Management Committee proceeds with the designation of the core area using appropriate legal and/or policy instruments.

Note: This process applies particularly to the establishment of core areas, which are potentially the most contentious because of restrictions concerning resource use, but it should also be adopted for other zones or areas within zones in cases of potential conflicts of interest.

8.5. ZONATION - STATUS QUO In order to proceed with the nomination of Yildiz Mountains as a Biosphere, it is necessary to establish a management system based on the biosphere reserve concept, with core areas, buffer zones and transition areas identified (Section 1.2). 8.5.1

Core areas

The area proposed as a Biosphere includes two protected areas already designated under National Parks Law No. 2873 for the protection of biodiversity, specifically:  

Đğneada Longoz Forest National Park, and Kasatura Bay Nature Reserve Area.

Additionally, Erikli Lake, Saka Lake, four tumuli and Saka Swamp (1991), and Mert Lake (1994) are designated as First Degree Natural Sites under the Protection of Cultural and Natural Heritage Law No. 2863 but all of these sites lie within Đğneada Longoz Forest National Park (Section 7.3 and Figures 7.1, 7.2). It is entirely appropriate, therefore, to identify these two sites as both de jure and de facto core areas within the proposed Biosphere, since they are already legally designated and do not require a participatory process for their establishment, as outlined Section 8.4. 8.5.2

Transition areas

Transition areas provide for agricultural activities, settlements and other socio-economic uses in which local villages, management agencies and other stakeholders work together to sustainably develop resources within these areas. Initially, it has been agreed through the stakeholder process that settlements and agricultural lands should be included within transition areas. It may be appropriate to extend transition areas to lands under other forms of economic development in the final management plan. 8.5.3

Buffer zones

Buffer zones, which should usually surround or adjoin core areas to ‘buffer’ potential impacts on core areas, are intended for a variety of uses comprising co-operative activities that are compatible with sound ecological practices, including environmental education, recreation,

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ecotourism and research. In the case of Yildiz Mountains, which is managed predominantly for its timber, such uses will include sustainable production of timber and non-timber forest products, by means of a community-based approach in managing these and other natural resources. Further consideration will need to be given to open forest areas with respect to whether they should be assigned to buffer zones or transition areas. This will depend on whether the open forest is used as agricultural land, in which case it is state policy to sell the land, or remains as open forest in which case it can be maintained either as such or allowed to revert to forest. In practice, the buffer zones will comprise lands under the management of the General Directorate of Forestry. Four types of buffer zone have been identified as follows, each of which requires separate prescriptions to be developed: 

ecologically sensitive water bodies (natural lakes, lagoons and surrounding floodplain forests) and their watersheds (Figure 8.3);



protection forests that are of particular ecological importance for conservation of biodiversity (e.g. old growth forests, gene protection forests and seed stands);



other natural forests under sustainable management for timber; and



plantation forests (e.g. Pinus sp.) for which the prescription will be reversion to natural forest once the timber has been extracted.

Figure 8.3 Watersheds classified by their eco-hydrological characteristics, two of which are particularly important for wetland ecosystems (Source: YMBP Report Series No. 2)

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Box 8.2

Proposed management prescriptions for different types of buffer zone

Watersheds having ecologically sensitive water bodies  Strict controls on human settlements nd  Minimize sewage discharges and provide at least 2 degree water treatment.  Control hazardous discharges and wastes, especially from dairies.  Control agricultural activities, such as fertilizers and pesticides, and forestry activities, especially road construction, maintenance, and timber transportation.  Assess and mitigate direct impacts of check-dams, ponding, pipelines, roads, etc. on streams, lakes and their watersheds.  No permission for water withdrawal. Protection forests for biodiversity  Forests managed for the protection and conservation of particular components of biodiversity, including old growth forests, gene protection forests, seed stands and flora and fauna hotspots.  Management prescriptions to be tailored according to the requirements of what is being conserved, including its strict protection from any forms of use within a prescribed area.  Timber extraction and removal of fallen/dead wood is prohibited.  Removal of non-timber forest products may be allowed if compatible with the conservation of the resource under protection. NB Protection forests are likely to be relatively small areas (up to 1000ha), large enough to protect important biodiversity but not sufficiently large to warrant designation as a core area. Other natural forests under sustainable management for timber Prescriptions are based on those contained within forest management plans, with special provisions to include:  Minimise disturbance to biodiversity.  Enhance biodiversity through appropriate forestry practices.  Minimise soil erosion and transfer of sediment into water bodies. Plantation forests Prescriptions are based on those contained within forest management plans.  Once the timber has been extracted, plantations of exotic species (e.g. Pinus sp.) should be replaced with native species and/or allowed to regenerate to natural forest.

Management prescriptions proposed for each of these types of buffer zone are outlined in Box 8.2. In the case of the two watersheds with important wetlands (Figure 8.3), most of their water yield is required to support the water and nutrient cycles of these sensitive ecosystems and, therefore, should not be subjected to transportation to neighbouring basins. Thus, water should not be withdrawn from the creeks of Yavuzdere (flowing into Lake Saka), Efendidere (flowing into Lake Erikli) or Đğneadadere (flowing into Mert lake) because it is fundamental to flushing these lagoons of their sediment and to the maintenance of the longoz forests. The sediment flushed out into the Black Sea, in turn, provides valuable nutrients that support the inland fisheries. The general pattern of zonation arising from applying the above framework is shown in Figure 8.4. Sizes of the different zones and their components are given in Table 8.2. More detailed differentiation of the buffer zone into watersheds having ecologically sensitive wetlands is shown in Figure 8.5. Not shown are the gene protection forests, as the spatial data for Sorbus aucuparia (10 ha) and Taxus baccata (70 ha) need to be compiled by the Istanbul Regional Directorate of Forestry. The locations of settlements in relation to the zonation system are shown in Figure 8.6.

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This differentiation of the buffer zone means that critical watersheds and protection forests will become de facto core areas in certain respects of their management, in accordance to the measures proposed in Box 8.2, without the necessity of designating them as national parks or nature reserves and transferring their management to the General Directorate of Nature Conservation and National Parks.

Figure 8.4 Preliminary zonation framework for the proposed Yildiz Mountains Biosphere, based primarily on existing management systems

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Table 8.2 Sizes of core, buffer and transition areas, based on spherical GIS measurements using a geographic projection (Latitude-Longitude WGS-84 Datum) Component Longo Forests NP Kasatura Bay NR Settlements Agriculture Totals

Core Area (km2) 31.52 3.20

Buffer Zone (km2)

34.72

1090.64

Transition Area (km2)

3.80 88.84 92.64

Total area (km2)

1218.00

Figure 8.5 Preliminary zonation framework for the proposed Yildiz Mountains Biosphere, based primarily on existing management systems, showing the two watersheds in which are located ecologically sensitive wetlands

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Figure 8.6 Location of settlements in relation to preliminary zonation framework for the proposed Yildiz Mountains Biosphere

8.6. ZONATION - POTENTIAL BUFFER ZONE ‘PROTECTION FORESTS’ AND CORE AREAS Protection forests within the buffer zone, as described in Section 8.5.3, and additional core areas will need to be identified and established in the future to ensure that certain threatened sites of high importance for biodiversity are safeguarded. A number of potential core areas have been identified as a result of the biodiversity and other surveys undertaken during the Project, while others such as old growth forest require more specific and detailed examination on the ground to identify specific stands or areas for specific protection measures within the buffer zones. As discussed previously (Section 8.5.3), the establishment of protection forests under existing forestry regulations within buffer zones is considered to be a more pragmatic approach to designating such protection forests as core areas because many such protection forests are likely to be small and scattered in their distribution and, therefore, less well suited to establishment as nature reserves or national parks and transfer of their management to the General Directorate of Nature Conservation and National Parks. Biodiversity in terms of species richness is summarised in Table 8.3 for different habitats, based on the results of field surveys, together with the main threats to species-rich habitats. Specific sites identified as being species rich are shown in Table 8.4 for different taxonomic groups. In general, these summary findings from field surveys40 show that there is considerable complementarity between diversity among different taxonomic groups within sites. For example, Iğneada Longoz Forest is rich in plant, bird and mammal species; and sites with high numbers of bird species are also rich in plant species.

40

Survey findings were presented by the coordinators of the respective taxonomic groups to members of the Management Planning Unit and discussed on 15 October 2009.

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Table 8.3 Species richness and abundance for various habitat types Habitat

Biodiversity

Main threats

Coast

High numbers of species

Sand extraction (Kiyikoy)

Sand dunes

High numbers of species

Visitor pressures on dunes

Wetlands

High numbers of species

Sedimentation, sewage, road across Mert Lake, wildfowl hunting

Old forests

High numbers of species

Hunting, road construction, quarrying

Open forest

High numbers of species

Hunting, road construction, quarrying

Agriculture lands

High numbers of species

Fertilisers, pesticides

Caves - bats

High numbers of individuals Guano collection, visitor infrastructures (Dupnisa)

Young forest

Lower numbers of species

Pine plantation

Low numbers of species

Poplar plantations

Low numbers of species

Table 8.4 Biodiversity hotspots (species rich or abundance of species) for different taxa in the proposed Yildiz Mountains Biosphere High biodiversity sites

Plants

Mammals

Bats

Birds

Military zone along international border with Bulgaria



Rezve River



Dupnisa Cave



Mahya Peak



Iğneada Longoz Forest



Panayir





Kiyikoy





Kasatura





Taxus baccata stands



  





Old growth forest – 3 sites identified 

Open forest areas South-west of proposed Biosphere boundary Caves – various others (N=8) additional to Dupnisa

?

? 

Key findings arising from recent surveys of the distribution and status of biodiversity within the proposed Yildiz Mountains Biosphere that inform its future management are as follows: 

Of the 12 areas surveyed for plants (Section 4.5), all but Demirköy Foundry are considered to be of moderate to critical conservation importance. One or more cores of high importance for floral diversity have been identified within each of these 11 confirmed hotspots, as shown in Figure 8.7. Further details about each of these hotspots are provided in Annex 4.

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Figure 8.7 Location of flora hotspots, within which are identified one or more cores of high importance for biodiversity conservation. Note that Taxus baccata forest is included within Maya Mountain hotspot. (Source: YMBP Report Series No. 3)

Figure 8.8 Distribution of bird species richness across the proposed Yildiz Mountains Biosphere (Source: YMBP Report Series No. 6)

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Seventeen caves are important for conservation, based on biospeleological (notably with respect to bat populations), archaeological and geomorphological findings. Nine of these caves (Bağlar, Ceneviz, Domuzdere, Dupnisa, Kovantaşı, Kuru, Kız, Ocak, and Yenesu) merit high priority for protection as Nature Reserves and eight (Bostanlıktarla, Çatalyol, Kale III, Kıyıköy, Mermer, Pestilin, Tirfez, Uzuntarla) are proposed as Natural Monuments. Dupnisa is among the most important caves in the Balkans for its large bat population.



Swamp forests along the coast are centres of highest species richness for birds in the Yıldız Mountains (Figure 8.8). Also, a number of hotspots of high species richness occur in areas that comprise mostly agricultural lands and open forest patches.

The spatial relationship between these flora hotspots, caves and centres of highest avifaunal species richness is shown in Figure 8.9. This map of biodiversity hotspots is shown overlaid onto the existing topography and forest cover in Figure 8.10 and onto the proposed zonation scheme for Yildiz Mountains Biosphere in Figure 8.11.

Figure 8.9 Spatial relationships between flora hotspots, caves (colour coded according to conservation priority) and centres of highest bird species richness It is evident that there is considerable overlap between the distributions of flora and avifauna hotspots, enabling complementary measures to be taken in forest habitats that will protect both flora and fauna species richness within the same areas (Figure 8.10). However, separate measures should be taken to safeguard avifaunal diversity in forest clearings and agricultural lands, where flora hotspots have not been identified (Figure 8.10), and some of these measures will need to be tailored for the transition zone (Figure 8.11) where agriculture is practiced. As highlighted in the bird survey report (YMBP Report Series No. 6), an intensive study into the relationship between avifaunal diversity and agricultural practices is a high priority in order to anticipate potential impacts of changing practises through increased mechanisation, use of pesticides and fertilisers. Potentially, it may be important to subsidise traditional farming practices in order to maintain avifaunal and possibly other faunal and floral biodiversity in cultivated areas.

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Figure 8.10 Distribution of flora hotspots, caves (colour coded according to conservation priority) and centres of highest bird species richness in relation to forest cover

Figure 8.11 Distribution of flora hotspots, caves (colour coded according to conservation priority) and centres of highest bird species richness in relation to proposed zonation

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8.7. CROSS-BORDER COOPERATION The creation of the proposed Yildiz Mountains Biosphere (121,800 ha) and the existing Strandja Nature Park (116,068.50 ha), Bulgaria’s largest nature park, will establish a single, contiguous, trans-border protected areas system of some 246,069 ha. Ecosystems and the natural values that society seeks to protect rarely respect national political boundaries. Therefore, an effective and holistic approach to conserving these resources often requires international cooperation between government agencies, protected areas managers and local communities. The environment and biodiversity of the Yıldız Mountains on both sides of the international border are unique and should be seen and understood as being key assets for the respective country’s future regional development. The concept of a trans-boundary arrangement implies greater communication with possibilities for cooperation leading to enhanced collaboration, joint decision making and even integrated policies and programmes. In the case of the proposed Yildiz Mountains Biosphere and Strandja Nature Park, cross-border co-operation provides an important and, arguably, vital opportunity to share and improve knowledge and skills and to develop a common experience in biodiversity conservation and sustainable management of natural resources, through integrated protected areas planning and management across the international border. At a very practical level trans-boundary conservation can imply a ‘softening’ of existing controls which may include, for example: 

Removing barriers to the free movement of wildlife across the international boundary41;



Improving access of tourists to constituent parts of the biosphere and nature park;



Establishing trans-boundary working groups, steering committees and joint commissions aimed at enabling joint decision making; and



Facilitating the interaction of communities living on either side of the international border.

The issues surrounding trans-boundary collaboration require multi-agency involvement and a multi-disciplinary approach. Some issues beyond the reasonable competencies of ordinary natural resources and protected areas managers will need support from the highest levels of government within the respective countries. Coordinated planning is required and there are potential opportunities for joint training, sensitisation programmes, information sharing and technical and cultural exchanges. A number of exchanges between the Turkish and Bulgarian authorities have been facilitated under the auspices of the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project. These include:

41



Technical cooperation in funding applications. Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project falls within the scope of Component 2 of the Cross-Border Cooperation Programme, and is compatible with the national accession partnership documents - Environment part (NPAA 4.22).



There have been several formal and informal visits by Bulgarian Nature Park officials to meet with their Turkish counterparts in Kirklareli.



Study tours were undertaken to Strandja Nature Park and other Bulgarian protected areas by Stakeholder Working Group members and Ministry of Environment and Forestry staff.

Barriers such as barbed-wire fencing, if/where it exists, impedes movement of large mammals.

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Experts from Bulgaria were engaged by the Project to provide technical assistance in mapping habitats, using their prior experience in applying the Natura 2000 classification system.

Some potential priorities for cooperation were identified by Ministry of Environment and Forestry staff during the study tour to Bulgaria. Details of these and other feedback are shown in Box 8.3. A next step is to review and expand on the tentative priorities with Bulgarian counterparts. Box 8.3

Priorities for cooperation between the proposed Yildiz Mountains Biosphere and Strandja Nature Park, and other feedback from an MoEF study tour to Bulgaria

Priorities for cooperation  Common projects  Cooperation in ecotourism, research on wildlife and biodiversity, communication between local people from both countries  Common protection strategies with a flow of bilateral communication  Activities such as hunting tourism, Non Timber Forest Products utilisation and ecotourism to be carried out jointly with a common perspective  Facilitating visitor flows Key lessons from the exchange visit  The system of protected areas and their understanding of planning and managing these areas  Very often it was more effective to give permission for the use of the protected areas than to be very strict in prohibiting economic activities. Strandja Nature Park provides some interesting examples of private ownership in protected areas.  Bilateral cooperation is very important to see what is being done in Bulgaria that might be useful in Yildiz Mountains, and visa versa, including the work on biodiversity management.  Protected areas must be managed on site and the strength of the multidisciplinary structure in the management of protected areas is very important. The management plan is used effectively in the Central Balkan National Park.  Management of the functions delegated to protected areas is as important as the functions themselves. Challenges to collaboration  Serious measures should be taken to facilitate easy exchanges between the two countries (e.g. simpler, more relaxed visa protocols)  Some study tour participants consider cooperation will be challenging because the two countries have entirely different approaches to conservation.  The demographic structure of Bulgaria is very different from Turkey and the consequences of the low density of rural populations in Bulgaria raise different issues for the management of their protected areas.

A draft protocol for the formal establishment of cross-border collaboration between the proposed biosphere and the nature park is given in Annex 11.

8.8. FINANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY The Biosphere and its constituent protected areas must be adequately funded if it is to conserve biodiversity, sustain livelihoods and promote economic development. Financial sustainability has been defined as the ability to secure sufficient, stable and long-term financial resources, and to allocate them in a timely manner and in an appropriate form, to cover the full costs of protected areas and to ensure that they are managed effectively and efficiently with respect conservation and other objectives (Emerton et al., 2006).

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Securing adequate funds is a necessary but not sufficient condition for financial sustainability and effective management. It is also necessary to address the following: 

Develop cost-effective systems for managing and administering funds;



Incorporate financial considerations into planning and management processes.



Provide incentives and opportunities for managers to generate and retain funds.



Strengthen institutional capacity to use financial and business planning tools.



Establish more supportive economic policy and market conditions (Emerton et al., 2006).

In order to meet the full costs of managing Yildiz Mountains as a biosphere, it is first necessary to destroy the false dichotomy between conservation and development. Failed economic policies and mismanagement of public monies often hide behind this fallacy (Lockwood and Quintela, 2006). Investments in conserving biodiversity and natural resources within the Biosphere should be considered an investment for improving the quality of life for people who live in and around the Yildiz Mountains. Second, ways to increase the efficiency of managing the resource must be found by adopting cutting-edge business planning and management approaches. Third, the funding base should be diverse, both to increase the funds available and to dampen oscillations in funding. A stable funding base typically includes: 

government funding;



private sector funding, as payment of access to, and use of, the resources;



local community in-kind contributions;



grants from Non Governmental Organisations and development agencies;



debt-for-nature swaps, endowments and/or trusts;



environmental taxes and/or levies;



ecosystem services that benefit people outside the conserved area (e.g. water for drinking, irrigation and hydropower; carbon sequestration); and



business enterprises that have the potential to generate relatively stable income flows, employment and other benefits for key stakeholders (Lockwood and Quintela, 2006).

An important priority for the Management Committee will be to develop a business plan for the Biosphere that is based on the wider management plan with its defined vision and objectives. The business plan should include the following: 

overview of the business, including an assessment of resources, location and facilities, ownership structures etc;



identification of goods and services that will be provided and the Biosphere’s comparative advantage in providing these;



analysis of market segments, needs, competitors, trends and growth;



marketing strategy that identifies strategic alliances and explains how the business should position and promote itself, and prices and distribute its goods and services;



identification of organisational structure, staff and decision-making structures required to implement the business plan; and

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financial plan that specifies the funding necessary to accomplish the goals, indicators to be used to track performance, viable sources of funding to meet the needs, and a projected cash flow and balance sheet (IUCN, 2000).

The proposed Yildiz Mountains Biosphere is endowed with a number of important advantages that can be developed to ensure financial sustainability. These include the following: 

Most important is the composition of the Management Committee, which brings together key partners from the state and provincial government agencies, as well as the Kirklareli Governorship (see Section 8.1.2). These bodies already have budgets that are being deployed to greater or lesser extents in the management and development of Yildiz Mountains and, therefore, every opportunity exists to realign such budgets in accordance with the vision and objectives in the Preliminary Management Plan.



Next in importance are the existing mechanisms, notably cooperatives, in place to harvest timber and other products from the forests, with benefits accruing to local communities and the respective government agencies (see Section 8.2). These provide the basis for managing a large extent of the forest, grassland and aquatic resources, as discussed in Section 8.2.4, and developing a more efficient, effective and equitable CBNRM approach (Section 8.2.7).



Partnerships other than those involving government agencies and cooperatives are also in existence. For example, a number of academic institutions have a vested interest in the Biosphere, having contributed to surveying and assessing its resources. This paves the way for future research and monitoring at competitive financial rates as well as providing opportunities for voluntary inputs.



A preliminary assessment of services provided by the Yildiz Mountains ecosystem highlights its values, only some of which is captured by existing market mechanisms. Other values, such as provision of water and sequestration of carbon, offer huge potential economic benefits in the light of emerging policies around the world that promote Payments for Ecosystem Services (YMBP, 2010).

The above considerations provide some overarching guidance on the development of financial sustainability, which is the thrust of Objective 5 in this Preliminary Management Plan (see Section 10). Some more detailed steps are outlined in a series of activities specified with respect to achieving Objective 5 (see Section 11).

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9.

THREATS

Threats were assessed as part of the participatory management planning process by involving members of the Stakeholder Working Group and the Management Planning Unit. Thirty threats to the core values of the vision for Yildiz Mountain Biosphere were identified as follows:   

     

 

  

Illegal and unsustainable mushroom collection Lack of rubbish collection and illegal tipping of rubbish in the forest Domestic sewage is discharged into the river system and industrial and agricultural sewage pollutes the river system Illegal and inappropriate (unsustainable) fishing methods (rivers) Illegal fishing and inappropriate fishing methods (marine) Mining Cattle grazing in the forests Illegal hunting Conversion of pastures to scrub and forest due to a reduction in livestock at some locations Overgrazing of treasury pastures at some locations Inadequate extent and occurrence of old growth forest for certain biodiversity (e.g. woodpeckers) Illegal commercial fishing in rivers Incomers settling in villages and unplanned development Damage caused by treasure hunters

        

  

   

Forest fire Unplanned and unregulated tourism Proposed nuclear power station at Iğneada Proposed thermal power plant at Kiyikoy Construction of wind turbines Road construction Crop damage by wild boars Falling prices of timber Changes in forest operations have reduced incomes of village communities (coppice ban) Lack of new income generating opportunities Lack of security of income generation (logging and livestock) Development expectations can be damaging to the natural resource base and values (e.g. unrestricted tourism development) Deterioration in ecosystem due to water supply to Istanbul Climate change Forest clearance Construction of iron and steel factory near Kasatura Nature Conservation Area

Threats were analysed using a modified version of the GEF42 Threat Reduction Assessment tool. Each threat was ranked according to the extent (area) of the proposed Biosphere it affected, the intensity of impact upon the achievement of the vision and the urgency with which it needed to be addressed through the management planning and implementation process. The three separately ranked scores were added to give a total score for each threat (the higher the score, the greater the threat). Threat Reduction Assessment takes into account the fact that biological indicators often change over much longer timescales than can be measured during a project or the implementation of a management plan. Therefore, the tool uses threats as proxy indicators to measure management effectiveness. Whereas the tool is normally used to assess threats to biodiversity per se, it was also applied to threats to the socio-economic aspirations of Yildiz Mountains communities. As a result, a number of economic parameters that normally would be considered causative factors were identified as threats and included in the analysis (e.g. falling timber prices). Also, a modification was made to the assessment of current percentage threat reduction, which is essentially a subjective 42

Global Environment Facility

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assessment by the stakeholder group synthesised from local knowledge and understanding. To increase objectivity, the percentage reduction was divided into the three components: (a) existing policy, legislation and regulations in place that potentially address the threat, (b) institutional provisions or social mechanisms and resources available to deal with the threat, and (c) the effectiveness with which the threat is being managed using (a) and (b). Each component was allocated 33 percentage points, totalling 99%, and scored separately. The three scores were totalled for each threat, providing a measure of its current reduction. Values were corrected for the area, intensity and urgency of each threat, totalled and converted into an index to provide an overall measure of current effectiveness towards achieving the vision for the Biosphere. This tool was new to both the Management Planning Unit and Stakeholder Working Group. It needs to be understood and used in a consistent manner, and the meaningfulness of the final value of the threat reduction index is only as good as the information upon which it is based. However, it does provide a useful framework for quantifying and prioritising threats. Most importantly, its rigorous use with the best available data enables stakeholders to take a holistic view of all of the threats in the wider context of the Biosphere, rather than being narrowly focused on specific issues. Regular, consistent use of the tool, ideally by the same group of stakeholders, provides a means of monitoring the effectiveness of management in addressing the threats. Time precluded the development of consensus between the differing perceptions of the Management Planning Unit and Stakeholder Working Group. The Management Planning Unit assessment indicates that the present management regime is only 26% effective in reducing threats to the vision for Yildiz Mountains (Annex 12A), whereas the Stakeholder Working Group generated a higher value of 35% effectiveness (Annex 12B). The main difference between the two bodies concerns the assessment of existing legislation and policies in place to address threats: reference to Annex 12A/B shows that the Stakeholder Working Group consistently scored higher than the Management Planning Unit for this component of current threat reduction. It should also be noted that the Stakeholder Working Group identified the ‘deterioration in ecosystem due to water supply to Istanbul’ as a significant threat. This refers to the proposed development of reservoirs and piped water supplies for domestic and industrial uses in Istanbul. For the purpose of the exercise this threat was included in ‘development expectations can be damaging to the natural resource base and values (e.g. unrestricted tourism development)’. Using the percentage reduction methodology, it is possible to present an approximation of how the current system is addressing this threat, for example: (a) existing policy, legislation and regulations in place = 20% (b) enforcement or support to these = 5% (c) the effectiveness of (a) and (b) = 5% Thus, in total, the present system of management is only 30% effective in addressing this threat. It is important to keep in perspective that this was a rapid assessment and set against a number of future objectives that make up the vision. Moreover, the participatory process of Threat Reduction Assessment is extremely valuable in itself, raising awareness and generating common commitment towards future reduction or mitigation of threats.

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10. OBJECTIVES Objective 1: Conservation of biological diversity by protection of important and vulnerable habitats, species, aesthetic and representative landscapes Rationale: Given that the particular circumstances of a resource – such as scarcity, level of threat and vulnerability, historic events etc. – result in a precarious situation where utilisation of the resource is considered too risky, protection – through prohibitive legislation, conservation in core areas, etc., will be the preferred option to ensure long-term viability of the resource. However, this is a costly option and these costs – prohibition, enforcement, management, opportunity costs43 etc. – are both definable and measurable. Therefore, sustainability can be measured against the ability of society and government to meet these costs. In the light of scarce finances, protection needs to be considered against a range of options, in particular the costeffectiveness of sustainable utilisation to achieve the same outcome. When protection is the preferred means of management, it is important to realise that authority and responsibility normally rest entirely with the state. The administration can decide to outsource protection activities, such as guarding, to service providers including community associations but under these circumstances it invariably falls upon state budgets to provide financing. Approach and guiding principles: Protection will be achieved through:  Use of zoning and the application of core zones designed to protect valuable or vulnerable resources from damaging land use practices and, as necessary, from human disturbance. 

Improved enforcement of national legislation and biosphere reserve principles.



Exclusion of land use practices that result in unsustainable use or damage to the target resources.

An important principle will be the application of temporary protection measures that will be regularly reviewed in light of the status of the target resource to allow for more cost-effective sustainable use practices to achieve longer term conservation objectives. Management actions:  Habitats, species, landscapes and ecosystem services which are most vulnerable or threatened, unique and/or representative of the Biosphere will be protected through a system of zoning. 

Habitat mapping will be carried out in order to identify species and habitats at risk and, through a participatory process, internal zoning will be designed.



Byelaws will be established to prohibit specific activities that are deemed to be unacceptable within the Biosphere. Gendarmerie and other local enforcement agencies will be made aware of the additional restrictions and the importance of these specific regulations.



Temporary and temporal protection measures may be introduced to take account of the seasonal distribution of biodiversity or changes in circumstances that may temporarily threaten biodiversity (e.g. temporary bans on hunting during extreme weather conditions, closure of trails and access during breeding or flowering periods, etc.). Local communities will be required to incorporate these into their Village Resources Management Plans.

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The value of an opportunity that is lost or sacrificed when the choice of one course of action requires that another must be given up

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Failure to respect these regulations will incur penalties on the cooperatives up to and including the suspension of the appropriate authority to manage village resources. 

Species and habitat recovery plans will be developed for species and habitats which are determined as being particularly threatened. The academic sector and NGOs will be encouraged to participate in this process through the provision of both technical expertise and material resources.



Sufficient resources will be made available by the General Directorate of Nature Conservation and National Parks for the effective management of Iğneada Longoz National Park to implement the revised national park management plan and to monitor biodiversity throughout the Biosphere.



Links with international organisations and in particular Bulgarian agencies strengthened to promote the management of migratory species and trans-boundary conservation.

Objective 2: Conservation of biological diversity by sustainable use of species, habitats and ecosystem goods and services Rationale: The Biosphere represents an innovative approach to conservation because; “biosphere reserves are much like laboratories, where new and optimal practices to manage nature and human activities are tested and demonstrated. They outpace traditional confined conservation zones, combining core protected areas with zones where sustainable development is fostered by local dwellers and enterprises” (UNESCO44). Use can improve the status of a resource. Given that a resource can withstand a level of utilisation that is biologically sustainable it is possible to establish a management regime, which maintains the resource at an acceptable level providing that those who incur the management or opportunity costs are the primary beneficiaries of its utilisation. Approach and guiding principles: When managers opt for sustainable use instead of protection, they open the possibility of involving users in the management of a protected area’s resources. Sustainable use of a resource requires a clear framework and adequate pricing mechanisms, in which the benefits of wise management are: (i) equal to or greater than the costs of management; and (ii) captured at a local level where those who incur the costs of management are effectively represented. The principle approach for establishing sustainable use as a conservation tool will be communitybased natural resource management (CBNRM) to ensure that:  Those closest to the resources and bearing the costs of conservation are the primary beneficiaries. 

Those who are de facto managers of the resource and bearing responsibility for its conservation have sufficient de jure authority to do so.



There is sufficient security of tenure to encourage long term investment in the resources’ management and perverse incentives that negatively affect the pricing of these resources or are a barrier to effective CBNM are removed.

In summary, the underlying philosophy of this approach is that if the true value of wildlife is recognised and communities are given the authority to manage, then an option will have been

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created and they will have the incentive to sustainably manage and conserve wildlife for their long-term benefit. Management actions:  A rolling programme of transforming existing cooperatives will be developed, beginning with those villages demonstrating that they have sufficient capacity45. Villages without cooperatives will be encouraged to establish enter the second phase of the programme. 

The programme will be coordinated by staff from the line agencies (Ministry of Agriculture & Rural Affairs – supervision and inspection of cooperatives, fisheries, agriculture and funding; Ministry of Environments and Forests – protection of biodiversity, hunting and waste management; Forestry District Directorates – forest management, Non Timber Forest Products and inland fishing in the state forests, etc.) as part of their responsibilities to the Biosphere. In order to establish and consolidate this programme, a substantive member of the Biosphere Support Unit (see Section 8.1.5) will facilitate this process for the first five years of management plan implementation. NGOs with demonstrable skills in establishing and supporting community-based organisations will be encouraged to partner with cooperatives to support this process.



Capacity building will take place at four levels:  technical training of institutions to develop capacity in governance and service delivery;





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development of internal governance through training of members in accounting and book keeping, transparency, reporting, holding meetings, negotiations with external agencies and the private sector, and legal issues;



technical training of members in resource planning and management; and.



technical training of individuals in small to medium enterprise development, new technologies, business and financial planning, marketing, etc.

The appropriate authority for communities to manage the wild natural resources within their village jurisdiction will be contractually transferred when they have demonstrated their capacity and have structures in place to effectively and responsibly manage these resources. The conditions necessary to achieve this will be set out by the Biosphere Support Unit on behalf of the partner government agencies. Cooperatives will have to demonstrate that they are organised and that membership is representative of the entire village. This process will be assisted and facilitated by the Support Unit and the minimum requirements for the delegation of appropriate authority and responsibility should include:  a registered cooperative (Chairperson, Board, Membership, bank account, etc.); 

cooperative constitution for internal governance, amended for agreed natural resource management purposes;



demonstrated representation of all villagers through the cooperative membership; and



associated rules and regulations for internal functioning and resource management.

Once the cooperative has demonstrated that it has sufficient capacity (register of membership, Constitution, rules and regulations, bank account, etc.), the Biosphere Management Committee will authorise preparation of a Village Resources Management Plan (see Section 8.2.3).

Refer to Stakeholder Working Group assessment of cooperatives’ strengths and weaknesses (Annex 9).

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The development of the Village Resources Management Plan (including a resources monitoring component) will be facilitated by the Biosphere Support Unit, with technical assistance from the appropriate sector agencies. Once completed the Plan will be approved by the Executive Board and the appropriate authority will be transferred to the cooperative to manage and benefit from the natural resources.



The Ministry of Environment and Forestry will implement a national and local communication campaign to raise the awareness of decision-makers and the public about the aims and objectives of the CBNRM programme. This will be supported by a national and international marketing campaign to run by the Ministry of Tourism, targeted at the natural products and values of the Yildiz Mountains villages.



The Forestry District Directorates and General Directorate of Nature Protection and National Parks will develop pricing mechanisms that support the community-based management of timber, wildlife and other Non Timber Forest Product management by the village cooperatives, including the preferential pricing of timber, game species and mushrooms and, importantly, post sale collection of fees46.



The Ministry of Environment and Forestry will address the conflicts within the national policy framework. In particular, it will develop and approve a community authority bidding document in line with Law No. 4915 on Terrestrial Hunting.

Objective 3: Sustainable economic and social development of Yildiz Mountains’ communities through sustainable utilisation of the natural and cultural resource base Rationale: No single income generating opportunity will resolve the economic development challenges faced by the Yildiz Mountains forest communities. The natural or biodiversity resources and physical and cultural characteristics of Yildiz Mountains comprise the sum of a village’s economic assets. Thus, the economic development of local communities within and peripheral to the proposed Biosphere must be founded on a comprehensive plan to sustainably develop these markets and trade wisely on the natural, cultural and aesthetic values of Yildiz Mountains. Approach and guiding principles: Sustainable economic and social development will be achieved through a multi-agency approach to promote and market the natural values of Yildiz Mountains. The Biosphere will put in place policies to address current practices that are inefficient or inequitable and constrain economic development of Yildiz Mountain villages. These will, inter alia, address the following issues: 

Pricing mechanisms that make village enterprises unprofitable and risky (e.g. introducing a variable and preferential price for timber to allow for the poor availability of capital investment by communities and the fluctuating open market price of timber).



Perverse incentives for biodiversity (e.g. the Ministry of Agriculture & Rural Affairs subsidy to Holstein cows disadvantages agricultural biodiversity and discourages the maintenance of traditional livestock breeds47).



Financial mechanisms that discourage long-term investment in sustainable nature-based industries. For example, the distribution of loans by ORKOY (General Directorate for

46

In recognition of the fact that the community is performing an important management task. Creating positive incentives to maintain traditional/indigenous agricultural practices where appropriate (see A framework for GEF activities concerning conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity important to agriculture. GEF Council, October 14 – 16, 1998). 47

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Forest-Village Relations) is intended to discourage villagers from economic dependence on forest resources, a policy which is at contrary with Forestry District Directorates current practices. Management actions:  The promotion of Yildiz Mountains, its natural and cultural resource-based enterprises, sustainable use and conservation of biodiversity will be central to the development of the Biosphere. Ethical trading, traditional practices, naturalness and quality will form the basis of the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere brand. 

Certification and a Biosphere logo48 will serve to distinguish products sourced or produced in Yildiz Mountains that, when combined with the CBNRM approach, will effectively capture a larger proportion of the economic value at local village level.



External private sector investment will be encouraged in full partnership with Yildiz Mountain communities. Such partnerships will be reflected in the granting of planning permissions and licenses by the relevant agencies.



Capacity building to address the skills needed to develop Yildiz Mountain’s communities will be provided by the various line agencies, in line with the objectives outlined above. NGOs will be encouraged to participate in the capacity building, providing skills in specific areas that might not be available from government agencies.

Objective 4: An enabling environment supportive of biological diversity conservation through protection, sustainable utilisation, and the social and economic development of Yildiz Mountains communities creating a functionally efficient policy, legal and institutional framework and a broad public awareness and support for the Vision Rationale: “Their [biosphere reserve’s] governance systems are often highly innovative. In some cases, new legislation can be introduced49.” In the case Yildiz Mountains Biosphere, UNESCO Man and Biosphere Programme has advised that, wherever possible, biospheres should be established within the existing legislative structure. The existing legislative provisions in Turkey are sufficient for the protection of the core areas and no further legislation is needed for buffer zones and transition areas. Thus, establishment of the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere can proceed without the need for further legislation (see Section 8.1.4). A clear policy framework is required for protected areas planning and management and even more so for biosphere reserves, which tend to be geographically larger and more sophisticated systems in terms of stakeholder ownership and resource management. In the absence of policy guidance, planning becomes at best ad hoc and at worst meaningless and without authority. IUCN provides the following comment on the legislation and policy that should support management planning (Thomas and Middleton, 2003): “It is important that management planning be carried out within a framework of approved policies within the protected areas agency. This framework should be sufficiently specific both to guide and set limits on different aspects of protected area management. Without a clear policy framework to guide the development and implementation of Management Plans, managers for different protected areas may struggle to define their own policies for

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The existing Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project logo has been designed with the future of the Biosphere in mind. The same logo can be used simply by removal of the word ‘Project’, thereby maintaining the brand. 49 http://portal.unesco.org/science/en/ev.php-URL_ID=6941&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html

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the same issues – not only duplicating effort, but perhaps also leading to potentially conflicting or inconsistent interpretations and directions . . . Finally it should be said that planning is a lot like other ‘good things’. It’s not worth much in the absence of sound governance and/or competent administration.” Approach and guiding principles: The institutional structure and management of the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere will reflect the three principals of good governance, effective and equitable regulation and local management. It follows, therefore, that: 

The Biosphere Management Committee is the Executive Board with responsibility for policy and strategic decisions.



The Advisory Committee ensures stakeholder participation, transparency and accountability in the decision-making process.



The Biosphere Support Unit is responsible to the Management Committee for facilitating implementation of the Management Plan, working in partnership with the key line agencies (Forestry District Directorates, Provincial Directorate of Environment and Forestry, Provincial Directorate of Agriculture, etc.) and the Provincial Special Administration.



The Cooperative will be the operational unit of resource management at the village level.



The General Directorate of Nature Protection and National Parks will be responsible for the Iğneada Longoz Forest National Park and the monitoring of specific values of the core areas.

Management actions:  The agreed policy and governance framework (see Section 8.1) will be addressed immediately through the establishment of the Management Committee, Advisory Committee and Biosphere Support Unit. 

Provisions for establishing a Model Hunting Area will be revised to accommodate development and approval of a community authority bidding document in line with the Law No 4915 on Terrestrial Hunting. Other policies and legislation will be revised as appropriate through an adaptive management process, in light of experience and in line with due process and nationally accepted norms.



A training programme for the key line agencies (Provincial Special Administration, Forestry District Directorates, Provincial Directorate of Environment and Forestry, Provincial Directorate of Agriculture, etc.) will be developed to build the capacity of these agencies to operationalize the management plan.



A communications programme will be developed to promote the vision and aims of the Biosphere amongst a broad and representative cross-section of society. Utilising a variety of local, national and international media, the purpose of the communications programme will be to develop awareness and support for Yildiz Mountains Biosphere.



Trans-boundary relationships are an underlying philosophy of the Biosphere approach. Strengthening of relationships between Strandja Mountains and Yildiz Mountains through a programme of exchange visits and joint working will create a favourable enabling environment and also have tangible economic and cultural benefits.

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Objective 5: Financial sustainability of the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere in order to implement the management plan and achieve the long term vision Rationale: A functionally efficient Biosphere will require adequate financing. Lack of investment in protection of naturally and/or culturally important areas will undermine conservation and development objectives, with a resultant loss of natural and economic values and opportunities. Approach and guiding principles: A more ‘business-like’ approach to the management of protected areas needs to be adopted. Revenue generation and retention, private sector participation and community-based management offer important opportunities for sustainable management. Biosphere reserves are a national asset and, therefore, there needs to be secure and sufficient core funding at both the site and national levels. Management actions:  The Ministry of Environment and Forestry will undertake the establishment of a sustainable biosphere financing system, with the associated management structures, systems and capacities needed to ensure the effective use of generated revenues for priority biodiversity conservation needs. This will include, inter alia:  Establishing institutional mechanisms and, if necessary, regulatory provisions, that facilitate revenue generation, revenue retention and other elements of sustainable protected areas financing and management. 

Ensuring levels of financial resource mobilization are adequate to ensure effective conservation-oriented management of the Biosphere.



Developing business planning and cost-effective management systems at the site level.



Developing an investment fund and portfolio to encourage sustainable and environmentally friendly investment in communities and businesses in the Yildiz Mountains.

Objective 6: Protection of landscape and ecosystem values from damaging impacts of potential energy and infrastructure development through an appropriate and effective planning procedure Rationale: “The Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Program of UNESCO is one of the most innovative and flexible programmes, focusing on the reconciliation of biodiversity conservation with its sustainable use. The concept of BR (MABs) stems from the need to reconcile protected areas, often at a level larger than a single ecosystem, with the human development needs of the local and wider community. As such they represent an innovative approach to conservation” (UNESCO). Local infrastructure, major national energy development projects and extractive industries, such as mining and quarrying, have can impact negatively on the natural and aesthetic values of Yildiz Mountains by significantly altering landscapes and interrupting or altering natural processes. The natural, cultural and aesthetic values of Yildiz Mountains will face many challenges in the future. A fundamental purpose of the Man and Biosphere approach is to create and secure the quality conditions that nourish and sustain nature and people. Such conditions have tangible economic values that are readily tradable. Approach and guiding principles: It is important that the costs and benefits of such projects should be examined through a transparent and participatory planning process in order that short-

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term development goals do not override and discount the longer term benefits of sustainable use and the provision of ecosystem services. Management actions:  Plans of all current infrastructure projects (including mining operations) proposed within the Biosphere (other than those with a demonstrable national security purpose) will be presented to stakeholders, with details plausible impacts of the development. 

A minimum mandatory requirement will be an environmental and social impact study to examine the benefits of all proposed infrastructure and mining developments against the loss of other values, including future use values. This will include existing concessions and those that already have approval. The future of current operations will be examined against the need to apply mitigating activities up to and including closure and restoration of a site.



It is important that strict planning procedures are put in place to protect the interests of inhabitants of Yildiz Mountains and the Black Sea coastline, as well as future generations residing and/or working in the area and visitors. Commercialisation can lead to unplanned and unregulated development that ultimately destroys the values that people seek to own and/or experience. Therefore, rural and urban planning will be a cornerstone of the Biosphere approach, providing for sustainable economic and social development without destroying or devaluing the landscape or functioning of the ecosystem.

Objective 7: Waste management through reduction, recycling, treatment and disposal Rationale: The generation of solid and liquid waste is an inevitable outcome of daily life. Waste management is an important component of Biosphere management, as well as the responsibility of municipalities, provincial government agencies, private companies, village communities and individuals (government workers, business owners, forest workers, villagers and tourists, etc.). Waste management imposes additional time and financial costs on those creating the waste, as well as those responsible for handling it. Moreover, it requires fundamental changes in individual’s behaviour which can only be achieved in part through regulation and its enforcement. Approach and guiding principles: The fundamental purpose of Yildiz Mountains – biodiversity conservation, landscape protection and socio-economic development – is underpinned by a clean and healthy environment. This will be achieved by policies that encourage residents, businesses and visitors to reduce their production of waste, recycle as much as practicable and responsibly dispose of the rest. Management actions:  Investment in adequate sewage treatment with sufficient capacity for future growth will be a priority, particularly in coastal settlements and those impacting upon water catchments, to ensure that fresh and sea water meets nationally and internationally acceptable standards. 

Implementation of the Law on Environment (2872) and waste management legislation to ensure that environmental cleanliness and health will be achieved through a well-designed set of penalties and incentives that may include innovative pricing mechanisms, introducing the ‘polluter pays’ principle, local byelaws, provision of waste disposal infrastructure (rubbish bins, collection points, slurry pits, etc.) and an adequately financed system of collection and disposal.



Regular testing of coastal waters, streams and other water bodies, with the results made publically accessible via the Biosphere website.

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Objective 8: Research and monitoring to increase understanding of social, economic and environmental processes and ensure that management is adaptive Rationale: Yildiz Mountains offers an important opportunity to increase local and global understanding of the natural world and natural processes, as well as the impact of social and economic changes upon the environment. Priority will be given to management-oriented research and the Biosphere Support Unit will identify priorities and develop specific research guidelines and regulations for approval by the Management Committee. Conservation of the Yildiz Mountains lies at the collision interface of three principle drivers – the economic, socio-political and the ecological. Therefore, management is at the epicentre of multiple disciplines, such as ecology, economics, natural resource management, politics, business and the social sciences, where there are a many known and potential variables, all subject to continual change through interactions with each other in ways that may be predictable or non-predictable. Applying the results of scientific research informs management but outcomes cannot be predicted with certainty, given the complexity of multivariate, non-linear cause and effect relationships. Approach and guiding principles: Given the complexities and complexities of protected areas management, it is important that an adaptive management approach is incorporated within the management planning process. This requires planners and managers to adopt an institutional culture of adaptive management if the approach is to be successful. Adaptive management is eloquently described by Gadgil (2008): “The modern theory of management of living resources proposes that we should, in all humility, accept severe limitations to our current ability to predict future system behaviour, and focus on providing more limited, context specific prescriptions. Moreover, we should make extensive use of detailed locality and time specific, including historical, information. We should organize a system of on-going monitoring of the situation on the ground and continually feed this information into updating management prescriptions. Such a system has been termed an ''adaptive management system” (Walters, 1986). “Indeed, it is widely acknowledged now that, today, ecologists are in no position to offer any general guidelines for managing biodiversity or forest resources that would be of practical value in the field. Thus, there are no universal laws, for instance, that all human uses would lead to erosion of all forms of biodiversity. Some uses would lead to erosion of some components of biodiversity, other uses to enhancement of other components. Since sweeping generalizations are not feasible, what is required is to try out various options, monitor the consequences, and make corrections as we go along. Such an adaptive approach would firstly attempt to put together all available information, including practical ecological knowledge of local people, to assess what measures might be favourable . . .” Monitoring, as indicated above, is critical to an adaptive management approach for purposes of: 1. assessing the effectiveness of an intervention; 2. regulation (audit function); and 3. detecting incipient change (early warning). The Biosphere will need to be monitored at a number of levels, broadly defined as:  assessing the effectiveness of the individual activities (monitoring performance); 

assessing the effectiveness of the various activities in achieving the outcome (monitoring the impact); and

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assessing the effectiveness of the various outcomes in achieving the objective (monitoring the change).

The Biosphere Management Committee will need to assess:  Implementation – did we do what we planned to do? (i.e. Is the plan still untested because the implementation was poor?) 

Effectiveness – did the plan meet the predicted objectives? (i.e. Has the plan been tested and found to have flaws?)



Validity of the model’s parameters and relationships (i.e. Which assumptions, variables and interactions were correct?)

Transparency, participation and accountability is critical to monitoring and adaptive management. Thus, the results of monitoring programmes should be readily accessible to stakeholders via the Biosphere Support Unit and website for purposes of independent alternative analysis, review of management progress, and information on outcomes and results of particular programmes.. Management actions:  Apply the logical framework approach developed for the proposed Yildiz Mountains Biosphere (see Section 12) to monitor achievement of the 11 management objectives defined in this Preliminary Management Plan. 

Develop methods to monitor specific adaptive management initiatives and apply them at the outset of any management interventions, in order to secure baseline information about the current status.

Objective 9: Development of Yildiz Mountains Biosphere as an educational resource for present and future generations Rationale: Education is a core function of the UNESCO Man and Biosphere Programme, and Yildiz Mountains represents a fantastic educational resource as a living classroom that can enhance understanding by experiential learning. Yildiz Mountains village children and adults, government agencies and policy-makers, and visitors and resource users, alike, will be touched by the natural beauty and diversity of life and landscapes, providing them with inspiration for lifelong learning. Biosphere management, in line with the Biosphere concept, concerns a largescale, holistic approach to the conservation and sustainable utilisation of natural resources within one or more ecosystems. Education is a key component of this process, with emphasis on nature conservation, and it will be enhanced by existing Visitor Centre at Iğneada and the newly established Yildiz Mountains Nature Training Centre at Dereköy. Experiential learning about nature and its conservation will be targeted at the younger generation, especially schools and youth groups from the area including those from across the border in Bulgaria, and thereby increase awareness, understanding and support for the proposed Biosphere. Approach and guiding principles: Core funding for the Biosphere education programme will be a key funding objective, recognising that the Nature Training Centre, Visitor Centre and the Biosphere have an integral part to play in local, national and international education. The Nature Training Centre will promote the high quality experience of the natural environment, heritage, history, health and sustainability that the Biosphere offers to children and the difference it can make to young lives. It will explore new ways of working to use the Biosphere as a living classroom for the delivery of wider learning experiences as part of a lifelong learning approach.

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It will become a ‘Centre of Excellence’ for training and education, playing a pivotal role in strengthening the local and national understanding and awareness nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources, thereby contributing to more informed debates and decisions concerning environmental and rural development issues. Management actions:  The Nature Training Centre will play a leading role in providing formal and informal learning opportunities local school children and exchange visits for children from other parts of Turkey and abroad. 

Implement the Business Plan for the Nature Training Centre to ensure its long-term viability. This includes developing and maintaining partnerships with national and local authorities, educational institutions, NGOs, sponsors and volunteers, both in Turkey and Bulgaria.



Establish a sustainable organisational structure, with policies for employees, trainers, trainees and volunteers, in line with the Business Plan.



Consolidate the training of trainers that was initiated under the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project and establish a network of trainers available to support the training programme.



Develop a training programme, in line with criteria in the Business Plan, and deliver it using the training manual and materials developed under the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project.



Engage with local residents in the Biosphere in ways that promote ownership of the Nature Training Centre.



The Nature Training Centre will support the work of the Visitor Centre at Iğneada, providing information and interpreted materials for all ages of visitors.

Objective 10: Visitor management to enhance the visitor experience and protect the core values of the Yildiz Mountains Rationale: Success creates additional challenges for management and the predicted increase of visitors to Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Reserve will need to be anticipated, planned and carefully managed. It is important that an effective visitor management plan is put in place. The development of this will be participatory and in line with Objectives 1, 2 and 3. Approach and guiding principles: Tourism will be based on principles of sustainable and responsible development throughout the Biosphere. An ecotourism approach will be adopted within core areas and elsewhere as much as practicable, particularly with respect to biodiversity hotspots and landscapes suited to quiet enjoyment of the mountain environment. Systems of accredited certification and internationally recognised standards will be adopted to raise the profile of Yildiz Mountains as a quality destination and attract visitors who will appreciate its natural and cultural heritage values. Management actions:  Carry out a visitor survey and visitor market analysis. 

Develop a coherent strategy for the development of the Iğneada Visitor Centre, including its management by a suitable and competent community-based or non-governmental organisation.

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Develop Iğneada as the centre for visitors, with the Visitor Centre providing information on all aspects of Yildiz Mountains, its natural and cultural history as well as practical information on local products, accommodation, hospitality services and events.



Develop and source budget for the operation of the Visitor Centre.



Develop the website established by the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project and maintain it with information of interest to visitors.

Objective 11: Conservation of cultural values and living heritage by protecting vulnerable archaeological sites and promoting local customs, arts, crafts and traditions Rationale: Yildiz Mountains has a rich human history. People have been a part of the ecosystem for millennia, their activities having shaped the landscape and contributed to many of the values that the Biosphere is being designed to conserve. The communities of Yildiz Mountains are part of this past and a link to the future. The human history documents the importance of Black Sea ports of Iğneada and Kiyikoy and the natural resources of the area reaching back in time to Thrace, while the present diversity of communities in Yildiz Mountains is testimony to some of the most important events that have taken place in the 19th and 20th Century. The diversity of communities, their traditions, cultures and practices are a living resource that must be conserved, while addressing the present day needs of village inhabitants, and the cultural and historical artefacts must be protected for future generations. Approach and principles: Biospheres provide a multiplicity of functions and services one of which is the conservation of natural heritage50 and cultural heritage51. Furthermore, natural and cultural values in the biosphere context relates to much more than simply historic sites and buildings. Landscapes and traditional farming or resource management systems are important components of the fabric of the biosphere which together make up these values. The historical interaction of people and the environment create the landscapes and often the habitats (through traditional farming practices such as grazing or hay-making) that maintain the diversity of species. The role of the Biosphere and administrative agencies should be in developing innovative ways to maintain these practices and the landscapes they create by maintaining the cultural identity and economic livelihoods of the people. Management actions:  Undertake an assessment of landscape values, based on questionnaire surveys with a wide range of stakeholders (residents, businesses, government and non-government organisations, visitors), to help inform future planning policy within the Biosphere. 

Undertake detailed studies of the impacts (positive and negative) of traditional farming practices on biodiversity, particularly with respect to birds, small mammals and flora that are characteristic of open forest patches and agricultural lands. This will inform future policy regarding the maintenance of such practices.



Facilitate and support local communities in promoting their arts, crafts and traditions as part of ecotourism developments.

50

Defined as: Natural features consisting of physical and biological formations or groups of such formations, which are of outstanding universal value from the aesthetic or scientific point of view 51 Defined as: Encompassing the qualities and attributes of places that have aesthetic, historic, scientific or social value for past, present or future generations

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11. ACTIVITIES Objective 1: Conservation of biological diversity by protection of important and vulnerable habitats, species, aesthetic and representative landscapes Activities and interim measures: Result 1.1: Vulnerable habitats, species, landscapes and ecosystem services are identified and protected. Activities:         

Classify habitats and biodiversity hotspots in the Biosphere and map using the GIS Develop zoning plan and agree limits of acceptable change (LACs) Risk assessments on habitats, species, landscapes and ecosystem services carried out and regularly updated Species and habitat recovery and management plans developed Byelaws agreed and in place. Iğneada Longoz National Park Management Plan developed and implemented. Database regularly updated. Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA) develops agrobiodiversity strategy for Yildiz Mountains. “Stud book” register of traditional breeds in Yildiz Mountains developed by MARA.

Result 1.2: Increased capacity of state agencies to manage biodiversity. Activities:  

 

Allocate budget for Iğneada Longoz Forest National Park. Biodiversity protection training for state agencies (importance of biodiversity, biodiversity and the law, Biosphere bylaws, etc.) such as Forestry District Directorates (FDD), gendarmerie/patrol, MARA, General Directorate for Forest-Village Relations (ORKÖY) etc. Regular meetings with Bulgarian agencies. Biosphere staff attending international conferences and training on conservation of migratory species.

Result 1.3: Academic and NGO participation in planning and management of biodiversity conservation. Activities:  

Funding identified for outsourcing research and monitoring (linked to Objective 5). Partnership agreements with academic institutions and NGOS developed and signed.

Objective 2: Conservation of biological diversity by sustainable use of species, habitats and ecosystems goods and services. Activities and interim measures: Result 2.1: Capacity of villagers for collective decision-making and internal conflict resolution increased. Improved ability to negotiate with external agencies, institutions and the private sector and mechanisms established for equitable benefit distribution of profits from common pool resources.

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Activities: 

  

Villages without cooperatives wishing to participate in natural resource management apply for cooperative status.  Establish one Agricultural Development Cooperative for Đncesırt, Armutveren, Sarpdere and Gökyaka villages (to manage wood, mushroom, eco-tourism, organic products and NWFP’s)  Agree among villages to collaborate and establish one cooperative covering several (four) smaller villages.  Prepare Project proposal to develop common Village Resources Management Plan covering Hamidiye, Kızılağaç, Aksicim and Kışlacık villages in line with the Yıldız Mountains Biosphere Preliminary Management Plan. Training in governance, financial management & accounting of existing cooperatives. Cooperatives develop their membership to be fully representative of the entire village (gender, age, social status, etc.). Cooperatives develop and implement an equitable and transparent accounting system to ensure transparent distribution of profits.

Result 2.2: Institutional capacity of state agencies to support village-level management increased. Activities:     

Biosphere Support Unit employs substantive facilitator for CBNRM development. Build institutional capacity of state agencies to support village-level management. General Directorate of Nature Conservation and National Parks (GDNCNP) and FDD policy on supportive pricing mechanisms in place. Contractual agreement developed between relevant state agencies and cooperatives developed, and sanctioned by the Management Committee. Ministry of Environment and Forestry/GDNCNP develops community authority (cooperative) bidding document in line with Law No 4915 on Terrestrial Hunting.

Result 2.3: Village capacity to sustainably manage natural resources strengthened. Activities:  





Training in resource inventory and management techniques. Village natural resource management plans developed by participating cooperatives.  Set-up common vision and cooperation in each village to prepare Village Resources Management Plan. NGO support to village cooperatives in developing their capacity to function as effective cooperatives in areas such as internal governance, basic financial management, negotiations skills, etc.  Training in effective management of cooperatives (sustainable natural resources management, governance, cost and benefit analysis) Improved policies, regulations and if necessary legislation for cooperatives

Result 2.4: Entrepreneurial skills of villagers increased and investment in the development of small to medium-sized natural resource based enterprises. Activities: 

ORKOY (General Directorate for Forest-Village Relations) funds skills training in SME development.

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MoEF (DKMPGM and FDD) Pricing mechanisms put in place to capture economic value at village level. Marketing of Yildiz Mountains and natural products developed by appropriate agencies. Credit made available to local communities.

Objective 3: Sustainable economic and social development of Yildiz Mountains’ communities through the sustainable utilisation of the natural and cultural resource base. Activities and interim measures: Result 3.1: Capacity of small to medium village enterprises based upon Yildiz Mountains natural resources developed. Activities:  

Training and capacity building in small to medium enterprise (business planning, financial planning, marketing, etc.). Training in technical skills  Local flower and plant production  Mushroom harvesting and processing  Pyrolysis of wood for charcoal production  Hospitality services  Hunting services  Guides (youth) for visitors interested in natural and/or cultural heritage  Non Timber Forest Products  Establishment and marketing of organic products (women)  Training of youths in guiding visitors  Cheese production (link to Objective 10 activities)

Result 3.2: Certification, marketing and promotion of Yildiz Mountain resources developed. Activities:       

Biosphere web site linked to village enterprises. Certification system (linked to village resource management plans) developed demonstrating sustainability and fair trade. Certification of traditional breeds by MARA. Promote organic certification of traditional breeds (cattle, sheep, goats and bees) and agricultural produce Training in organic farming Yildiz Mountains Biosphere brand developed (using existing logo) and marketed. Promotion of Yildiz Mountains Biosphere products (tourism, meat. mushrooms, hunting, etc.) at national and international trade shows.

Result 3.3: Finance available as capital to initiate activities. Activities:    

ORKOY reviews policy to include funding of activities dependent on forest products. Subsidy from MARA available for traditional breeds. Workshops with banks and funding agencies on sustainable use and rural credit. NGO support for proposal writing and enabling village enterprises to access project funding and rural credit.

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Objective 4: An enabling environment supportive of biological diversity conservation through protection, sustainable utilisation, and the social and economic development of Yildiz Mountains communities creating a functionally efficient policy, legal and institutional framework and a broad public awareness and support for the Vision. Activities and interim measures: Result 4.1: Policy and regulations support biosphere. Activities - Phase 1: 

Biosphere establishment approved.

Activities - Phase 2:   

Review of environmental and social impact assessment for development in protected areas. Review of Cooperative enabling framework to include development of management capacity. Revision of bidding procedures for Model Hunting Areas to allow for common property management.

Result 4.2: Biosphere governance framework in place. Activities:       

Biosphere Management Committee established. Chairperson and Deputy Chairperson appointed for two years, following which Chairperson and Deputy Chairperson will be elected from among its membership (see Section 8.1.2). Biosphere Advisory Committee established, building on the former Stakeholder Working Group (Section 8.1.3). Regular meetings of committees, with Advisory Committee meetings preceding those of Management Committee. One week’s training for Chairperson of Advisory Committee Biosphere Support Unit established. Allocation of start-up budget and regular budgetary support identified.

Result 4.3: Biosphere management plan. Activities:   

Biosphere Preliminary Management Plan in place. Strategy and timetable for expanding the Preliminary Management Plan into a comprehensive management plan52, building on the initial participatory process. Allocate finances for management planning process.

Result 4.4: Awareness and support for Biosphere raised. Activities: 



Develop outreach and communications plan.  Awareness campaign for Iğneada Longoz Forest National Park linked to Biosphere vision and objectives Implement communications plan.

52

As stated in the Biosphere Governance accord (Annex 8), “this Feasibility Study for a Management Plan needs to be developed into a comprehensive management plan with a full set of activities that addresses local priorities and needs, in accordance with the visions and objectives agreed to date.”

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Result 4.5: Trans-boundary cooperation improved. Activities:          

Signed protocol on cooperation between Yildiz Mountains Biosphere and Strandja Nature Park. Regular meetings between Strandja Nature Park and Biosphere Management Committee Common projects developed between two areas, including joint project proposals for funding where practicable. Agreements (e.g. memorandum of understanding) on cooperation in ecotourism, wildlife research and biodiversity conservation, Communication and exchange visits between local people from both countries facilitated by the Advisory Committee. Common protection strategies with a flow of bilateral communication through regular meetings and seminars. Seminars and workshops for village cooperatives, village and private sector enterprises involved in hunting tourism, NTFP utilization and ecotourism. Facilitation of visitor flows between Turkey and Bulgaria through liaison with border agencies, including workshops for officials. Exchange visits between schools Collaboration in use of resources, such as Dereköy Nature Training Centre.

Objective 5: Financial sustainability of the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere in order to implement the management plan and achieve the long term vision. Activities and interim measures: Result 5.1: Financial plans and accountability developed. Activities:   

Develop Iğneada Longoz Forest National Park Financial Plan. Develop Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Financial Plan. Operational, efficient and transparent accounting system for the Biosphere Support Unit.

Result 5.2: Legal and policy framework to support sustainable financing. Activities:  

Iğneada Longoz Forest National Park Financial Plan developed. Legal basis for concessions in National Park (if desirable) in place.

Result 5.3: Operational payment for ecosystem services (PES) schemes in place. Activities: 

 

Establish principle that ecosystem services will be priced according to cost.  Initiate mechanisms to recompense villagers in Hamidiye and Aksicim for quality and quantity of water resources abstracted by ĐSKĐ from Pabuçdere and Kazandere rivers. Establish principle that PES will reflect costs to affected communities and environment. Establish system for pricing PES schemes.

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Result 5.4: Revenue streams identified. Activities:    

Government funds identified, focusing initially on partner organisations as represented on the Biosphere Management Committee. Donor opportunities identified. NGO opportunities identified. National park revenues identified.

Result 5.6: Gap analysis. Activities:  

Funding requirements identified and addressed. Training and capacity development of state agencies, NGOs and community-based organisations (in support of implementing Village Resource Management Plans) in project development, proposal writing and applying for external funds.

Objective 6: Protection of landscape and ecosystem values from damaging impacts of potential energy and infrastructure development through an appropriate and effective planning procedure. Activities and interim measures: Result 6.1: Biosphere planning framework in place. Activities:   

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for infrastructure and mining projects is developed and applied within the Biosphere. All existing and proposed infrastructure and mining projects identified, entered into GIS and subjected to EIA. Biosphere website includes publicly accessible database on planning applications

Objective 7: Waste management through reduction, recycling, treatment and disposal. Activities and interim measures: Result 7.1: Effective implementation and enforcement of existing environmental legislation and maximum use of current and future environmental financing. Activities:   

  

Raising awareness amongst local agencies, communities and businesses of the impacts of pollution, recycling opportunities and the laws and penalties. Develop municipal plans for sewage and solid waste reduction, collection, recycling, treatment and disposal. Inform development of provincial policy on waste reduction, recycling, treatment and disposal (including financial mechanisms), thereby ensuring interests of Biosphere accommodated provincially. Byelaws on agricultural waste disposal introduced, including penalties. Develop plans for pollution incidents – risk identification, emergency responses, etc. Enforcement and monitoring of compliance by appropriate authorities.

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Objective 8: Research and monitoring to increase understanding of social, economic and environmental processes and ensure that management is adaptive. Activities and interim measures: Result 8.1: Monitoring programme and adaptive management framework in place. Activities:   

Develop database commensurate with monitoring framework (Annex 13). Regular surveys of key indicator species. Regular reporting to Management Committee and Advisory Committee

Result 8.2: Management adapts in response to learning and changes in circumstances Activities:   

Comprehensive management plan for the Biosphere developed. Reports and results of monitoring are available to stakeholders on Biosphere website (linked to future Turkish Convention on Biological Diversity Clearing House Mechanism) Regular review of management plan objectives, outcomes, outputs and activities.

Objective 9: Development of Yildiz Mountains Biosphere as an educational resource for present and future generations.

Activities and interim measures: Result 9.1: Students know more about their environment and contribute to its protection and sustainable use. Activities:     

Establish training programs including residential courses, weekend programs and school day visits. Prepare education materials and a training manual. Design trails in each specific ecosystem with interpretation panels. Run outreach activities for target groups. Implement training programs including residential courses, weekend programs and school day visits.

Result 9.2: Trainers knowledge of environmental issues and teaching approach developed. Activities:  

Pilot a training course for trainers. Establish a pool of trainers, with regular training courses for trainers and training-of-trainers.

Result 9.3: Local residents in the Biosphere engaged in a way that promotes ownership of the Dereköy Nature Training Centre. Activities:   

Include local residents, especially 11-15 year old school children and parents, and people with specialist knowledge in the preparation and implementation of training programs. Make an open space for various local activities, including organising a local festival, at the Dereköy Nature Training Centre. Establish a “junior ranger” certification system.

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Result 9.4: Sustainable organizational structure, with policies for employees, trainers, trainees and volunteers established at the Dereköy Nature Training Centre . Activities:    

Establish basic organizational structure and employee’s policy. Establish trainers policy. Establish trainees policy. Establish volunteer management policy.

Result 9.5: Bulgarian students and trainers included in the training programs. Activities:   

Address the feedback of Bulgarian counterparts on the education strategy. Pilot a training course for Bulgarian children. Implement training programs including residential courses, weekend programs and school day visits for Bulgarian children.

Result 9.6: Partnerships developed and maintained with National and Local Authorities, NGOs, sponsors and volunteers to optimise the educational experience of people visiting the Biosphere. Activities: 

Follow up the first workshop in Ankara with workshops and meetings with relevant national and local institutions.

Result 9.7: Effective monitoring and evaluation in order to continuously improve the quality of training programs. Activities:  

Establish success criteria and a monitoring and evaluation system. Evaluate activities, and revise strategic plan according.

Result 9.8: Dereköy Nature Training Centre is a model for the Biosphere and children, visitors and staff have a healthy, safe and secure working environment Activities:   

Develop a health and safety plan. Develop an equal opportunities policy. Develop a sustainability policy to underpin all activities of the Centre.

Objective 10: Visitor management to enhance the visitor experience and protect the core values of the Yildiz Mountains. Activities and interim measures: Result 10.1: Greater understanding of visitor and market needs. Activities: 

Understand current and future visitors’ needs and expectations to support management decision making

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Result 10.2: Increased local and national support for the Biosphere. Activities: 

   

Encourage the support and involvement of all Turkish stakeholders and their knowledge and appreciation of the Biosphere’s heritage places  Raise awareness of the importance of following appropriate planning procedures Reach Turkish people at home through electronic media. Use new technologies to connect with audiences. Reach youth in the classroom. Increase the understanding of national and international audiences.

Result 10.3: Improved visitor experience and reduction of negative impacts on important sites and values. Activities:    



Maintain and update Biosphere web site. Staff and finance Iğneada Visitor Centre and provide tourism facilities (e.g. addresses of accommodation, restaurants, events, etc.) Provide targeted opportunities for visitors to experience Yildiz Mountains’ natural and cultural heritage. Invest in services, programs, communities and staff to meet targeted audiences’ needs and expectations.  Establish Rural Development Office.  Prepare brochures and guidebooks on important archaeological, cultural and natural features and sites in the Biosphere, as well as villages.  Provide training in rural tourism, ecotourism and agri-tourism.  Provide training in hunting tourism.  Construct one model lodge/chalet for accommodation as an example for replication by others elsewhere. (Requires feasibility study and allocation of land by FDD).  Launch support for home pensions. Increase the accessibility of protected areas within Biosphere where appropriate to visitors.  Signboards to orientate visitors and interpretation boards for provision of information.  Dupnisa and caves  Sislioba castle graves in Hamdibey  Dökümhane from Ottoman Empire in Demirköy  Lighthouse at Limanköy  Graves of Ottoman Empire and Christian graves in Avcılar  Kıyıköy and Vize archaeological sites  Enhance landscape surrounding the entrance to Dereköy, which is no longer on the main route to Bulgaria, and develop village facilities to bring back tourism.

Objective 11: Conservation of cultural values and living heritage by protecting vulnerable archaeological sites and promoting local customs, arts, crafts and traditions. Activities and interim measures: Result 11.1: Improved capacity to deal with a diverse range of cultural heritage issues within the Biosphere. Activities: 

Develop guidelines for natural and cultural heritage management within protected areas.

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Develop innovative ways of maintaining traditional systems in the face of increasing pressure for efficiencies in other sectors.  Support local traditional livestock breeds through promotion/marketing  Support local bee keepers through promotion/marketing  Annual Yildiz Mountains mushroom festival  Develop local brand for traditionally made cheese and other local products from traditional breeds.  Ensure consumer confidence in traditional breed products.  Establish internet facilities throughout Biosphere and develop website for each village Develop policies and projects that support traditional systems. Work in collaboration with other institutions involved in cultural heritage. Support communities to conserve cultural aspects of livelihoods, crafts, traditions and traditional working practices  Restore the old school as a permanent location for new Cultural Museum in Çukurpınar  Allocate empty buildings to the Muhtar.  Restore 4 empty, old buildings, which belong to Mine Technic Research Organization in Dereköy, for use as pensions for ecotourism.  Restore Greek houses.  Document oral history.  Launch study of oral history study.  Production of serge (Şayak)

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12. MONITORING IMPLEMENTATION 12.1. ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT This Preliminary Management Plan recognises the risks inherent in deterministic management and, therefore, places significant emphasis on monitoring, evaluation and adaptive management at all levels (site management and systems management). Conservation management takes place where three principle drivers of change collide – the economic, socio-political and ecological drivers. Therefore, the Biosphere has to be managed in the context of multiple fields such as ecology, economics, natural resource management, politics, business, social sciences, ad infinitum. In these fields there are a large and unquantifiable number of known and potential variables, all subject to continual change, all interacting with each other in ways that may be predictable or non-predictable. Applying science to the problems will make no difference to the inability to predict precisely or accurately given the complexity of multivariate, non-linear, cause and effect relationships. Given the complexities of modern conservation management, it is important that an adaptive management approach is incorporated within the strategic planning and site management planning process. This requires planners and managers to adopt an institutional culture of adaptive management, if it is to be successful, and to be confident in challenging assumptions. An adaptive management approach allows management to take place in the absence of certainty – a situation in which most ecological management must take place. However, it is possible to identify what is known about a system and what is an assumption. Based upon this, interventions can be designed, implemented, monitored and evaluated and adapted according to experience. Thus, adaptive management is largely about the confidence of planners to make decisions, based on available evidence and with clearly identified assumptions and risks, and then monitor the effects of management prescriptions to see if it is working as planned. A fundamental weakness in many management plans is a lack of institutional confidence to challenge assumptions and test a hypothesis in the light of experience or to act in the absence of certainty, when certainty may not be achievable given the resources available. Therefore the Management Committee should encourage the institutional managers to foster a working environment where individuals can challenge assumptions in the light of experience gained. An adaptive management approach places considerable importance on the process of monitoring and evaluation of the system in order to strengthen the management at all levels of the Biosphere, in the light of experience. Building this capacity to monitor and evaluate within the governance system of the Biosphere (institutions and communities) is crucial to for management to be effective.

12.2. MONITORING Monitoring is critical to an adaptive management approach, accountability and effective conservation. Three broad reasons for instituting a monitoring programme are: 1. to assess the effectiveness of a management intervention, policy or legislation (performance); 2. regulatory (audit) function; and 3. to detect incipient change (early warning).

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From a conservation management perspective the most challenging aspect of monitoring is measuring the effectiveness of management interventions. Given that socio-ecological systems are highly complex, most management is based on a mixture of what is known about the system and what is assumed. Therefore, any predicted output or outcome must be clearly defined using indicators and then closely monitored to determine if the prescribed intervention is having the desired effect. A logical framework matrix outlining a set of biodiversity and socio-economic indicators to monitor implementation of this Preliminary Management Plan, based on the 11 objectives (Section 10) and associated activities (Section 11), is provided in Annex 13. Further details can be found in Murray (2010). Monitoring will need to take place at two levels. Firstly, at the level of the Biosphere management plan, essentially monitoring the progress towards the vision. Secondly, at a more intimate level to determine the state of the two fundamental components of the Biosphere vision; the resources and the local communities. 12.2.1 Biosphere system monitoring The Biosphere Management Committee will be responsible for instituting a systems-wide monitoring programme to determine the effectiveness of the system, to ensure compliance (audit) and to provide early warning with particular emphasis on the impacts of climate change on Yildiz Mountain’s biodiversity. In order to achieve this the Management Committee will need to develop the existing GIS built under the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project and also link it to the Turkish Clearing House Mechanism of the Convention on Biological Diversity. As part of the adaptive management approach at Biosphere level, the Management Committee will provide annual reports on the protected areas system clearly stating: 

Implementation – did we do what we planned to do (i.e. is the plan still untested because the implementation was poor);



Effectiveness – did the plan meet the predicted objectives (i.e. has the plan been tested and found to have flaws), and;



Validation of the model’s parameters and relationships (i.e. which assumptions, variables and interactions were correct).

An important component of the system-wide monitoring and evaluation will be to provide an assessment of the most cost-effective management approaches for the Biosphere. 12.2.2 Site monitoring At the individual protected areas and village levels, monitoring will be carried out by the protected areas site management agencies and cooperatives (in collaboration with state agencies), respectively, according to national minimum standards set out by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry. At this level monitoring will be largely carried out to assess the effectiveness of the protected areas management plan or village resources management plan. These monitoring requirements can be broadly defined as monitoring the effectiveness of the site management plan or village resource management plans by: 

Assessing the effectiveness of the individual activities (monitoring performance);

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Assessing the effectiveness of the various activities in achieving the outcomes (monitoring the impact); and



Assessing the effectiveness of the various outcomes on achieving the objectives (monitoring the change).

12.2.3 Collaborative monitoring A critical limitation of any monitoring system is the cost of collecting data. Adaptive management provides an opportunity to experiment with different management regimes, particularly where harvesting is a conservation issue. The proposed CBNRM system of village community management of natural resources provides an opportunity to internalise the costs of data collection within the production system. As local communities will be recognised as the de facto managers of specific resources they will have a vested interest in predicting the future health of the resources. Arguably they already have a vested interest in the resources; and within the proposed CBNRM system villagers they will be able to invest time and resources in monitoring in the knowledge that this will contribute to securing the future of the resource. This last point is critically important because, in certain circumstances, the high price of conservation management means that sustainable use is the most cost effective approach to sustainable management. However, imposing expensive and highly technical means of monitoring populations and determining sustainable harvesting levels can increase the cost of monitoring above the value of the resource, making sustainable use uneconomic and impracticable. More flexible monitoring, use of adaptive quota setting and use of proxy indicators can make the difference between economic and ecological sustainability and having no discernable management system in place.

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REFERENCES YILDIZ MOUNTAINS PROJECT REPORTS YMBP (2010). Land and vegetation cover, habitat and landscape mapping of the Yildliz Mountains, using satellite remote sensing and GIS techniques. A report prepared on behalf of AGRER-Agriconsulting-AGRIN by S. Berberoğlu, C. Donmez, O. Şatir for the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Ankara. Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project Report Series No. 1. YMBP (2010). Eco-hydrology of Yıldız Mountains. A report prepared on behalf of AGRER-Agriconsulting-AGRIN by Yusuf Serengil for the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Ankara. Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project Report Series No. 2. YMBP (2010). Flora of Yildiz Mountains. A report prepared on behalf of AGRER-Agriconsulting-AGRIN by N. Özhatay, E. Akalin, Y. Yeşil, S. Demirci, N. Güler, and H. Ersoy for the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Ankara. Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project Report Series No. 3. YMBP (2010). Fauna of Yildiz Mountains. A report prepared on behalf of AGRER-Agriconsulting-AGRIN by M. Sözen and A. Karataş for the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Ankara. Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project Report Series No. 4. YMBP (2010). Caves of the Yildiz Mountains and their fauna. Report prepared on behalf AGRER-AgriconsultingAGRIN by BUMAD (E. Çoraman, Y. Özakin, Y. Çelik, M. Döker, K. Kunt, and E. Özel) for the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Ankara. Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project Report Series No. 5. YMBP (2010). Diversity and distribution of birds in the Yildiz Mountains. Report prepared on behalf of AGRERAgriconsulting-AGRIN by Korhan Özkan for the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Ankara. Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project Report Series No. 6. YMBP (2010). A participatory approach to planning the management of the proposed Yildiz Mountains Biosphere. Report prepared on behalf of AGRER-Agriconsulting-AGRIN by S. Alpan Atamer, Sevgi Gül and Okan Can for the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Ankara. Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project Report Series No. 7. YMBP (2010). Resource management in the proposed Yildiz Mountains: a community-based approach. Report prepared on behalf of AGRER-Agriconsulting-AGRIN by Francis Hurst for the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Ankara. Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project Report Series No. 8. YMBP (2010). Identification and valuation of ecosystem goods and services in the Yildiz Mountains. A report prepared on behalf of AGRER-Agriconsulting-AGRIN by Dominic Moran for the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Ankara. Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project Report Series No. 9. YMBP (2010). Social profiling of villages in the Yildiz Mountains. A report prepared on behalf of AGRERAgriconsulting-AGRIN by Dominic Moran and Axel Tarisse for the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Ankara. Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project Report Series No. 10. Murray, M. (2010). Preliminary biodiversity and socio-economic monitoring framework. A report prepared on behalf of AGRER-Agriconsulting-AGRIN for the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Ankara. Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project Report Series.

OTHER PUBLICATIONS Emerton, L., Bishop, J. and Thomas, L. (2000). Sustainable Financing of Protected Areas: A Global Review of Challenges and Options. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. Gadgil, M. (2008). Let our Rightful Forests Flourish. National Centre for Advicacy Studies, Pune, India. 98 pp. IUCN (2000). Financing Protected Areas: Guidelines for Protected Area Managers. Series Editor Adrian Philips. World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA), Best Practice Protected Areas Guidelines Series No. 5. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. Lockwood, M. and Quintela, C.E. (2006). Finance and Economics. In: Managing Protected Areas: A Global Guide, Ed. Lockwood, M., Warboys, G. and Kothari, A. Earthscan, London, UK. Pp. 328-358. Maxted, N. and Kell, S.P., (2009). Establishment of a Global Network for the In Situ Conservation of Crop Wild Relatives: Status and Needs. FAO Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, Rome, Italy. 266 pp. Maxted, N., Guarino, L., Myer, L. & Chiwona, E.A., (2002). Towards a methodology for on-farm conservation of plant genetic resources. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 49: 31- 46 Thomas, L. and Middleton, J. (2003). Guidelines for Management Planning of Protected Areas. Series Editor Adrian Philips. World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA), Best Practice Protected Areas Guidelines Series No. 10. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, U.K. Udvardy, M.D.F. (1975). A classification of the biogeographical provinces of the world. Contribution to UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere Programme. IUCN, Morges, Switzerland. IUCN Occasional Paper No. 18. 48 pp. Walters, C J (1986). Adaptive Management of Renewable Resources. MacMillan, New York.

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Yildiz Mountains Biosphere: Preliminary Management Plan

ANNEXES ANNEX 1: STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS ANNEX 2: COMPOSITIONS OF STAKEHOLDER W ORKING GROUP AND MANAGEMENT PLANNING UNIT ANNEX 3: FLORA INVENTORY ANNEX 4: HOTSPOT SITE ACCOUNTS ANNEX 5: FAUNA INVENTORY ANNEX 6: VILLAGE PROFILES ANNEX 7: W ELL-BEING INDEX ANNEX 8: PARIS ACCORD – BIOSPHERE GOVERNANCE ANNEX 9: STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF VILLAGE COOPERATIVES IDENTIFIED BY STAKEHOLDERS ANNEX 10: MANAGEMENT AGREEMENT WORKSHOP ANNEX 11: DRAFT MOU FOR COOPERATION ANNEX 12: 12A THREAT REDUCTION ASSESSMENT (MPU) 12B THREAT REDUCTION ASSESSMENT (SWG) 12C DESCRIPTION OF THREATS AND DEFINITIONS OF 100% REDUCTION ANNEX 13: MONITORING FRAMEWORK

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ANNEX 1 – STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS

STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS Stakeholder National Agencies

Location

Their Objectives

Impact on the Reserve

- Coordinate to Turkey’s relations with other countries - To managing Turkey’s international policy program Approve to international agreements and protocols

- effective on international protected area in Turkey - effective on decide to new protected statute

- more protected national area

effective on international protected area in Turkey - effective on decide to new protected statute - effective protected area management - pressure on species and habitats (if, forest resources are not utilized sustainably)

- more protected national area

ƒ MOFA

Ankara

Secretariat At General For EU Affairs

Ankara

- Organize to relation of EU and Turkey - Organize to meeting with EU countries - Prepare to new protocols

ƒ Ministry of Environment and Forestry

Ankara

-

ƒ MoNE

-

ƒ DPT (State Planning Organization)

1

protection and improvement of the environment prevention of pollution sustainable use of natural resources protection of biodiversity conservation, development and expansion of forests meeting the demand for timber and non-timber forest products and services development of forest villagers Prepare and apply national education program for Turkey Appoint new staff to village’s education centers Publication new education documents Prepare national and international projects Coordinate to international projects Planning states budget Make development plan in every five years

ƒ General Directorate of Nature Conservation and N. Parks

Ankara

- protection of biodiversity (species, habitats, ecosystems) and landscapes.

ƒ General Directorate of Forestry (OGM)

Ankara

- production of timber and non-timber forest products and services - protection and development of forests and natural resources

ƒ General Directorate of Afforestation and Erosion Control (AGM)

Ankara

- extending the forest cover - preventing erosion - improving rangelands

Raise to awareness on natural areas Training national and international education program in environment Planning to budget of projected area in general budget To put projected management plans in states development plan - effective protection of biodiversity and the site. - loss of forest habitats and species due to timber exploitation (-) - termination of traditional coppicing practices may lead to loss of forest habitat mosaic (-) - protection of forests against illegal logging, fires, pathological effects, etc (+) - plantations with alien species in the protected area may lead to loss of biodiversity (-) - environmentally appropriate ecosystem restoration may support the reserve (+)

Impact of the Reserve on them

- protection of more species, habitats and ecosystems - reduced consumptive use of forest resources

More green and protected area for education

More plan and protected areas

- more protected species, spaces. - reduced revenue from timber exploitation

- reduced space for plantation

This information is based on an original stakoholder analysis undertaken by the Biodiversity and Natural Resource Management Project (GEF-II) on İğneada and subsequent updated for purpose of the present Project 1

Stakeholder National Agencies

Location

Their Objectives

Impact on the Reserve

Impact of the Reserve on them

ƒ General Directorate of Forest-Village Relations (ORKOY)

Ankara

- reduce socio-economic pressure on forests by supporting forest communities

- more effective protection in the reserve (+)

- requires more financial support from ORKOY

ƒ General Directorate of EIA and Planning

Ankara

- ensuring protection of environment and biodiversity against the harmful impacts of development projects

- effective protection of the environment and biodiversity (+)

ƒ General Directorate of Environmental Management ƒ General Directorate of State Water Works (DSI) ƒ Ministry of Culture and Tourism

Ankara

ƒ Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs

Ankara

- combating pollution of air, water and soil - promoting clean energy - maximizing the use of water resources for energy and irrigation - promoting natural and cultural assets - using natural and cultural heritage for touristic purposes - protecting natural and cultural assets - development of agriculture - socio-economic development of rural communities - protection of soil

ƒ General Directorate of Protection and Control (GDPC) ƒ General Directorate of Agricultural Production and Development (TUGEM)

Ankara

- contributes to the conservation objectives in and around the Reserve (+) - reduced water resources on which the ecosystems depend. - touristic use may increase pressure on the natural values of the reserve (-) - the SIT status may help protect the reserve (+) - loss of species and natural habitats due to intensive agriculture and support of chemicals, fertilizers, seeds, etc (-) - the “soil protection law” supports conservation objectives (awaiting for the approval of the Parliament) (+) - supports environmental health

- more protected species, habitats and ecosystems - more clean environment - contributes to the objectives of the GDEM

ƒ Undersecretary of Maritime Affairs

Ankara

ƒ General Directorate of State Highways

Ankara

- developing the road network

ƒ General Directorate of Mining

Ankara

- increasing the national revenue from mining.

Ankara Ankara

Ankara

- Regulating the use of agricultural pesticides in relation to human health and environment - Regulating fishing, hunting - Soil protection - Controlling the use of fertilizers - Management and sustainable use of grasslands including grazing, range improvement, protection, etc. - maximizing the economic benefits from maritime affairs and developing the national infrastructure

- contamination due to use of chemical fertilizers - construction of a larger harbour in Igneada may harm the Reserve - increased maritime traffic may cause pollution - a new coastal highway through the Reserve or expansion of the existing road to connect the harbour with the regional centers (for transporting cement) may lead to loss of natural habitats. - mining operations in and/or around the Reserve and development of mining related infrastructure (eg. transportation of cement) will lead to loss of biodiversity and degradation of habitats.

- reduced water resources for irrigation and energy. - less number of visitors - reduced revenue from tourism - reduced revenue from agriculture - supports soil protection objective of the Agriculture Ministry

- supports the objectives of GDPC on environmental health, sustainable fishing and hunting - contribution to protection of soil and grasslands - increase in income through possible expansion of Igneada harbor won’t happen as the presence of Reserve may require termination or down-sizing of the expansion project. - the presence of Reserve and the critical need for protection of its biodiversity may imply termination of ambitious road projects or require alternative solutions. - reduced revenue from mining operations - increased limiting factors to exploit and transport mineral resources

Local Government and other Official Agencies ƒ Governorship of the province of Kirklareli

Kirklareli

- governance of the province - development (social-economical-cultural) of the provinces (annex list_1 Placess) - protection of environment and natural resources

- effective law enforcement will lead to effective protection (+) - attempts to undertake unsustainable development projects may lead to loss of the Reserve’s values (-)

- The presence of Reserve increase the environmental recognition / record / credibility of the province (+) - The presence of Reserve may imply also reduced space and resources for development projects (-)

ƒ Kirklareli Planning Coordination Com.

Kirklareli

-

Approve plans of district in kirklareli Coordination plans Coordination public offices Decide to new grazing areas Decide to improve in grazing area To make statistical reports for region To make social and economic surveys

ƒ Grazing and Pasture Com.

Kirklareli

ƒ TSI (Turkish Statistical Institute) Regional Office

Edirne

ƒ Head Official of Districts

Pinarhisar, Vize, Demirkoy

- governance of the district - development (social-economical-cultural) of the provinces (annex list_1 Places) - protection of environment and natural resources

ƒ Municipalities

Kirklareli, Pinarhisar, Yenice, Vize, Kiyikoy, Demirkoy, Igneada Istanbul

- urban development - meeting the demand of residents for services (water, electricity) - waste management

ƒ Istanbul Forestry Regional Office

ƒ forestry offices

Kirklareli, Demirkoy, Vize,

ƒ Provincial Directorate of Environment and Forestry (PDEF)

Kirklareli

ƒ National Parks and Wildlife Department of the PDEF

Kirklareli

ƒ Directorate of National Education

Kirklareli

ƒ Igneada National Park Engineer

Igneada

- Coordinate to forestry offices (kirklareli, demirkoy, vize) - To inspect forestry offices - development (social-economical-cultural) of the provinces (annex list_1 Placess) - protection of environment and natural resources - production of timber and non-timber forest products and services - protection and development of forests and natural resources - protection and improvement of the environment - prevention of pollution - sustainable use of natural resources - protection of biodiversity - conservation, development and expansion of forests - meeting the demand for timber and non-timber forest products and services - development of forest villagers - management and protection of protected areas within the provincial boundaries - management of recreational sites - regulating and monitoring hunting within the provincial boundaries including the Igneada National Park, Kasatura Nature Protection area and other Wildlife Protection Site - providing the children with basic education within the district boundaries of Demirkoy, Vize, Pinarhisar - management and protection of National Park area - management of recreational sites - regulating and monitoring hunting within the provincial boundaries

Check protected area’s plans with relation district government office To supply protected area aims realize Decide to improve grazing area in protected area - To make social and economic surveys in protected area Constitute statistical data in protected area effective law enforcement will lead to effective protection (+) - attempts to undertake unsustainable development projects may lead to loss of the Reserve’s values (-) - inappropriate waste management in the upstream of rivers may lead to contamination of water in the Reserve - excessive use of water in the upstream will reduce the amount of water in the Reserve - loss of forest habitats and species due to timber exploitation (-) - termination of traditional coppicing practices may lead to loss of forest habitat mosaic (-) - protection of forests against illegal logging, fires, pathological effects, etc (+) - loss of forest habitats and species due to timber exploitation (-) - protection of forests against illegal logging, fires, pathological effects, etc (+) - effective protected area management - pressure on species and habitats (if, forest resources are not utilized sustainably)

- effective protection of biodiversity

Increase to awareness on natural areas - Training national and international education program in environment - effective protection of biodiversity

Coordinated more protected area none More Regis rated protected area - The presence of Reserve increase the environmental recognition / record / credibility of the district (+) - The presence of Reserve may imply also reduced space and resources for development projects (-) - requires additional financial resources for investing in waste management - limiting the use of water in the upstream of rivers - The presence of Reserve increase the environmental recognition / record / credibility of the provinces (+) - The presence of Reserve may imply also reduced space and resources for development projects (-) - reduced revenue from timber exploitation

- protection of more species, habitats and ecosystems - reduced consumptive use of forest resources

- more protected species, habitats and ecosystems

More green and protected area for education - more protected species, habitats and ecosystems

ƒ Afforestation Department of the PDEF

Kirklareli

ƒ Nursery Engineer (Demirkoy Forest Directorate) ƒ Forest-Village Relations Dept of the PDEF (ORKOY) ƒ Environment Department of the PDEF ƒ Regional Council for Protection of Natural and Cultural Assets ƒ Provincial Directorate of Culture and Tourism ƒ Directorate of Museums

Demirkoy Kirklareli

-

production of forest tree seedlings in the nursery extension of forest cover with plantation forest restoration to grow sapling for reforestation events and private sector

Kirklareli

- reduce socio-economic pressure on forests by supporting forest communities - preventing the causes of environmental pollution

Edirne

- protection of the Mert Lake Natural SIT

Kirklareli

- protection of historical sites and artifacts. - introduction of touristic and cultural values. - development of tourism

- reduced space for plantation

- more effective protection in the reserve (+)

- requires more financial support from ORKOY - clean water, air, soil

- healthy habitats, where sufficient populations of biodiversity can survive - effective protection of natural and cultural heritage in the SIT area - increased use of the Reserve with excessive unplanned, unmanaged touristic visits that lead to degradation of habitats and loss of species - Decrease the value of the reserve, disable sustainability and result in long term economic losses

- loss of species and natural habitats due to agricultural practices in or around the reserve - loss of species and natural habitats due to agricultural practices in or around the reserve if agricultural practices are not sustainable (-) - contribution to soil protection To make new education programs Raising Awareness on protected areas To make new education programs Raising Awareness on protected areas To make educations program for development To make new education programs Raising Awareness on protected areas - construction of a larger harbour in Igneada may harm the Reserve - increased maritime traffic may cause pollution

ƒ Provincial Directorate of Agriculture (PDA)

Kirklareli

ƒ District Directorate of Agriculture

Demirkoy, Vize, Pinarhisar

ƒ Provincial Directorate of National Education ƒ Directorate of Public Education

Demirkoy, Vize, Pinarhisar Demirkoy, Vize, Pinarhisar

- providing the children with basic education within the provincial boundaries of Kirklareli - developing the skills of certain groups in the local community on certain topics / issues.

ƒ District Directorate of National Education ƒ Port Authority

Demirkoy, Vize, Pinarhisar Igneada

- providing the children with basic education within the district boundaries of Demirkoy, Vize, Pinarhisar - maximizing the economic revenue from maritime issues and fishing within the provincial boundaries of Kirklareli

ƒ Gendarme

Kirklareli, Demirkoy, Igneada, Pinarhisar, Vize, Kiyikoy Beğendik, Derekoy

- security in the rural areas; including protection of natural and cultural / historical values: preventing illegal logging, poaching, monitoring industrial waste, smuggling flora-fauna and historical artifacts, etc.

- effective protection of environment and biodiversity

Protect to border To use military pover for protections

none

ƒ Military Unit of Border Protection

- development of agriculture within the provincial boundaries of Kirklareli -socio-economic development of rural communities - development of agriculture within the provincial boundaries of Kirklareli - socio-economic development of villages - protection of soil

- plantations with alien species in the protected area may lead to loss of biodiversity (-) - environmentally appropriate ecosystem restoration may support the reserve (+)

- increased natural and cultural values under protection - effective protection of cultural/historical artifacts (+) - protection of habitat and biodiversity value of the reserve - regulated and managed visits securing low impact activities - adequate entrance fees that provide long term sustainable revenues - may decrease short term revenues (-) - potential ecotourism that caters to the visitor’s demand (+) - reduced revenue from agriculture - reduced revenue from agriculture (-) - contributes to soil protection (+)

- opportunity for open air training and education - opportunity for open air training and awareness raising - opportunity for open air training and education - increase in income through possible expansion of Igneada harbor won’t happen as the presence of Reserve may require termination or down-sizing of the expansion project. - more protected species, habitats and ecosystems - cleaner environment - more protected cultural and historical artifacts None

ƒ Derekoy customs

Dereköy

ƒ Military Service in Demirkoy

Demirkoy

ƒ Regional Directorate of State Water Works (DSI) ƒ Provincial Directorate of State Highways

Edirne Kirklareli

To control and prevent smuggling on the border Check inputs and outputs on customs door Protect to border Maximizing the military services Protect to rural security - maximizing the effective use of water resources for energy and irrigation - developing the road network

ƒ Village and District Headmen

Annex Lis_1 Places

- serving the local community to live in better socialcultural-economical conditions

ƒ Forest labours

Annex Lis_1 Places

- livelihood / employment: forest harvesting, maintenance, plantation, etc.

ƒ Forest villagers

Annex Lis_1 Places

ƒ Farmers

Annex Lis_1 Places

- making use of wood and non-wood products and services: eg obtaining construction wood at subsidized prices, coppicing, collection of fuel-wood, mushrooms, berries, wood coal etc. for both home subsistence and additional income - livelihood from subsistence agriculture (cultivating soil)

ƒ Cattle-owners

Annex Lis_1 Places

- free grazing - pasture

ƒ Bee-keepers

Annex Lis_1 Places

- livelihood

ƒ Fishermen

Igneada, Kiyikoy, Limankoy, Begendik

- Livelihood from the sea - Recreational purposes in the lakes - Fishing for traditional home subsistence

ƒ Hunters (local)

Annex Lis_1 Places

- hunting

- illegal hunting and loss of species: esp. mammals and birds.

ƒ Second home owners

Igneada

- Holiday, rest and recreation - income (rental)

- intensified unplanned and unmanaged recreational use - reduced space for biodiversity - habitat loss and disturbance

none

None

none

none

- reduced water resources on which the ecosystems depend. - a new coastal highway through the Reserve or expansion of the existing road to connect the harbour with the regional centers (for transporting cement) may lead to loss of natural habitats. - increased / unsustainable use of resources in order to improve the socialcultural-economical conditions of the village / district may lead to loss or degradation of the Reserve.

- reduced water resources for irrigation and energy. - the presence of Reserve and the critical need for protection of its biodiversity may imply termination of ambitious road projects or require alternative solutions. - reduced income / benefits for their communities

Local Population - intensified forestry activities in or around the Reserve will lead to loss of natural habitats, populations of species - increased consumption of wood and nonwood products - waste

- reduced income from limited forestry activities

- land conversion from forest to cultivation - contamination of water with chemicals (insignificant) - over-grazing (both in the forest and sand dunes) - grassland

- less space for farming / cultivation

- potential contamination by bee diseases - disturbance by unmanaged bee hives in the forest and in the openings - cultivation of flowering plants for bees in the forest - over-fishing - fishing with inconvenient methods and times

- decreased use of wood and non-wood forest products in homes - decreased additional income

- reduced income - need for capital for alternative investments, or conversion from free grazing into closed farming - increased need for know-how, trainings. - protection of flora

- reduced income from fishing - reducing recreational activities, negative social impact - reduced hunting opportunities as a source of alternative income - loss of traditional values in subsistence game hunting - limited space for second home development (-) - better environment to live in (+) - organized and managed recreational area

Selling local vegetables and fruits. Transporting local foods to other bazaar Support ecologic products - support family economy: e.g. mushroom, berry collection, jam production, cattle dealing - raise children

- increased summer town population and domestic waste Protected area’s economy

ƒ Pazarcılar ve seyyar satıcılar

Annex Lis_1 Places

ƒ Women

Annex Lis_1 Places

ƒ Children

Annex Lis_1 Places

- living in a socially, economically and culturally favorable future in harmony with nature - to play with friends, socialize, feel safe and enjoy their locality

- learning traditional attitudes towards the forest that may destroy habitat, etc - perception of the forest as only as a source of timber and devalue biodiversity, etc.

ƒ Youngster

Annex Lis_1 Places

ƒ Families and households

Annex Lis_1 Places

- to have incentives in their locality that will provide for socially, economically and culturally favorable options for the future (where they can have - sustain jobs, socialize, be educated, settle and, build families in a sustainable environment.) - sustainable livelihoods / living in better standards

ƒ Property (land) owners

Annex Lis_1 Places

- development - maximizing the short term economic benefit of land use

ƒ People of local origin who live outside

Istanbul Thrace Turkey Europe

- supporting the development and welfare of their homeland through sustainable tourism, org. agri-, etc - finding an incentive to return to their homes and extended families

ƒ Retired people

Annex Lis_1 Places

- additional income for a socially, economically secure life - peaceful life in a healthy environment

- traditional ways of forest use, short term economic benefit oriented vision and behavior may lead to increased environmental problems: pollution, disturbance of wildlife, fire, etc. - overuse / consumption of resources (water, soil, food, etc due to lack of better knowledge, vision) - unmanaged domestic waste -perception of the longoz as waste land - loss of natural habitats - increased pressure on the survival of biodiversity -reducing the value of natural assets - development activities ignoring environmental impact may harm the Reserve’s values and destroy its chance for a sustainable future - environmentally friendly activities would support the Reserve and its future benefits - development activities ignoring environmental impact may harm the Reserve’s values - environmentally friendly activities (ecotourism, org. agri-) would support the Reserve

- domestic waste - pressure on non-timber products

Increase earning - less non-timber product collection - provides alternative income opportunities and job trainings - increased social and environmental awareness - pressure on the Municipality to demand for better waste management - provides an opportunity for a sustainable future -establishes and provides new job opportunities for the future -enables in situ environmental education and may change perception-attitude for a better future - create a sense of ownership for their natural habitat - limited consumptive use of resources - restricted employment opportunities (which could be reversed thru environmentally friendly livelihood activities: eg eco-tourism) - limited consumption of resources -restricted forest use - fines for illegal activities - handling domestic waste would require extra cost - restrictions in land use - fines for illegal activities - pride of having a protected area of global importance -increased awareness on the reserve’s values and benefits -alternative job opportunities in the reserve that are long term and sustainable - pride of having a protected area of global importance - peaceful environment -clean and pristine landscape that supports rest

Regional, National, International Population ƒ Dwellers of Istanbul (ISKI)

Istanbul

- to demand for a solution to the drinking water problem in Istanbul - using recreational potential of Igneada and Kiyikoy

- If water is supplied from Igneada province, water scarcity will result in habitat and reserve loss - more visitors, increased impact on natural

- water problem and demand for a solution will continue for Istanbul - regulation of activities and management of visitors for low impact on natural areas

areas -increased demand for recreational activities and accommodation - reduced water input into the alluvial flood forest as well as to the wetlands - loss of habitat - reduced reserve value - threat to a sustainable future for the area and for the local livelihoods To decrease negative effects of solid waste on environment Support nature protection projects Wate management To make information and education materials for environment protection Public awareness - more visitors - increased demand for recreational activities - increased demand for accommodation -increased waste

ƒ Municipality of Istanbul

Istanbul

- provide drinking water to compensate for the short supply in Istanbul by damming up the water resources of Igneada and Kiyikoy

ƒ Municipality of Istanbul İSTAC

Istanbul

Municipal solid waste storage

ƒ People of Thrace region

Thrace region

- making use of the recreational / touristic potential of Igneada, Kiyikoy and Kasatura

ƒ Tourists/Visitors

Turkey

- enjoying Igneada’s and Kiyikoy touristic attractions: natural beauty, sea, forest, historical places sand, fish, etc -cheap holiday destination preferred by campers

- increased demand for intensive touristic use - increased demand for accommodation -increased waste -increased pressure on wilderness areas by unregulated campers

ƒ Translators (Bulgaria)

Thrace region

Raise public awareness on environment

ƒ Birdwatchers

Turkey

To support for the understanding To remove language barrier - enjoy observing the birds of project area forever (birdwatching) - support habitat and bird species conservation

ƒ Hunters

Outside Yizdiz Mountains Global

- hunting birds and mammals of Yildiz Mountains

- reduced populations of species subject to hunting none

ƒ IDE (local)

Igneada

ƒ DEKAD (local)

Demirkoy

- developing / improving the local community - maintaining Igneada’s natural beauty, environment and biodiversity for future generations while using resources sustainably - developing / improving the local community - maintaining Igneada’s natural beauty, environment and biodiversity for future generations while using resources sustainably

ƒ International community

- maintaining Igneada’s natural / environmental assets for global benefits and for future generations

- insignificant negative impact / supporting conservation goals

-entrance fees -fines for illegal activities - create a need to search for alternative low environmental impact water supplies, other than Igneada, which will take time and money More protected area, Clean water and air

- sustainable tourism requirement - regulation of activities and visitor management - Entrance fees - fines for illegal activities -regulation of constructions -waste management - sustainable tourism requirements - regulation of activities and visitor management - Entrance fees - fines for illegal activities -regulation of constructions -regulation and limits on camp sites -waste management More tourist - supports bird conservation - increased organized / regulated bird watching activities -support sustainable tourism -publicity for the reserve - hunting bans and regulations in the Reserve - positive contribution to climate change - contribution to global biological / genetic diversity

Local NGOs - supporting conservation objectives by raising the awareness of local population.

- contribution to the objectives of IDE

- supporting conservation objectives by raising the awareness of local population.

- contribution to the objectives of IDE

ƒ Local Chamber of Agriculture

Demirkoy

- maximizing the income of local farmers from agricultural practices through technical and financial support

ƒ Representative of chamber of frost engineers

kırklareli

ƒ Hunters Associations

Demirkoy Igneada Kırklareli Luleburgaz Pınarhisar Vize Kirklareli

- support to government forest offices - puclic awareness about forestry - improving MoEF staffs case - protect environment - enjoying the hunting potential of Yildiz Mountains forever

ƒ TEMA (local)

- halting soil erosion - expanding forest cover - protecting natural habitats

- loss of species and natural habitats due to agricultural practices in or around the reserve if agricultural practices are not sustainable (-) Active role on protected area and forestry applications - reduced populations of species subject to hunting

- reduced revenue from agriculture (-)

More protected area and improve forestry applitions - no more or regulated hunting in the Reserve - restricted space for hunting

- contribution to effective protection in and around the reserve

- contribution to the achievement of TEMA objectives on conservation and sustainable use

-provide scientific feedback for adaptive reserve management - Contribution to sustainable tourism through science holidays - support sustainable use of reserve facilities provide scientific feedback for adaptive reserve management - Contribution to sustainable tourism through science holidays - support sustainable use of reserve facilities -provide scientific feedback for adaptive reserve management - Contribution to sustainable tourism through science holidays - support sustainable use of reserve facilities -provide scientific feedback for adaptive reserve management - Contribution to sustainable tourism through science holidays - support sustainable use of reserve facilities -provide scientific feedback for adaptive reserve management - Contribution to sustainable tourism through science holidays - support sustainable use of reserve facilities -provide scientific feedback for adaptive reserve management - Contribution to sustainable tourism through science holidays - support sustainable use of reserve facilities -provide scientific feedback for adaptive reserve management

- opportunity for in situ scientific research, data collection and publications

Schools, Universities and Research Organizations ƒ University of Thrace Biology Department

Edirne

- production of information on Yildiz Mountains biodiversity through research - monitoring and protection biodiversity -education

ƒ University of Kirklareli

Kırklareli

production of information on Yildiz Mountains forests, flora/fauna and other relevant issues through research - monitoring, protection and sustainable use of forests -education

ƒ University of Namik Kemal Agriculture Dept.

Tekirdag

- production of information on agriculture and grazing in demirkoy, vize, through research - monitoring and protection grasslands -education

ƒ University of Istanbul - Dept of Forestry - Dept of Pharmacy

Istanbul

- production of information on Yildiz Mountains forests, flora/fauna and other relevant issues through research - monitoring, protection and sustainable use of forests -education

ƒ Middle East Technical University Biology Department

Ankara

- production of scientific information on hydrology through research - monitoring and maintaining the quality and quantity of water resources -education

ƒ University of Marmara

Istanbul

- Research and education

ƒ Technical University of Istanbul

Istanbul

- Research and education

opportunity for in situ scientific research and data collection -publications - opportunity for in situ scientific research and data collection -publications - opportunity for in situ scientific research and data collection -publications

- opportunity for in situ scientific research and data collection -publications

- opportunity for in situ scientific research and data collection -publications

- opportunity for in situ scientific research and data collection

- contribution to sustainable tourism -support sustainable use of reserve facilities provide scientific feedback for adaptive reserve management - contribution to sustainable tourism -support sustainable use of reserve facilities -provide scientific feedback for adaptive reserve management - contribution to sustainable tourism -support sustainable use of reserve facilities -provide scientific feedback for adaptive reserve management - contribution to sustainable tourism -support sustainable use of reserve facilities - production of scientific data (+) -provide scientific feedback for adaptive reserve management - contribution to sustainable tourism -support sustainable use of reserve facilities

-publications

- research and information on Igneada’s biodiversity and natural resources - more specifically, preparing biotope maps of Igneada -research with university of Istanbul on vize and demirkoy about soil and flora - preparing the children for life thru training and education, including environmental aspects

- production of scientific data (+) -provide scientific feedback for adaptive reserve management - contribution to sustainable tourism

- opportunity for in situ scientific research and data collection

- over-visitation my lead to deterioration of habitats

- the reserve may serve as an open air lab for primary schools

- Supplying mushroom from villagers

- excessive collection of mushroom may lead to decrease in populations of key mushroom species

- the extent of areas for free mushroom collection would decrease

ƒ University of bogazici

Istanbul

- Support archeological dig in ironworks - Research in caves - Research and education

ƒ University of Canakkale

Canakkale

- Support archeological dig in ironworks every year - Research and education

ƒ Other Universities in Turkey: KTU, Gazi, etc.

Turkey

- Research and education

ƒ Research Institutes (Forestry, Agriculture, Water)

Edirne Kırklareli Tekirdag Istanbul Bolu Ankara Kocaeli Ankara

-

ƒ TUBITAK (The Turkish Council for Scientific and Technical Research) ƒ Primary schools

Annex Lis_1 Places

Agricultural production suitable for the region Protection of genetic resources Use and protection of water resources Use and protection of forest resources Field research and education

- opportunity for in situ scientific research and data collection -publications - opportunity for in situ scientific research and data collection -publications - opportunity for in situ scientific research and data collection -publications - opportunity for in situ scientific research and data collection (+)

Private Sector ƒ Mushroom processing companies

ƒ Agricultural development cooperatives

Thrace region İtalya Fransa Local mushroom depot (Kerevitaş,Dardane l, Menteşoğlu …) Annex Lis_1 Places

- Impact on forestry and agriculture - To share forestry work in their members - Credit support for Agricultural investments

To managing agricultural area in protected areas

More healthy environment

Support for agricultural investment Investments of tourism

Financial support with members for tourism

More tourism income

ƒ Union Of Honey Producers

Kirklareli Demirkoy Pınarhisar Vize Kirklareli

Technical and financial support Obstruction illegal applications Education program for honey product

To increase honey quantity and quality Support to protect of endemic plants activity

More quality honey

ƒ Trades coop.

Kirklareli

Technical and financial support

Financial support with members for tourism

More tourism income

ƒ Association of trades

ƒ Fish dealers or cooperatives ƒ Dairy products ƒ Mining companies

ƒ Renewable energy companies ƒ Local butchers

ƒ Travel and transport companies

ƒ Local tourism businesses (hotel, pension, restaurant, shop owners, etc) ƒ Local timber businesses ƒ Bucksawers ƒ Private Nurserys

Demirkoy Pınarhisar Vize Igneada Kiyikoy Istanbul Thrace region (Tikvesli, Tariç, etc) Kirklareli Vize Demikoy Turkey Demirkoy Vize Kıyıkoy Demirkoy Kirklareli Vize Sergen Igneada Kiyikoy Igneda Demirkoy Kirklareli Kiyikoy Vize Istanbul Igneada Kiyikoy Demirkoy Sivriler Vize Annex Lis_1 Places Annex Lis_1 Places Igneada Avcilar Sivriler Demirkoy

Obstruction illegal applications Education program for honey product - Supplying fish from local fishermen

- over fishing may lead to loss of the populations of key fish species

- less fish supply

- Supplying milk from villagers for dairy products

- overgrazing (in case of free grazing) - contamination of water by waste - loss of natural habitats due to mining operations - disturbance on wildlife

- less milk supply

- Use environment friendly energy systems and investments

Widespread of renewable energy systems

More protected environment

- Buying and selling ecological cattle

none

More clean environment

- Earning more income by bringing tourist to the area

- loss of natural habitats for construction or expansion of roads - disturbance on wildlife

- limited number of tourists and limited income from tourism - different profile of tourists (more environmentally-friendly tourism)

- Earning more income from touristic services

- pressure on natural habitats

- limited number of tourists and limited income from tourism

- Earning more income from timber production and processing - Earning income by sawing timber

- loss of forest habitats

- reduced income due to reduction of production forest for timber harvesting - less opportunity to saw timber

- Revenue from extraction of mineral resources (coal, sand, gravel, lime, etc)

- tendency to saw illegal timber

- sacrifice of revenue from mining

- Revenue from propagation of saplings

- loss of natural habitats - supply of natural plant species

- less space for plant propagation (esp. non-indigenous species) - suitable ecological conditions for nursery

Cultural and Religious Groups ƒ Immigrants from the Balkans Bosnian Pomac Bulgarian ƒ Immigrants from the Black Sea

Annex Lis_1 Places

- Living in favorable socio-economic conditions: income, employment, resource use - Maintaining their socio-cultural life

- over use of resources

- restrictions to their socio-economic interests

Annex Lis_1 Places

- over use of resources

- restrictions to their socio-economic interests

ƒ Gypsies

Igneada Demirkoy Kiyikoy

- Living in favorable socio-economic conditions: income, employment, resource use - Maintaining their socio-cultural life - Living in favorable socio-economic conditions income, employment, resource use - Sustaining their cultural and historical traditions and life style.

- over use of resources

- restrictions to their socio-economic interests

ƒ The mosque community (incl mufti and imams)

Annex Lis_1 Places

- Winning God’s appreciation

- respecting nature and the living things for God’s sake

ƒ Yesilyurt Newspaper

Kirklareli

ƒ Gorunum Newspaper

Luleburgaz

- informing the residents of the province of Kirklareli (incl. project site) - informing the residents in the region (incl. project site)

ƒ Frekans Newspaper

Luleburgaz

- informing the residents in the region (incl. project site)

ƒ Onadim Newspaper

Local

- informing the residents in the region (incl. project site)

ƒ Luleburgaz FM, Radyo Net (Trakya) and other local radio stations ƒ Trakya TV. National Geographic TV and radio stations, news channels: eg, NTV, CNN Turk, IZTV, Yaban TV.etc. ƒ Web-Sites

Luleburgaz

- informing the residents in the region (incl. project site)

- their messages may either support or threaten the conservation objectives - their messages may either support or threaten the conservation objectives - their messages may either support or threaten the conservation objectives - their messages may either support or threaten the conservation objectives - their messages may either support or threaten the conservation objectives

Istanbul (national)

- news information - broadcasting national documentaries: eg, culture, history, environment, etc

- their messages may either support or threaten the conservation objectives

- new topic for communication - a new site for documentation

Turkey

informing the residents in the region (incl. project site)

- their messages may either support or threaten the conservation objectives

- new topic for communication

? - effective protection of biodiversity and around the Reserve (+)

? - suitable conditions for effective protection and sustainable use

Media and Press - new topic for communication - new topic for communication - new topic for communication - new topic for communication - new topic for communication

Projects and Donors ƒ UNESCO - MAB ƒ GEF-II Project

Ankara Ankara, Igneada

ƒ EU Transboundary Cooperation Project

Turkish-Bulgarian border

ƒ PEEN (Pan-European Ecological Networks)

?

Protect biosphere area - establishing effective, intersectoral, participatory planning and sustainable management of protected areas and natural resources - building capacity at the national level to facilitate replication of successful activities at priority conservation sites throughout Turkey. - Enhancing cooperation among the neighboring countries on environmental protection and sustainable development Encourage and support the full implementation of all the existing binding international commitments and necessary actions to save biodiversity;

- sustainable use of natural resources in and around the Reserve (+) - it may bring in new opportunities for effective protection on both sides of the border. ?

- contribution to transborder conservation ?

Demonstrate clearly what progress Europe makes in meeting the 2010 Biodiversity Commitment; Gain maximum public attention across Europe for the challenge of saving biodiversity by 2010.

ƒ Prime Ministry: Project for Reduction of Social Risk

Ankara Kirklareli

- Contribution to the socio-economic development of rural population within the provincial boundaries of Kirklareli (including Igneada)

- development may pose threat if environmental concerns are not addressed in projects / activities

- restricted utilization of natural resources for development / local welfare

ANNEX LİST_1 (Places): Place names Kırklareli Dereköy

Legal Status city Village

City Kırklareli

District -

Site -

Forestry department Kırklareli Forestry department Kırklareli Forestry department

Pınarhisar Yenice Armutveren Evciler Beypınar Kurudere Şükrüpaşa Karadere

District Site Village Village Village Village Village Village

Kırklareli Kırklareli Kırklareli Kırklareli Kırklareli Kırklareli Kırklareli Kırklareli

Pınarhisar Pınarhisar Pınarhisar -

-

Kırklareli Forestry department Kırklareli Forestry department Kırklareli Forestry department Kırklareli Forestry department Kırklareli Forestry department Kırklareli Forestry department Kırklareli Forestry department Kırklareli Forestry department

Vize Kıyıköy Kışlacık Kızılağaç Hamidiye Aksicim

District Site Village Village Village Village

Kırklareli Kırklareli Kırklareli Kırklareli Kırklareli Kırklareli

Vize Vize Vize Vize Vize

-

Vize Forestry department Vize Forestry department Vize Forestry department Vize Forestry department Vize Forestry department Vize Forestry department

Demirköy İğneada Gökyaka Yiğitbaşı Yeşilce Karacadağ Hamdibey İncesırt Balaban Sarpdere Sivriler Limanköy Sislioba Beğendik Avcılar Boztaş

District Site Village Village Village Village Village Village Village Village Village Village Village Village Village Village

Kırklareli Kırklareli Kırklareli Kırklareli Kırklareli Kırklareli Kırklareli Kırklareli Kırklareli Kırklareli Kırklareli Kırklareli Kırklareli Kırklareli Kırklareli Kırklareli

Demirkoy Demirkoy Demirkoy Demirkoy Demirkoy Demirkoy Demirkoy Demirkoy Demirkoy Demirkoy Demirkoy Demirkoy Demirkoy Demirkoy Demirkoy

İgneada İgneada İgneada -

Demirkoy Forestry department Demirkoy Forestry department Demirkoy Forestry department Demirkoy Forestry department Demirkoy Forestry department Demirkoy Forestry department Demirkoy Forestry department Demirkoy Forestry department Demirkoy Forestry department Demirkoy Forestry department Demirkoy Forestry department Demirkoy Forestry department Demirkoy Forestry department Demirkoy Forestry department Demirkoy Forestry department Demirkoy Forestry department

ANNEX LIST_2 (Forest Management Unites): Unit Name Derekoy Chief Incesirt Chief Kurudere Chief Istihkamtepe Chief Karacadag Chief Kadinkule Chief Cakmaktepe Chief Sarapnel Chief Sivrikulubeler Chief Bulanikdere Chief Igneada Chief Macara Chief Kiyikoy Chief Yumurtatepe Chief

Forestry department Kirklareli Demirkoy Demirkoy Demirkoy Demirkoy Demirkoy Demirkoy Demirkoy Demirkoy Demirkoy Demirkoy Demirkoy Vize Vize

ANNEX 2: COMPOSITION AND CONTACT DETAILS OF SWG AND MPU MEMBERS STAKEHOLDER WORKING GROUP

name

Ministry of Environment and Forestry Ministry of Environment and Forestry Provincial Directorate of Environment and Forestry Provincial Directorate of Environment and Forestry

Kenan Şanlı Osman Karaelmas Filiz İhtiyar Zafer Kamay

Governor

Ruhi Eray

Special Directorate of Kirklareli Kırklareli University Demirköy District Governorate (community training centre) Pınarhisar District Governorate (District Agriculture Directorate) Vize District Governorate Provincial Directorate of Agriculture Provincial Directorate of Culture and Tourism (museum) Demirköy Directorate of Agriculture

Müberra Akkaya Ahmet Güzel Sencer Yaylaci Hakan Kılınç Selim Kuzu Ayhan Çelik Hasan Taylan Emir Tuzkaya Mücahit Erel

Kırklareli Forestry Management Directorate

Zahit Yılmaz

Demirköy Forestry Management Directorate Kırklareli Municipality Demirköy Municipality

Feridun Tandoğan Güven Ufuk Özen Nihan Şahinbaş insufficient no. of staff after 15/08/09 Emre Sır Sırrı Tayan Hasan Temel Hüsnü Gültekin Rıdvan Ulus Vatan Avcu Coşkun Uluk Mahmut Zipak Mustafa Çınar Mustafa Abakos Osman Kınay Faruk Akan Suat Aydın Kenan Ceylan Gürkan Varolan Zeki Ercan Turan Üstündağ Ahmet Ege

İğneada Municipality Kıyıköy Municipality DEKAD TEMA Hunters Association representative - Demirköy Bee-keeping Union representative Agricultural Development and Fisheries Cooperatives representative - Kışlacık Agricultural Development and Fisheries Cooperatives representative - Boztaş Agricultural Development and Fisheries Cooperatives representative - İğneada Agricultural Development and Fisheries Cooperatives representative - Kıyıköy Agricultural Development and Fisheries Cooperatives representative - Sislioba Agricultural Development and Fisheries Cooperatives representative - Demirköy Agricultural Development and Fisheries Cooperatives representative - Balaban Head of village - village representative - Aksicim Head of village - village representative - Evciler Head of village - village representative - Avcılar Head of village - village representative - Beğendik Head of village - village representative - Hamdibey Head of village - village representative - İncesırt

phone 5069468865 5442465098 2882125334 5333221123 2882144831 5367436399 5055433321 5322307450 5327955922 5423913429 5372016396 5438011084 2882142139 5369282059 2141020 5367009553 5057830449 5327439623 5352736151 5456403480 5332211338 5436363902 5554964104 5553753560 5378852439 5358718628 5396003759 5373247229 5443049398 5358930391 5357999209 5387649087 5353126594 5405956249 5398246773 5458040155 5458017471

e-mail

[email protected] [email protected]

[email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected]

[email protected]

[email protected] 5373247229

[email protected]

STAKEHOLDER WORKING GROUP

name

Head of village - village representative - Sarpdere Head of village - village representative - Yeşilce Head of village - village representative - Dereköy Women - village representative - Beypınar Women - village representative - Çukurpınar Women - village representative - Çukurpınar Women - village representative - Beğendik Women - village representative - Sivriler

Sabahattin Obuz Burhan Göre Remzi Kasap Nazire Yıldız Tülay Özkan Dilek Öztürk Derya Ercan Fatma Köybaşı

Youth - village representative - Beypınar

Nejat Dallı

Youth - village representative - Çukurpınar Resource person - Kızılağaç Resource person - Beypınar

Namık Ovalı Metin Yılmaz Salim Dağdelen

phone 5375817459 5362205404 5543782201 2882344134 2882344025 5442408555 2886954030 2886844064 2882344012 5447954270 5373645074 5358321425 5435369452

e-mail

[email protected]

MANAGEMENT PLANNING UNIT

no. of participants

name

phone

e-mail

Ministry of Environment and Forestry – Ankara General Directorate of Nature Conservation and National Parks

1

Gencay Serter

5054084389

[email protected]

General Directorate of Nature Conservation and National Parks

1

Cihad Öztürk

3122075998

[email protected]

General Directorate of Forestry (Forest Managment Planning Department and Photogrometry )

1

Vuslat Tilkici

3122964000 / 5218

[email protected]

General Directorate of Forestry (Forest Managment Planning Department and Photogrometry )

1

Mehmet Demir

5054281934

[email protected]

Regional Directorate of Forestry İstanbul

1

Hilmi Özdemir

5057711582

Representative of Special Provincial Administration

1

Erol Akyüz

2882141214 5435370486

Provincial Directorate of Environment and Forestry

1

Fikri Erbaş

5068938303

[email protected]

Provincial Directorate of Environment and Forestry

1

Büşra Sevim

5323878263

[email protected]

Atatürk Soil and Water Resources Research Institution

1

Erol Özkan

5388569476

[email protected]

Kırklareli - Forestry Administration Directorate

1

Şahin Aybal

2882143068 5053185475

[email protected]

Vize - Forestry Administration Directorate

1

Hüseyin Doğan

2883181084 5056898354

[email protected]

Demirköy - Forestry Administration Directorate

1

Enver Kara

5052744866

[email protected]

Representative of Cooperatives

1

Mustafa Çınar

5373247229

Project Technical Assistance Team

1

Mesut Yaşar Kamiloğlu

5057711029

Kırklareli [email protected]

[email protected]

ANNEX 3: FLORA INVENTORY Inventory of species recorded from Project area and vicinity, including species known from herbarium records and published sources [Note: Of the 1,378 taxa recorded from the Project area and vicinity, 1,370 taxa occur within the proposed Yildiz Mountains Biosphere and 8 taxa occur outside its proposed south-western boundary.]

LIST OF 1,370 TAXA OCCURRING WITHIN THE PROPOSED YILDIZ MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE FAMILY 

   ACERACEAE ACERACEAE ACERACEAE ACERACEAE ACERACEAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE LABIATAE LABIATAE LABIATAE ADIANTACEAE RANUNCULACEAE RANUNCULACEAE RANUNCULACEAE RANUNCULACEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE UMBELLIFERAE UMBELLIFERAE ROSACEAE

GENUS, SPECIES, AUTHORITY ETC 

   Acer campestre L. subsp. campestre Acer platanoides L. Acer pseudoplatanus L. Acer tataricum L. Acer trautvetteri Medw. Achillea clypeolata Sm. Achillea coarctata Poir. Achillea crithmifolia Waldst. & Kit. Achillea grandifolia Friv. Achillea millefolium L. subsp. millefolium Achillea millefolium L. subsp. pannonica (Scheele) Hayek Achillea setacea Waldst. & Kit. Achillea wilhemsii C. Koch Acinos arvensis (Lam.) Dandy Acinos rotundifolius Pers. Acinos suaveolens (Sm.) G. Don Adiantum capillus-veneris L. Adonis aestivalis L. subsp. aestivalis Adonis annua L. Adonis flammea Jacq. Adonis microcarpa DC. Aegilops marckgrafii (Greuter) Hammer Aegilops speltoides Tausch var. speltoides Aegilops triuncialis L. subsp. triuncialis Aegilops umbellata Zhuk. subsp. umbellata Aegopodium podagraria L. Aethusa cynapium L. Agrimonia eupatoria L.

1,2

ENDEMIC

  

BERN

3

IUCN  IUCN  4 RDB RDB 

THREATENED 

YILDIZ  MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE 

  

5

USES   

New  New  New  New  Thracian  App.  record  record  record  species  species  2000 (NEW) Global  European National    for  1   for  for   for  in  Yildiz  European  Turkey science Turkey 

VU

VU

national

TS

VU

VU

national

TS

n/l

VU

national

TS M: various

NY NY NY

NY NY

FAMILY 

   ROSACEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE LABIATAE LABIATAE LABIATAE LABIATAE LABIATAE LABIATAE MALVACEAE MALVACEAE ALISMATACEAE ALISMATACEAE BORAGINACEAE CRUCIFERAE LILIACEAE LILIACEAE LILIACEAE LILIACEAE LILIACEAE LILIACEAE LILIACEAE LILIACEAE LILIACEAE LILIACEAE LILIACEAE LILIACEAE LILIACEAE LILIACEAE LILIACEAE

GENUS, SPECIES, AUTHORITY ETC 

  

1,2

ENDEMIC

  

Agrimonia repens L. Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertner subsp. pectinatum (Bieb.) Tzvelev var. pectinatum Agropyron repens (L.) P. Beauv. Agrostemma githago L. Agrostis gigantea Roth Agrostis stolonifera L. Aira caryophyllea L. Aira elegantissima Schur subsp. ambigua (Arc.) M. Doğan Aira elegantissima Schur. subsp. elegantissima Aira praecox L. Ajuga chamaepitys (L.) Schreber subsp. chia var. chia Ajuga chamaepitys (L.) Schreber subsp. hi (Sgenevensis h b ) A L. li ili B i Ajuga

3

IUCN  IUCN  4 RDB RDB 

THREATENED 

YILDIZ  MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE 

  

NY NY NY

NY

NY

NY NY NY NY

E

VU

CR

national

TS

n/l

CR

national

TS

[CR] EN

Global

NPS national

NT

NY

5

USES   

New  New  New  New  Thracian  App.  record  record  record  species  species  2000 (NEW) Global  European National    for  1   for  for   for  in  Yildiz  European  Turkey science Turkey  NY NY

Ajuga laxmannii (L.) Bentham Ajuga reptans L. Ajuga salicifolia (L.) Schreber Alcea lavateriflora (DC.) Boiss. Alcea pallida Waldst et Kit. Alisma gramineum Lej. Alisma lanceolatum With. Alkanna tinctoria (L.) Tausch. subsp. tinctoria Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande Allium amethystinum Tausch Allium ampeloprasum L. Allium dentiferum Webb & Berthel. Allium flavum L. subsp. flavum Allium guttatum Steven subsp. dalmaticum (A. Kerner ex J h guttatum )S Allium Steven subsp. guttatum Allium moschatum L. Allium paniculatum L. subsp. fuscum (Waldst. & Kit.) Arc. Allium paniculatum L. subsp. paniculatum Allium rumelicum Allium saxatile Bieb. Allium scorodoprasum L. subsp. rotundum (L.) Stearn Allium scorodoprasum L. subsp. scorodoprasum Allium sphaerocephalon L. Allium vineale L.

BERN

FAMILY 

   BETULACEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE MALVACEAE CRUCIFERAE CRUCIFERAE CRUCIFERAE CRUCIFERAE CRUCIFERAE CRUCIFERAE AMARANTHACEAE AMARANTHACEAE GRAMINEAE LEGUMINOSAE ORCHIDACEAE PRIMULACEAE PRIMULACEAE BORAGINACEAE BORAGINACEAE BORAGINACEAE BORAGINACEAE RANUNCULACEAE RANUNCULACEAE RANUNCULACEAE RANUNCULACEAE RANUNCULACEAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE

GENUS, SPECIES, AUTHORITY ETC 

   Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertner subsp. glutinosa Alopecurus creticus Trin. Alopecurus geniculatus L. Alopecurus rendlei Eig Althaea officinalis L. Alyssum alyssoides (L.) L. Alyssum minus (L.) Rothm. var. minus Alyssum murale Waldst. et Kit. subsp. murale Alyssum repens Baumg. subsp. trichostachyum (Rupr.) Hayek var. trichostachyum Alyssum stribrnyi Vel. Alyssum strigosum Banks & Sol. subsp. strigosum Amaranthus deflexus L. Amaranthus retroflexus L. Ammophila arenaria (L.) Link Amorpha fruticosa L. Anacamptis pyramidalis (L.) L.C.M. Richard Anagallis arvensis L. var. arvensis Anagallis foemina Miller Anchusa arvensis (L.) Bieb. subsp. orientalis (L.) Nordn. Anchusa azurea Miller var. azurea Anchusa leptophylla Roemer & Schultes subsp. incana (Ledeb.) Ch b officinalis L. Anchusa Anemone blanda Schott & Kotschy Anemone coronaria L. Anemone nemorosa L. Anemone pavonina Lam. Anemone ranunculoides L. subsp. ranunculoides Anthemis altissima L. Anthemis arvensis L. Anthemis auriculata Boiss. Anthemis austriaca Jacq. Anthemis cotula L. Anthemis cretica L. subsp. tenuiloba (DC.) Grierson Anthemis tinctoria L. var. discoidea (All.) DC. Anthemis tinctoria L. var. euxina (Boiss.) Grierson Anthemis tinctoria L. var. pallida D.C. Anthemis tinctoria L. var. tinctoria

1,2

ENDEMIC

  

BERN

3

IUCN  IUCN  4 RDB RDB 

THREATENED 

YILDIZ  MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE 

  

5

USES   

New  New  New  New  Thracian  App.  record  record  record  species  species  2000 (NEW) Global  European National    for  1   for  for   for  in  Yildiz  European  Turkey science Turkey  dye NY

NY NY n/l

CR

national

NY

NY

n/l n/l n/l

LC LC VU

national

TS

VU

EN

national

TS

M: stomach h

NY n/l

LC

national

TS NY

FAMILY 

   COMPOSITAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE UMBELLIFERAE UMBELLIFERAE UMBELLIFERAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE SCROPHULARIACEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE RANUNCULACEAE CRUCIFERAE CRUCIFERAE CRUCIFERAE ERICACEAE COMPOSITAE ROSACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE ARISTOLOCHIACEAE ARISTOLOCHIACEAE PULUMBAGINACEAE PULUMBAGINACEAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE ARACEAE ARACEAE LILIACEAE LILIACEAE LILIACEAE RUBIACEAE RUBIACEAE RUBIACEAE ASPHODELACEAE ASPLENIACEAE ASPLENIACEAE ASPLENIACEAE

GENUS, SPECIES, AUTHORITY ETC 

   Anthemis triumfettii (L.) All. Anthoxanthum gracile Biv. Anthoxanthum odoratum L. subsp. odoratum Anthriscus caucalis Bieb. Anthriscus cerefolium (L.) Hoffm. Anthriscus nemorosa (Bieb.) Sprengel Anthyllis vulneraria L. subsp. praepropera (Kerner) Bornm. Anthyllis vulneraria L. subsp. variegata (Boiss.)Beg. & Diratz. Antirrhinum majus L. subsp. majus Apera intermedia Hackel apud Zederbauer Apera spica-venti (L.) P. Beauv. Aquilegia olympica Boiss. Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynbold Arabis sagittata (Bertol.) DC. Arabis turrita L. Arbutus unedo L. Arctium minus (Hill.) Bernh. subsp. minus Aremonia agrimonoides (L.) DC. Arenaria serpyllifolia L. Aristolochia clematis L. Aristolochia rotunda L. Armeria cariensis Boiss. var. cariensis Armeria cariensis Boiss. var. rumelica (Boiss.) Boiss. Artemisia absinthium L. Artemisia vulgaris L. Arum italicum Miller Arum maculatum L. Asparagus acutifolius L. Asparagus aphyllus L. subsp. orientalis (Baker) P.H. Davis Asparagus tenuifolius Lam. Asperula littoralis SM. Asperula rumelica Boiss. Asperula tenella Heuffel ex Degen Asphodeline lutea (L.) Reichb. Asplenium adiantum-nigrum L. Asplenium onopteris L. Asplenium ruta-muraria L. subsp. ruta-muraria

1,2

ENDEMIC

  

BERN

3

IUCN  IUCN  4 RDB RDB 

THREATENED 

YILDIZ  MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE 

  

5

USES   

New  New  New  New  Thracian  App.  record  record  record  species  species  2000 (NEW) Global  European National    for  1   for  for   for  in  Yildiz  European  Turkey science Turkey 

EN

EN

national

NT

TS

NY NY NY E

LC

national

NET NY NY NY NY NET

NY

VU VU

VU

national

TS

national

TS NY

M: various M: inflammed d

NY E

VU

VU

Global NY NY NY NY NY

FAMILY 

   ASPLENIACEAE COMPOSITAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE CAMPANULACEAE ATHYRIACEAE CHENOPODIACEAE CHENOPODIACEAE CHENOPODIACEAE SOLANACEAE CRUCIFERAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE LABIATAE LABIATAE CRUCIFERAE SCROPHULARIACEAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE CRUCIFERAE CRUCIFERAE UMBELLIFERAE CHENOPODIACEAE CHENOPODIACEAE GENTIANACEAE BORAGINACEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE CRUCIFERAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE

GENUS, SPECIES, AUTHORITY ETC 

   Asplenium trichomanes L. subsp. trichomanes Aster tripolium L. Astragalus angustifolius C. Koch subsp. longidens Hub. -Mor. & M h Astragalus glycphyllos L. subsp. glycphyllos Astragalus thracicus Gris. Asyneuma limonifolium (L.) Jachen subsp. limonifolium Athyrium filix-foemina (L.) Roth Atriplex halimus L. Atriplex hastata L. Atriplex hortensis L. Atropa belladonna L. Aurinia uechtritziana (Bornm.) Cullen & Dudley Avena barbata Pott ex Link subsp. atherantha (C. Presl.) Rocha Af Avena fatua L. var. glabrata Ballota nigra L. subsp. anatolica P.H. Davis Ballota nigra L. subsp. nigra Barbarea vulgaris R.Br. İn Aiton Bellardia trixago (L.) All. Bellis perennis L. Bellis sylvestris Cyr. Berteroa mutabilis (Vent.) DC. Berteroa obliqua (SM.) DC. Berula erecta (Hudson ) Coville Beta maritima L. var. maritima Beta trigyna Waldst et Kit. Blackstonia perfoliata (L.) Hudson subsp. perfoliata Borago officinalis L. Botriochloa ischaemum (L.) Keng. Brachpodium pinnatum (L.) P. Beauv. Brachpodium sylvaticum (Hudson) P. Beauv Brassica nigra (L.) Koch Briza humulis Bieb. Briza maxima L. Briza media L. Briza minor L. Bromus diandrus Roth. Bromus hordeaceus L. subsp. hordeaceus

1,2

ENDEMIC

  

BERN

3

IUCN  IUCN  4 RDB RDB 

THREATENED 

YILDIZ  MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE 

  

New  New  New  New  Thracian  App.  record  record  record  species  species  2000 (NEW) Global  European National    for  1   for  for   for  in  Yildiz  European  Turkey science Turkey  NY NY

NY

NY BERN

VU

VU

European NY NY

NY VU

VU

national

TS

NY

NY NY

5

USES   

FAMILY 

   GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE CUCURBITACEAE BORAGINACEAE CYPERACEAE CYPERACEAE UMBELLIFERAE BUTOMACEAE CRUCIFERAE GRAMINEAE LABIATAE LABIATAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE CRUCIFERAE LEGUMINOSAE ERICACEAE CONVOLVULACEAE CONVOLVULACEAE CONVOLVULACEAE CAMPANULACEAE CAMPANULACEAE CAMPANULACEAE CAMPANULACEAE CAMPANULACEAE CAMPANULACEAE CAMPANULACEAE CAMPANULACEAE CAMPANULACEAE CAPPARACEAE CRUCIFERAE

GENUS, SPECIES, AUTHORITY ETC 

   Bromus hordeaceus L. subsp. molliformis (Lloyd) Maire & W ill intermedius Guss. Bromus Bromus japonicus Thunb. subsp. japonicus Bromus lanceolatus Roth Bromus squarrosus P.M. Smith. Bromus sterilis L. Bromus tectorum L. subsp. lucidus Sales Bryonia alba L. Buglossoides arvensis (L.) Johnston Bulboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla var. cymosus (Reichb.) Kit & Oteng-Yeboah. Bulboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla var. maritimus Bupleurum praealtum L. Butomus umbellatus L. Cakile maritima Scop. Calamagrostis epigejos (L.) Roth Calamintha grandiflora (L.) Moench. Meth Calamintha sylvatica Bromf. subsp. ascendens (Jordan) P W B ll arvensis L. Calendula Calendula suffruticosa Vahl. Calepina irregularis (Asso) Thel. Calicotome villosa (Poiret) Link Calluna vulgaris ( L. ) Hull. Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br. subsp. sepium Calystegia soldenalla (L.) R. Br. Calystegia sylvatica (Kit.) Griseb. Campanula lingulata Waldst. & Kit. Campanula macrostachya Waldst. & Kit. Campanula patula L. subsp. patula Campanula persicifolia L. Campanula rapunculus L. var. lambertiana (A. DC.) Boiss. Campanula rapunculus L. var. rapunculus Campanula rotundifolium L. Campanula sparsa Friv. Campanula trachelium L. subsp. athoa (Boiss et Heldr.) Hayek Capparis spinosa L. var. spinosa Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.

1,2

ENDEMIC

  

BERN

3

IUCN  IUCN  4 RDB RDB 

THREATENED 

YILDIZ  MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE 

  

5

USES   

New  New  New  New  Thracian  App.  record  record  record  species  species  2000 (NEW) Global  European National    for  1   for  for   for  in  Yildiz  European  Turkey science Turkey  NY NY

NY VU

VU

national

TS

VU

LC

National

TS

NY

NY different

n/l n/l

EN

national

NT

national national

TS

TS NY

FAMILY 

   CRUCIFERAE CRUCIFERAE CRUCIFERAE CRUCIFERAE CRUCIFERAE CRUCIFERAE CRUCIFERAE CRUCIFERAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE CYPERACEAE CYPERACEAE CYPERACEAE CYPERACEAE CYPERACEAE CYPERACEAE CYPERACEAE CYPERACEAE CYPERACEAE CYPERACEAE CYPERACEAE CYPERACEAE CYPERACEAE CYPERACEAE CYPERACEAE CYPERACEAE CYPERACEAE CYPERACEAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE CORYLACEAE CORYLACEAE

GENUS, SPECIES, AUTHORITY ETC 

   Capsella rubella Reuter Cardamine bulbifera (L.) Crantz. Cardamine graeca L. Cardamine hirsuta L. Cardamine impatiens L. var. impatiens Cardamine penzesii Ancev & Marhold Cardamine uliginosa Bieb. Cardaria draba (L.) Desv. subsp. draba Carduus acanthoides subsp. acanthoides Carduus acicularis Bertol. Carduus candicans Waldst. et Kit. subsp. candicans Carduus nutans L. subsp. leiophyllus (Petr.) Stoj. Et Stef. Carduus pycnocephalus L. subsp. albidus (Bieb.) Kazmi Carduus tmoleus Boiss. Carex acuta L. Carex acutiformis Ehrh. Carex brizoides L. Carex distans L. Carex divisa Hudson Carex divulsa Stokes Carex extensa Good. Carex flacca Schreber subsp. serrulata (Biv.) Greuter Carex hirta L. Carex liparicarpos Gaudin subsp. liparocarpos Carex melanostachya Bieb. ex Willd. Carex muricata L. Carex otrubae Podb. Carex pallescens L. var. pallescens Carex pendula Hudson Carex remota L. Carex riparia Curtis Carex sylvatica Hudson subsp. sylvatica Carlina corymbosa L. Carlina graeca Heldr. Et Sart. Carlina vulgaris L. Carpinus betulus L. Carpinus orientalis Miller subsp. orientalis

1,2

ENDEMIC

  

BERN

3

IUCN  IUCN  4 RDB RDB 

THREATENED 

YILDIZ  MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE 

  

New  New  New  New  Thracian  App.  record  record  record  species  species  2000 (NEW) Global  European National    for  1   for  for   for  in  Yildiz  European  Turkey science Turkey 

n/l

national

NY

NY NY

NY

VU

national

NY

NY

NY

NY NY

5

USES   

FAMILY 

   COMPOSITAE FAGACEAE UMBELLIFERAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE GENTIANACEAE GENTIANACEAE GENTIANACEAE GENTIANACEAE ORCHIDACEAE ORCHIDACEAE ORCHIDACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE ROSACEAE ROSACEAE CERATOPHYLLACEAE LEGUMINOSAE BORAGINACEAE ASPLENIACEAE UMBELLIFERAE UMBELLIFERAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE

GENUS, SPECIES, AUTHORITY ETC 

   Carthamus lanatus L. Castanea sativa Miller Caucalis platycarpos L. Centaurea arenaria Bieb. ex Willd. Centaurea cuneifolia Sm. Centaurea cyanus L. Centaurea depressa Bieb. Centaurea diffusa Lam. Centaurea hermanii F. Hermann Centaurea kilaea Boiss. Centaurea salicifolia Bieb. ex Willd. subsp. salicifolia Centaurea salonitana Vis. Centaurea solstitialis L. subsp.solstitialis Centaurea stenolepis Kerner Centaurea triumfettii All. Centaurea virgata Lam. Group C Centaurium erythraea Rafn. subsp. erythraea Centaurium erythraea Rafn. subsp. rumeliacum (Velen.) M ld i Centaurium erythraea Rafn. subsp. turcicum (Velen.) Centaurium maritimum (L.) Fritsch Cephalanthera damasonium (Miller) Druce Cephalanthera longifolia (L.) Fritsch Cephalanthera rubra (L.) L.C.M. Richard Cerastium fontanum Baumg. subsp. triviale (Link.) Jalas Cerastium illyricum Ard. subsp. comatum (Desv.) P.D.Sell et Whi h dpumilum Curtis Cerastium Cerasus avium (L.) Moench Cerasus mahaleb (L.) Miller var. mahaleb Ceratophyllum demersum L. Cercis siliquastrum L. subsp. siliquastrum Cerinthe minor L. subsp. auriculata (Ten.) Domac Ceterach officinarum DC. Chaerophyllum byzantinum Boiss. Chaerophyllum temulum L. Chamaecytisus austriacus (L.) Link Chamaecytisus hirsutus (L.) Link Chamaecytisus pygmaeus (Willd.) Rothm.

1,2

ENDEMIC

  

BERN

3

IUCN  IUCN  4 RDB RDB 

THREATENED 

YILDIZ  MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE 

  

5

USES   

New  New  New  New  Thracian  App.  record  record  record  species  species  2000 (NEW) Global  European National    for  1   for  for   for  in  Yildiz  European  Turkey science Turkey  NY NY VU

VU

national

TS different

E E

BERN

EN EN

EN EN

Global Global

NY NY

NY M: rheumatism NY

NY NY

NY NY

NY NY

FAMILY 

   LEGUMINOSAE PAPAVERACEAE CHENOPODIACEAE CHENOPODIACEAE CHENOPODIACEAE CHENOPODIACEAE COMPOSITAE GRAMINEAE LEGUMINOSAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE ASCLEPIDIACEAE ONAGRACEAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE CISTACEAE CISTACEAE CISTACEAE CYPERACEAE RANUNCULACEAE RANUNCULACEAE RANUNCULACEAE RANUNCULACEAE LABIATAE LABIATAE CRUCIFERAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE UMBELLIFERAE LILIACEAE

GENUS, SPECIES, AUTHORITY ETC 

   Chamaecytisus supinus (L.) Link Chelidonium majus L. Chenopodium album L. subsp. album Chenopodium botrys L. Chenopodium murale L. Chenopodium polyspermum L. Chondrilla juncea L. var. juncea Chrysopogon gryllus (L.) Trin. subsp. gryllus Cicer montbretii Jaub. & Spach Cichorium intybus L. Cichorium pumilum Jacq. Cionura erecta (L.) Griseb. Circaea lutetiana L. Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. subsp. arvense Cirsium arvense (L.) Soop. subsp. vestitum (Wimmer & Grab.) P k baytopae Davis et Parris Cirsium Cirsium candelabrum Griseb. Cirsium canum (L.) All. Cirsium creticum (Lam.) d'Urv. Cirsium hypoleucum DC. Cirsium italicum (Savi) DC. Cirsium vulgare (Savi.) Ten. Cistus creticus L. Cistus parviflorus Lam. Cistus salviifolius L. Cladium mariscus (L.) Pohl. Clematis cirrhosa L. Clematis flammula L. Clematis vitalba L. Clematis viticella L. Clinopodium vulgare L. Clinopodium vulgare L. subsp. arundanum (Boiss.) Nyman Clypeola jonthlaspi L. Cnicus benedictus L. var. benedictus Cnicus benedictus L. var. kotschyi Boiss. Cnidium silaifolium (Jacq.) Simonkai Enum subsp. orientale Colchicum bivonae Guss.

1,2

ENDEMIC

  

BERN

3

IUCN  IUCN  4 RDB RDB 

THREATENED 

YILDIZ  MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE 

  

5

USES   

New  New  New  New  Thracian  App.  record  record  record  species  species  2000 (NEW) Global  European National    for  1   for  for   for  in  Yildiz  European  Turkey science Turkey  M: various

NY food NY

E

VU VU

VU CR

Global

NY National

TS NY NY

NY M: wounds

NY

FAMILY 

   LILIACEAE LILIACEAE UMBELLIFERAE RANUNCULACEAE RANUNCULACEAE RANUNCULACEAE RANUNCULACEAE RANUNCULACEAE CONVOLVULACEAE CONVOLVULACEAE CONVOLVULACEAE CONVOLVULACEAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE CORNACEAE CORNACEAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE PAPAVERACEAE PAPAVERACEAE CORYLACEAE CORYLACEAE ANACARDIACEAE CRUCIFERAE CRUCIFERAE ROSACEAE ROSACEAE ROSACEAE ROSACEAE ROSACEAE ROSACEAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE

GENUS, SPECIES, AUTHORITY ETC 

  

1,2

ENDEMIC

  

BERN

3

IUCN  IUCN  4 RDB RDB 

THREATENED 

  

5

USES   

New  New  New  New  Thracian  App.  record  record  record  species  species  2000 (NEW) Global  European National    for  1   for  for   for  in  Yildiz  European  Turkey science Turkey 

Colchicum turcicum Janca Colchicum umbrosum Steven Conium maculatum L. Consolida ambigua (L.) P. W. Ball. Consolida orientalis (Gay) Schröd. Consolida phrygia (Boiss.) Soó subsp. thessalonica (Soó) Davis Consolida regalis S.F. Gray subsp. paniculata (Host) Soo var. i l regalis S.F. Gray subsp. regalis Consolida

different NY NY NY

Convolvulus arvensis L. subsp. arvensis Convolvulus cantabrica L. Convolvulus elegantissimus Miller Convolvulus lineatus L. Conyza banariensis (L.) Cronquist Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist Cornus mas L. Cornus sanguinea L. subsp. australis (C.A. Meyer) Jav. Coronilla scorpioides (L.) Koch Coronilla varia L. subsp. varia Corydalis solida (L.) Swartz subsp. brachyloba (Boiss.) Cullen et D i Corydalis solida (L.) Swartz subsp. solida Coryllus avellana L. var. avellana Coryllus colurna L. Cotinus coggyria Scop. Crambe maritima L. Crambe orientalis L. var. orientalis Crataegus monogyna Jacq. subsp. azarella (Gris.) Franco Crataegus monogyna Jacq. subsp. monogyna Crataegus pentagyna Waldst. & Kit. ex Willd. Crateagus aronia (L.) Bosc. ex DC. var. aronia Crateagus curvicephala Lindman Crateagus pseudoheterophylla Pojark Crepis foetida L. subsp. commutata (Spreng.) Babcock Crepis foetida L. subsp. foetida Crepis foetida subsp. rhoeadifolia (Bieb.) Celak Crepis reuterana Boiss. subsp. reuterana Crepis sancta (L.) Babcock Crepis setosa Hall.

YILDIZ  MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE 

NY NY NY food NY NY NY M: prostatitis NY M: various VU

national

NY NY

NY NY

M: cold, hii

di

FAMILY 

   COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE UMBELLIFERAE IRIDACEAE IRIDACEAE IRIDACEAE IRIDACEAE IRIDACEAE IRIDACEAE IRIDACEAE IRIDACEAE RUBIACEAE RUBIACEAE RUBIACEAE COMPOSITAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE CUSCUTACEAE CUSCUTACEAE PRIMULACEAE ROSACEAE ASCLEPIDIACEAE GRAMINEAE BORAGINACEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE CYPERACEAE CYPERACEAE CYPERACEAE CYPERACEAE ATHYRIACEAE CYTINACEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE ORCHIDACEAE ORCHIDACEAE GRAMINEAE

GENUS, SPECIES, AUTHORITY ETC 

   Crepis vesicaria L. Crepis zacintha (L.) Babcock Crithmum maritimum L. Crocus biflorus Miller subsp. adamii (Gay) Mathew Crocus biflorus Miller subsp. biflorus Crocus biflorus Miller subsp. pulchricolor (Herbert) Matthew Crocus chrysathus (Herbert) Herbert Crocus flavus Weston subsp. flavus Crocus olivieri Gay subsp. olivieri Crocus pallasii Goldb. subsp. pallasii Crocus pulchellus Herbert Cruciata leavipes Opiz, Seznam. Cruciata pedemontana (Bellard.) Ehrend. Cruciata taurica (Pallas ex Willd.) Ehrend. Crupina vulgaris Cass. Cucubalus baccifer L. Cuscuta campestris Yuncker Cuscuta epithymum Murray Cyclamen coum Miller var. coum Cydonia oblonga Miller Cynanchum acutum L. subsp. acutum Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. var. dactylon Cynoglossum creticum Miller Cynosurus cristatus L. Cynosurus echinatus L. var. purpurescens Piori & Paol. Cyperus capitatus Vandelli Cyperus fuscus L. Cyperus longus (L.) Hay. Cyperus rotundus L. Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh. Cytinus hypocistis L. Dactylis glomerata L. subsp. glomerata Dactylis glomerata L. subsp. hispanica (Roth) Nyman Dactylis glomerata L. subsp. lobata (Drej.) Lindlb. Dactylorhiza romana (Seb.) Soo Dactylorhiza saccifera (Brongn.) Soo Danthonia decumbens (L.) DC.

1,2

ENDEMIC

  

BERN

3

IUCN  IUCN  4 RDB RDB 

THREATENED 

YILDIZ  MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE 

  

5

USES   

New  New  New  New  Thracian  App.  record  record  record  species  species  2000 (NEW) Global  European National    for  1   for  for   for  in  Yildiz  European  Turkey science Turkey 

national

NY

TS

NY

NY

NY BERN

VU

LC

European dye M: diuretic, i i

NY NY NY NY NY NY

i

FAMILY 

   THYMELAEACEAE SOLANACEAE SOLANACEAE UMBELLIFERAE UMBELLIFERAE UMBELLIFERAE RANUNCULACEAE RANUNCULACEAE GRAMINEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE COMPOSITAE RUTACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE CRUCIFERAE CRUCIFERAE DIPSACACEAE COMPOSITAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE ASPIDIACEAE CUCURBITACEAE COMPOSITAE

GENUS, SPECIES, AUTHORITY ETC 

   Daphne pontica L. Datura metel L. Datura stramonium L. Daucus carota L. Daucus carota L. subsp. maritimus (Lam.) Batt. Daucus guttatus Sm. Delphinium fissum Waldst. & Kit. subsp. fissum Delphinium peregrinum L. Deschampsia caespitosa (L.) P. Beauv. Dianthus armeria L. subsp. armeria Dianthus armeria L. subsp. armeriastrum (Wolfn.) Velen. Dianthus barbatus L. Dianthus calocephalus Boiss. Dianthus campestris Bieb. subsp. pallidiflorus (Ser.) Schmalh. Dianthus capitatus Balb. ex DC. Dianthus carthasianum L. Dianthus corymbosus Sibth. & Sm. Dianthus giganteus d’Urv. Dianthus leptopetalus Willd. Dianthus pinifolius Sibth. & Sm. Dianthus roseoluteus Vel. Dianthus viscidus Bory & Chaub. Dichrocephala integrifolia (L.fil.) Kuntze Dictamnus albus L. Digitalis ferruginea L. subsp. ferruginea Digitalis grandiflora Miller Digitalis lanata Ehrh. Digitalis viridiflora Lindley Diplotaxis muralis (L.) DC. Diplotaxis viminea (L.) DC. Dipsacus laciniatus L. Doronicum orientale Hoffm. Dorycnium graecum (L.) Ser. Dorycnium pentaphyllum Scop. subsp. herbaceum (Vill.) Rouy. Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich. Echinops ritro L.

1,2

ENDEMIC

  

BERN

3

IUCN  IUCN  4 RDB RDB 

THREATENED 

YILDIZ  MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE 

  

5

USES   

New  New  New  New  Thracian  App.  record  record  record  species  species  2000 (NEW) Global  European National    for  1   for  for   for  in  Yildiz  European  Turkey science Turkey 

NY NY

NY NY

NET NY NY VU VU

VU VU

national national

TS NET

NY EN

CR

national

EN

NT

national

TS TS NY NY

M: various NY

FAMILY 

   COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE BORAGINACEAE BORAGINACEAE BORAGINACEAE ELATINACEAE CYPERACEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE EPHEDRACREAE ONAGRACEAE ONAGRACEAE ONAGRACEAE ONAGRACEAE ONAGRACEAE ONAGRACEAE ONAGRACEAE ONAGRACEAE BERBERIDACEAE ORCHIDACEAE ORCHIDACEAE ORCHIDACEAE EQUISETACEAE EQUISETACEAE EQUISETACEAE ERICACEAE ERICACEAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE GERANIACEAE GERANIACEAE GERANIACEAE CRUCIFERAE UMBELLIFERAE UMBELLIFERAE UMBELLIFERAE

GENUS, SPECIES, AUTHORITY ETC 

   Echinops sphaerocephalus L. subsp. albidus (Boiss. & Spruner) K h sphaerocephalus L. subsp. sphaerocephalus Echinops Echium italicum L. Echium plantagineum L. Echium vulgare L. Elatine triandra Schkuhr Eleocharis mitracarpa Steudel Elymus elongatus (Host) Runemark Elymus hispidus (Opiz.) Melden subsp. hispidus Elymus repens (L.) Gould. subsp. repens Ephedra foeminea Forsk Epilobium angustifolium L. Epilobium hirsutum L. Epilobium lanceolatum Seb. Et Mauri Epilobium montanum L. Epilobium parviflorum Schreber Epilobium roseum Schreber subsp. roseum Epilobium roseum Schreber subsp. subsessile(Boiss.) P HR Epilobium tetragonum L. subsp. tetragonum Epimedium pubigerum (DC.) Moren & Decaisne Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz Epipactis microphylla (Ehrh.) Sw. Epipactis pontica Taubenheim Equisetum arvense L. Equisetum ramosissimum Desf. Equisetum telmateia Ehrh. Erica arborea L. Erica manipuliflora L. Erigeron acer L. subsp. acer Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers. Erodium acaule (L.) Becherer & Thell. Erodium ciconium (L.) L'Herit Erodium cicutarium (L.) L’Herit subsp. cicutarium Erophila verna (L.) Chevall subsp.verna Eryngium campestre L. var. campestre Eryngium campestre L. var. virens Link. Eryngium maritimum L.

1,2

ENDEMIC

  

BERN

3

IUCN  IUCN  4 RDB RDB 

THREATENED 

YILDIZ  MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE 

  

5

USES   

New  New  New  New  Thracian  App.  record  record  record  species  species  2000 (NEW) Global  European National    for  1   for  for   for  in  Yildiz  European  Turkey science Turkey  DD CR national TS

EN

national

NT NY

NY NY NY NY NY NY NET

NY

M: nephritis, kid

FAMILY 

GENUS, SPECIES, AUTHORITY ETC 

   CRUCIFERAE CRUCIFERAE CRUCIFERAE CELASTRACEAE CELASTRACEAE CELASTRACEAE COMPOSITAE EUPHORBIACEAE EUPHORBIACEAE EUPHORBIACEAE EUPHORBIACEAE EUPHORBIACEAE EUPHORBIACEAE EUPHORBIACEAE EUPHORBIACEAE EUPHORBIACEAE EUPHORBIACEAE EUPHORBIACEAE EUPHORBIACEAE EUPHORBIACEAE EUPHORBIACEAE EUPHORBIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE COMPOSITAE FAGACEAE FAGACEAE UMBELLIFERAE UMBELLIFERAE UMBELLIFERAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE MORACEAE COMPOSITAE

   Erysimum cuspidatum (Bieb.) DC. Erysimum diffusum Ehrh. Erysimum sorgerae Polatschek Euonymus europaeus L. Euonymus latifolius (L.) Miller subsp. latifolius Euonymus verrucosus Scop. Eupatorium cannabium L. Euphorbia amygdaloides L. var. amygdaloides Euphorbia amygdoloides L. var. robbiae (Turril.) Radcliffe-Smith Euphorbia cyparissias L. Euphorbia helioscopia L. Euphorbia lucida Waldst. & Kit. Euphorbia myrsinites L. Euphorbia nicaeensis All. subsp. glareosa (Pallas ex Bieb.) A. R d liff Soblongata ih l Griseb. i B i Euphorbia

1,2

ENDEMIC

  

E

BERN

3

IUCN  IUCN  4 RDB RDB 

THREATENED 

YILDIZ  MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE 

  

5

USES   

New  New  New  New  Thracian  App.  record  record  record  species  species  2000 (NEW) Global  European National    for  1   for  for   for  in  Yildiz  European  Turkey science Turkey  NY n/l CR national CR Global NY NY NY NY

E

NT

VU

Global

NY NY NY

Euphorbia palustris L. Euphorbia paralias L. Euphorbia peplis L. Euphorbia platyphyllos L. Euphorbia seguieriana Necker subsp. niciciana (Borbas ex N k) R sequieriana h fil Euphorbia Necker subsp. sequieriana Euphorbia stricta L. Euphrasia pectinata Ten. Eupotarium cannabinum L. Fagus orientalis Lipsky Fagus sylvatica L. Ferula communis L. subsp. communis Ferulago confusa Velen. Ferulago thirkeana (Boiss.) Boiss. Festuca callieri (Heckel ex Yves.) F. Markgraf apud Hayek b lli i Mertens&Koch Festuca drymeja Festuca gigantea (L.) Vill. Festuca heterophylla Lam. Festuca jeanpertii (St. Yves) F. Markgraf apud Hayek subsp. JFestuca valesiaca ii Schleicher ex Gaudin Ficus carica L. subsp. carica Filago eriocephala Guss.

M: hepatitis

VU

LC

national

TS NY

NY

FAMILY 

   COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE ROSACEAE UMBELLIFERAE ROSACEAE ROSACEAE RHAMNACEAE OLEACEAE OLEACEAE OLEACEAE OLEACEAE LILIACEAE CISTACEAE PAPAVERACEAE PAPAVERACEAE PAPAVERACEAE LILIACEAE LILIACEAE LILIACEAE LEGUMINOSAE LABIATAE LABIATAE COMPOSITAE RUBIACEAE RUBIACEAE RUBIACEAE RUBIACEAE RUBIACEAE RUBIACEAE RUBIACEAE RUBIACEAE RUBIACEAE RUBIACEAE RUBIACEAE RUBIACEAE RUBIACEAE GRAMINEAE

GENUS, SPECIES, AUTHORITY ETC 

   Filago pyramidata L. Filago vulgaris Lam. Filipendula vulgaris Moench Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Fragaria vesca L. Fragaria viridis L. Frangula alnus Miller Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl subsp. oxycarpa (Bieb. ex Willd.) Franco & Rocha Afonso Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl subsp. syriaca (Boiss.) Yalt. Fraxinus excelsior L. subsp. excelsior Fraxinus ornus L. subsp. ornus Fritillaria pontica Wahlenb. Fumana procumbens (Dun.) Gren. et Godr. Fumaria kralikii Jordan Fumaria officinalis L. Fumaria rostellata Knaf Gagea bohemica (Zauschn.) Schultes et Schultes fil. Gagea chrysantha (Jan.) Schultes & Schultes fil. Gagea pratensis (Pers.) Dumort. Galega officinalis L. Galeobdolon luteum Hudson subsp. montanum (Pers.) R. Mill Galeopsis speciosa Mill. Galinsoga parviflora Cav. Galium album Miller subsp. pycnotrichum (H. Braun.) Krendl. Galium aparine L. Galium bulgaricum Velen. Galium debile Desf. Galium octanarium (Klokov) Pobed. Galium odoratum (L.) Scop. Galium palustre L. Galium paschale Forsskal Galium rotundifolium L. Galium spurium L. Galium subuliferum Somm. et Lev. Galium uliginosum L. Galium verum L. subsp. verum Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv.

1,2

ENDEMIC

  

BERN

3

IUCN  IUCN  4 RDB RDB 

THREATENED 

YILDIZ  MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE 

  

New  New  New  New  Thracian  App.  record  record  record  species  species  2000 (NEW) Global  European National    for  1   for  for   for  in  Yildiz  European  Turkey science Turkey 

NY n/l

CR

national

NY NY

NY

NY

n/l

national

TS NY NY NY NT NY

NT VU

VU

national

TS

NY NY NY VU

VU

national

NET

5

USES   

FAMILY 

   LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE GENTIANACEAE GERANIACEAE GERANIACEAE GERANIACEAE GERANIACEAE GERANIACEAE GERANIACEAE GERANIACEAE GERANIACEAE GERANIACEAE GERANIACEAE GERANIACEAE GERANIACEAE GERANIACEAE ROSACEAE PAPAVERACEAE LABIATAE PLANTAGINACEAE PLANTAGINACEAE COMPOSITAE SCROPHULARIACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE ARALIACEAE CISTACEAE CISTACEAE CISTACEAE BORAGINACEAE BORAGINACEAE RANUNCULACEAE COMPOSITAE UMBELLIFERAE UMBELLIFERAE UMBELLIFERAE

GENUS, SPECIES, AUTHORITY ETC 

   Genista carinalis Gris. Genista lydia Boiss. var. lydia Genista sessilifolia DC. Genista tinctoria L. Gentiana asclepiadea L. Geranium asphodeloides Burm. fil. subsp. asphodeloides Geranium columbinum L. Geranium dissectum L. Geranium lanuginosum Lam. Geranium lucidum L. Geranium molle L. subsp. molle Geranium purpureum Vill. Geranium pusillum Burm. fil. Geranium pyrenaicum Burm. fil. Geranium robertianum L. Geranium rotundifolium L. Geranium sanguineum L. Geranium tuberosum L. subsp. tuberosum Geum urbanum L. Glaucium flavum Crantz Glechoma hederacea L. Globularia aphyllanthes Crantz Globularia trichomanes Fisch. & Mey. Gnaphalium supinum L. Gratiola officinalis L. Gypsophila muralis L Hedera helix L. Helianthemum aegyptiacum (L.) Miller Helianthemum racemosum (L.) Pau Helianthemum salicifolium (L.) Miller Heliotropium europaeum L. Heliotropium suaveolens Bieb. Helleborus orientalis Lam. Helminthotheca echioides (L.) Holub Heptaptera triquetra (Vent.) Tutin Heracleum humile Sm. Heracleum sphondylium L. subsp. ternatum (Velen.) Brummitt

1,2

ENDEMIC

  

BERN

3

IUCN  IUCN  4 RDB RDB 

THREATENED 

YILDIZ  MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE 

  

5

USES   

New  New  New  New  Thracian  App.  record  record  record  species  species  2000 (NEW) Global  European National    for  1   for  for   for  in  Yildiz  European  Turkey science Turkey 

NY NY EN

national

NY

NY NY

NY NY NY

n/l

VU

national

TS NY NY

NY

M: diabetes, bl d

FAMILY 

   ILLECEBRACEAE ILLECEBRACEAE CRUCIFERAE CRUCIFERAE CRUCIFERAE CRUCIFERAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE CRUCIFERAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE CANNABACEAE HYDROCHARITACEAE CRASSULACEAE SOLANACEAE GRAMINEAE PAPAVERACEAE PAPAVERACEAE GUTTIFERAE GUTTIFERAE GUTTIFERAE GUTTIFERAE GUTTIFERAE GUTTIFERAE GUTTIFERAE GUTTIFERAE GUTTIFERAE GUTTIFERAE GUTTIFERAE COMPOSITAE AQUIFOLIACEAE GRAMINEAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE

GENUS, SPECIES, AUTHORITY ETC 

   Herniaria glabra L. Herniaria incana Lam. Hesperis macedonica Adamovic Hesperis matronalis L. var. matronalis Hesperis pycnotricha Borbas et Degen Hesperis tristis L. Hieracium sabaudum L. Hieracium vagum Jordan Hirschfeldia incana (L.) Lag.-Foss. Holcus lanatus L. Hordeum geniculatum All. Hordeum murinum Hudson var. marinum Hordeum murinum L. subsp. glaucum (Steudel) Tzvelev Hordeum murinum L. subsp. leporinum (Link.) Arc. l i lupulus L. Humulus Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L. Hylotelephium telephium (L.) H. Ohba Hyoscyamus niger L. Hyparrhenia hirta (L.) Stapf. Hypecoum imberbe Sibth. & Sm. Hypecoum torulosum A.E.Dahl Hypericum androsaemum L. Hypericum aucheri Jaub. & Spach Hypericum bithynicum Boiss. Hypericum calycinum L. Hypericum hirsutum L. Hypericum montbretii Spach Hypericum perfoliatum L. Hypericum perforatum L. Hypericum rumeliacum Boiss. Hypericum tetrapterum Fr. Hypericum umbellatum A. Kerner Hypochoeris radicata L. Ilex colchica Poj. Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeuschel Inula britannica L. Inula germanica L.

1,2

ENDEMIC

  

BERN

3

IUCN  IUCN  4 RDB RDB 

THREATENED 

YILDIZ  MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE 

  

5

USES   

New  New  New  New  Thracian  App.  record  record  record  species  species  2000 (NEW) Global  European National    for  1   for  for   for  in  Yildiz  European  Turkey science Turkey 

VU

EN

national

TS

VU VU

EN EN

national national

TS TS

NY different

M: toothache

NY

n/l

LC

NET

M: various NY NY CR

national

NT

NY

FAMILY 

   COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE IRIDACEAE IRIDACEAE IRIDACEAE CRUCIFERAE CAMPANULACEAE CAMPANULACEAE CAMPANULACEAE OLEACEAE JUGLANDACEAE JUNCACEAE JUNCACEAE JUNCACEAE JUNCACEAE JUNCACEAE JUNCACEAE JUNCACEAE JUNCACEAE JUNCACEAE JUNCACEAE JUNCACEAE CUPRESSACEAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE DIPSACACEAE DIPSACACEAE DIPSACACEAE DIPSACACEAE

GENUS, SPECIES, AUTHORITY ETC 

   Inula heterolepis Boiss. Inula oculus-christi L. Inula salicina L. Inula vulgaris (Lam.) Trevisan Iris pseudacorus L. Iris sintenisii Janca. Iris suaveolens Boiss & Reuter. Isatis arenaria Azn. Jasione heldreichii Boiss. & Orph. subsp. heldreichii Jasione heldreichii Boiss. & Orph. subsp. papillosa J. Parnell Jasione montana L. Jasminum fruticans L. Juglans regia L. Juncus articulatus L. Juncus bufonius L. Juncus compressus Jacq. Juncus effusus L. Juncus gerardi Loisel subsp. gerardi Juncus heldreichianus Marsson ex Parl. subsp. heldreichianus Juncus inflexus L. Juncus littoralis C.Meyer Juncus maritimus Lam Juncus striatus Griseb. Juncus thomasii Ten. Juniperus communis L. subsp. communis Jurinea consanguinea DC. Jurinea kilaea Azn. Jurinea macrocalathia C. Koch Jurinea mollis (L.) Reichb. Jurinea turcica B. Doğan & A. Duran Kickxia commutata (Bernh. Ex Reichb.)Fritsch subsp.

1,2

ENDEMIC

  

BERN

3

IUCN  IUCN  4 RDB RDB 

THREATENED 

  

5

USES   

New  New  New  New  Thracian  App.  record  record  record  species  species  2000 (NEW) Global  European National    for  1   for  for   for  in  Yildiz  European  Turkey science Turkey 

NY

E

EN

E

CR n/l

Global CR

NY

Global national

TS M: antifungal / d / diff

NY NY VU

VU

national

TS NY

E

VU

VU

Global

TS NY NY

E

[EN]

Global

NPS

Kickxia elatine (L.) Dumort Kickxia spuria (L.) Dumort subsp. integrifolia (Brot.) RF d Knautia degeni Borbas ex Formanek Knautia drymeia Heuffel Knautia integrifolia (L.) Bert. var. bidens (Sm.) Borbas Knautia macedonica Griseb.

YILDIZ  MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE 

NY n/l VU

LC

national

TS

national

TS

FAMILY 

   CHENOPODIACEAE CHENOPODIACEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE COMPOSITAE LABIATAE LABIATAE LABIATAE LABIATAE LABIATAE LABIATAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE UMBELLIFERAE SCROPHULARIACEAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE ROSACEAE LAURACEAE LABIATAE MALVACEAE MALVACEAE CAMPANULACEAE LEMNACEAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE

GENUS, SPECIES, AUTHORITY ETC 

   Kochia prostrata (L.) Schrad. Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. Koeleria brevis Steven Koeleria cristata (L.) Pers. Lactuca saligna L. Lamium album L. Lamium amplexicaule L. Lamium garganicum L. subsp. laevigatum Arcangeli Lamium maculatum L. var. maculatum Lamium purpureum L. var. aznavourii Gand. ex Aznav. Lamium purpureum L. var. purpureum Lapsana communis L. subsp. alpina (Boiss. & Balansa) P.D.Sell Lapsana communis L. subsp. intermedia (Bieb.) Hayek Lapsana communis L. subsp. pisidica (Boiss. & Heldr.) Rech. Laser trilobum (L.) Borkh. Lathraea squamaria L. Lathyrus aphaca L. var. affinis (Guss.) Arc. Lathyrus hirsutus L. Lathyrus laxiflorus (Desf.) O.Kuntze subsp. laxiflorus Lathyrus niger (L.) Bernh. subsp. niger Lathyrus nissolia L. Lathyrus pratensis L. Lathyrus sativus L. Lathyrus sphaericus Retz. Lathyrus undulatus Boiss. Lathyrus venetus (Miller) Wohlf. Laurocerasus officinalis Roemer Laurus nobilis L. Lavandula stoechas L. subsp. stoechas Lavatera punctata All. Lavatera thuringiaca L. Legousia pentagonia (L.) Thellung Lemna minor L. Leontodon cichoraceus (Ten.) Sanguinetti Leontodon crispus Vill. var. asper (Waldst. Et Kit.) Rohl. Leontodon hispidus L. var. hispidus Leontodon tuberosus L.

1,2

ENDEMIC

  

BERN

3

IUCN  IUCN  4 RDB RDB 

THREATENED 

YILDIZ  MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE 

  

5

USES   

New  New  New  New  Thracian  App.  record  record  record  species  species  2000 (NEW) Global  European National    for  1   for  for   for  in  Yildiz  European  Turkey science Turkey 

NY

E

CR

CR

Global

TS food NET NET

NY

NY NY NY spices

n/l

national

TS

FAMILY 

   LABIATAE CRUCIFERAE AMARYLLIDACEAE GRAMINEAE OLEACEAE LILIACEAE ORCHIDACEAE PLUMBAGINACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE LINACEAE LINACEAE LINACEAE LINACEAE LINACEAE LINACEAE LINACEAE ORCHIDACEAE BORAGINACEAE COMPOSITAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE CAPRIFOLIACEAE CAPRIFOLIACEAE LORANTHACEAE LEGUMINOSAE JUNCACEAE JUNCACEAE JUNCACEAE JUNCACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE

GENUS, SPECIES, AUTHORITY ETC 

   Leonurus cardiaca L. Lepidium campestre (L.) R. Br. Leucojum aestivum L. Leymus racemosus (Lam.) Tzvelev subsp. sabulosus (Bieb.) T l Ligustrum vulgare L. Lilium martagon L. Limodorum abortivum (L.) Swartz Limonium virgatum (Willd.) Fourr. Linaria genistifolia (L.) Miller subsp. genistifolia Linaria grandiflora (L.) Miller Linaria kurdica Boiss. et Hohen. subsp. kurdica Linaria odora (Bieb.) Fischer Linaria pelisseriana (L.) Miller Linaria simpex (Willd.) DC. Linaria vulgaris Miller Linum aroanium Boiss. et Orph. Linum bienne Miller Linum corymbulosum Reichb. Linum hirsutum L. subsp. byzantinum Azn. Linum nodiflorum L. Linum tenuifolium L. Linum trigynum L. Listera ovata (L.) R. Br. Lithospermum purpurocaeruleum L. Logfia minima (Sm.) Dum. Lolium multiflorum Lam. Lolium perenne L. Lolium rigidum Gaudin var. rottbollioides Heldr. Ex. Boiss. Lonicera caprifolium L. Lonicera etrusca Santi var. etrusca Loranthus europaeus Jacq. Lotus corniculatus L. var. tenuifolius L. Luzula campestris (L.) DC. Luzula forsteri (Sm.) DC. Luzula multiflora (Ehrh. Ex Retz) Lej. Luzula sylvatica (Hudson) Gaudin Lychnis coronaria (L.) Desr.

1,2

ENDEMIC

  

BERN

3

IUCN  IUCN  4 RDB RDB 

THREATENED 

YILDIZ  MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE 

  

5

USES   

New  New  New  New  Thracian  App.  record  record  record  species  species  2000 (NEW) Global  European National    for  1   for  for   for  in  Yildiz  European  Turkey science Turkey 

VU

VU

national

VU

VU

national

NY NY

NY NY NY NY

n/l

national

NY

M: cuts, h i

FAMILY 

   CARYOPHYLLACEAE LABIATAE PRIMULACEAE PRIMULACEAE PRIMULACEAE PRIMULACEAE PRIMULACEAE LYTHRACEAE CRUCIFERAE ROSACEAE MALVACEAE MALVACEAE CRUCIFERAE LABIATAE LABIATAE ASCLEPIDIACEAE CRUCIFERAE CRUCIFERAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE

GENUS, SPECIES, AUTHORITY ETC 

   Lychnis viscaria L. Lycopus europaeus L. Lysimachia atropurpurea L. Lysimachia nummularia L. Lysimachia punctata L. Lysimachia verticillaris Sprengel Lysimachia vulgaris L. Lythrum salicaria L. Malcolmia flexuosa (Sibth. & Sm.) Sibth. & Sm Malus sylvestris Miller subsp. orientalis (A.Uglitzkich) Browicz li Wallr. Malva ineglecta Malva sylvestris L. Maresia nana (DC.) Batt. Marrubium peregrinum L. Marrubium vulgare L. Marsdenia erecta (L.) R. Br. Mathiola fruticulosa (L.) Maire Mathiola incana (L.) R. Br. Matricaria chamomilla L. var. chamomilla Matricaria chamomilla L. var. recutita (L.) Grierson Medicago arabica (L.) Huds Medicago lupulina L. Medicago marina L. Medicago minima (L.) Bart. var. minima Medicago orbicularis (L.) Bart. Medicago polymorpha L. var. vulgaris (Benth.) Shinners Medicago rigidula (L.) All. var. rigidula Medicago sativa L. subsp. sativa Melampyrum cristatum L. Melampyrum pratense L. Melica ciliata L. subsp. ciliata Melica ciliata L. subsp. transsilvanica (Schur) Husnot Melica uniflora Retz. Melilotus alba Desr. Melilotus indica (L.) All. Melilotus neopolitana Ten. Melilotus officinalis (L.) Desr.

1,2

ENDEMIC

  

BERN

3

IUCN  IUCN  4 RDB RDB 

THREATENED 

YILDIZ  MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE 

  

5

USES   

New  New  New  New  Thracian  App.  record  record  record  species  species  2000 (NEW) Global  European National    for  1   for  for   for  in  Yildiz  European  Turkey science Turkey  n/l NT national TS

M: diabetes, d bl d M: cancer, b hi i

ld /

NY NY n/l

NT

national

M: various

M: abdominal i /f d

n/l n/l

national national

TS TS NY NY

FAMILY 

   LABIATAE LABIATAE LABIATAE LABIATAE LABIATAE LABIATAE EUPHORBIACEAE ROSACEAE GRAMINEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE GRAMINEAE MORACEAE COMPOSITAE LILIACEAE LILIACEAE LILIACEAE COMPOSITAE BORAGINACEAE BORAGINACEAE BORAGINACEAE BORAGINACEAE BORAGINACEAE BORAGINACEAE BORAGINACEAE HALORAGIDACEAE UMBELLIFERAE NAJADACEAE CRUCIFERAE LILIACEAE ORCHIDACEAE

GENUS, SPECIES, AUTHORITY ETC 

  

1,2

ENDEMIC

  

BERN

3

IUCN  IUCN  4 RDB RDB 

THREATENED 

YILDIZ  MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE 

  

New  New  New  New  Thracian  App.  record  record  record  species  species  2000 (NEW) Global  European National    for  1   for  for   for  in  Yildiz  European  Turkey science Turkey 

Melissa officinalis L. subsp. altissima (Sm.) Arcangeli Melissa officinalis L. subsp. officinalis Mentha aquatica L. Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson subsp. longifolia Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson subsp. typhoides (Briq.) Harley id Menthahpulegium L.

M: various / diff M: abdominal i / /

Mercurialis pernennis L. Mespilus germanica L. Millium effusum L. Minuartia anatolica (Boiss.) Woron. var. polymorpha Mc Neill Minuartia erythrocephala (Boiss.) Hand. - Mazz. Minuartia glomerata (Bieb.) Degen. Minuartia hirsuta (Bieb.) Hand.-Mazz. subsp. falcata (Gris.) M f Minuartia verna (L.) Hiern subsp. brevipetala Hartvig & Strid Misopates orontium (L.) Raf. Moehringia trinervia (L.) Clairv. Moenchia mantica (L.) Bertl. subsp. mantica Molinia caerulea (L.) Moench Morus alba L. Mulgedium tataricum (L.) DC. Muscari armeniacum Leichtlin ex Baker Muscari comosum (L.) Miller. Muscari neglectum Guss. Mycelis muralis (L.) Dum. Myosotis alpestris F. W. Schmidt subsp. alpestris Myosotis arvensis (L.) Hill. subsp. arvensis Myosotis laxa Lehm. subsp. caespitosa (C.F. Schultz) N. H l d ramosissima N d Myosotis Rochel ex Schultes subsp. ramosissima Myosotis sicula Guss. Myosotis stricta Link ex Roemer et Schultes Myosotis sylvatica Ehrh. ex Hoffm. subsp. cyanea Vestergren Myriophyllum spicatum L. Myrrhoides nodosa (L.) Cannon Najas minor All. Nasturtium officinale R. Br. Nectaroscordum siculum (Ucria) Lind subsp. bulgaricum (Janka) S Neottia nidus-avis (L.) L.C.M. Rrichard

5

USES   

food

NY

NY EN

national NY

NY

NY NY

NY n/l

national

TS

FAMILY 

   LABIATAE LABIATAE RANUNCULACEAE RANUNCULACEAE RANUNCULACEAE BORAGINACEAE NYMPHAEACEAE NYMPHAEACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE UMBELLIFERAE UMBELLIFERAE UMBELLIFERAE OLEACEAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE COMPOSITAE BORAGINACEAE BORAGINACEAE ORCHIDACEAE ORCHIDACEAE ORCHIDACEAE ORCHIDACEAE ORCHIDACEAE ORCHIDACEAE ORCHIDACEAE ORCHIDACEAE ORCHIDACEAE ORCHIDACEAE ORCHIDACEAE ORCHIDACEAE ORCHIDACEAE LABIATAE LABIATAE LABIATAE UMBELLIFERAE

GENUS, SPECIES, AUTHORITY ETC 

   Nepeta cataria L. Nepeta nuda L. Nigella arvensis L. subsp. glauca Boiss. Nigella arvensis L. var. involucrata Boiss. Nigella damascena L. Nonea atra Griseb. Nuphar lutea (L.) Sm. Nymphae alba L. Odontites verna (Bellardi) Dumort. subsp. serotina (Dumaort.) C b Oenanthe fistulosa L. Oenanthe pimpinelloides L. Oenanthe silaifolia Bieb. Olea europea L. Onobrychis gracilis Besser Ononis arvensis L. Ononis spinosa L. subsp. antiquorum (L.) Briq. Ononis spinosa L. subsp. leiosperma (Boiss.) Sirf. Onopordum tauricum Willd. Onosma echioides L. Onosma thracicum Velen. Ophrys oestrifera Bieb. subsp. oestrifera Ophyrs mammosa Desf. Orchis coriophora L. Orchis laxiflora Lam. Orchis morio L. subsp. morio Orchis morio L. subsp. picta (Loisel.) K. Richter Orchis palustris Jacq. Orchis papilionacea L. var. papilionacea Orchis papilionacea L. var. rubra (Jacq.ex Murray) Brot. Orchis papilionacea L. x morio L. Orchis purpurea Hudson Orchis simia Lam. Orchis tridentata Scop. Origanum vulgare L. subsp. hirtum (Link.) letswaart Origanum vulgare L. subsp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek. Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare Orlaya daucoides (L.) Greuter

1,2

ENDEMIC

  

BERN

3

IUCN  IUCN  4 RDB RDB 

THREATENED 

YILDIZ  MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE 

  

5

USES   

New  New  New  New  Thracian  App.  record  record  record  species  species  2000 (NEW) Global  European National    for  1   for  for   for  in  Yildiz  European  Turkey science Turkey  NET

NY NY NY

NY NY NY NY

VU

VU VU

national national

NY

TS

NY NY NY NY n/l

LC

national

NY NY NY NY NY NY

NY

M: cold, bd i l

i

FAMILY 

   UMBELLIFERAE LILIACEAE LILIACEAE LILIACEAE LILIACEAE LILIACEAE LILIACEAE LILIACEAE LILIACEAE LILIACEAE LEGUMINOSAE OROBANCHACEAE OROBANCHACEAE OROBANCHACEAE OROBANCHACEAE OROBANCHACEAE OROBANCHACEAE OROBANCHACEAE GRAMINEAE SANTALACEAE COMPOSITAE OXALIDACEAE PAEONIACEAE RHAMNACEAE COMPOSITAE AMARYLLIDACEAE PAPAVERACEAE PAPAVERACEAE PAPAVERACEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE URTICACEAE URTICACEAE ILLECEBRACEAE ILLECEBRACEAE UMBELLIFERAE

GENUS, SPECIES, AUTHORITY ETC 

   Orlaya grandiflora (L.) Hoffm. Ornithogalum narbonense L. Ornithogalum oligophyllum E. D. Clarke Ornithogalum ortophyllum Ten. Ornithogalum pluttulum Speta Ornithogalum pyrenaicum L. Ornithogalum sibthorpii Greuter Ornithogalum sigmoideum Freyn & Sint. Ornithogalum sphaerocarpum Kerner Ornithogalum umbellatum L. Ornithopus compresus L. Orobanche alba Stephan Orobanche caryophyllacea Smith Orobanche cernua Loefl. Orobanche minor Sm. Orobanche mutelii F. Schultz Orobanche nana Noe ex G. Beck Orobanche purpurea Jacq. Oryzopsis hymenoides (Roemer & J.A. Schultes) Ricker ex Pi Osyris alba L. Otanthus maritimus (L.) Hoffmans. & Link Oxalis corniculata L. Paeonia peregrina Miller Paliurus spina-christii Miller Pallenis spinosa (L.) Cass. Pancratium maritimum L. Papaver dubium L. Papaver lacerum Popov Papaver rhoeas L. Parapholis incurva (L.) C.E. Hubbard Parapholis pycnantha (Heckel) C.E. Hubbard Parentucellia latifolia (L.) Caruel subsp. latifolia Parietaria judaica L. Parietaria officinalis L. Paronychia argyroloba Stapf. Paronychia polygonifolia (Vill.) DC. Pastinaca sativa L. subsp. urens (Req.ex Godron) Celak

1,2

ENDEMIC

  

BERN

3

IUCN  IUCN  4 RDB RDB 

THREATENED 

YILDIZ  MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE 

  

5

USES   

New  New  New  New  Thracian  App.  record  record  record  species  species  2000 (NEW) Global  European National    for  1   for  for   for  in  Yildiz  European  Turkey science Turkey  NY NY NY n/l

national NY NY

NY

NY NY NY NY

NY

EN

EN

national

food NY NY

FAMILY 

   ASCLEPIDIACEAE COMPOSITAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE UMBELLIFERAE OLEACEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE LABIATAE GRAMINEAE ASPLENIACEAE SOLANACEAE PHYTOLACCACEAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE UMBELLIFERAE PINACEAE GRAMINEAE ANACARDIACEAE ANACARDIACEAE LEGUMINOSAE PLANTAGINACEAE PLANTAGINACEAE PLANTAGINACEAE PLANTAGINACEAE PLANTAGINACEAE PLANTAGINACEAE PLANTAGINACEAE PLANTAGINACEAE

GENUS, SPECIES, AUTHORITY ETC 

   Periploca graeca L. var. graeca Petasites hybridus (L.) Gaertner Petrorhagia prolifera (L.) Ball. et Heywood Petrorhagia velutina (Guss.) Ball. & Heywood Peucedanum obtusifolium Sm. Phillyrea latifolia L. Phleum bertoloni DC. Phleum exaratum Hochst. ex Griseb. subsp. exaratum Phleum phleoides (L.) Karsten Phleum pratense L. Phleum subulatum (Savi) Aschers. & Graebn. subsp. subulatum Phlomis pungens Willd. var. hirta Velen. Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. Phyllitis scolopendrium (L.) Newm. Physalis alkekengi L. Phytolacca americana L. Pilosella cymosa (L.) C.H. & F.W. Schultz Pilosella hoppeana (Schultes) C.H. & F.W. Schultz subsp. lydia (Bornm. & Zahn) Sell & West Pilosella hoppeana (Schultes) C.H. & F.W. Schultz. subsp. pilisquama (NP.) Sell & West Pilosella piloselloides (Vill.) Sojak in Preslia subsp. piloselloides Pilosella x auriculoides (A.F. Lang) Sell & West Pilosella x ruprechtii (Boiss.) Sell & West Pimpinella tragium Vill. subsp. lithophila (Schinschkin) Tutin Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe Piptatherum coerulescens (Desf.) P. Pistacia terebinthus L. subsp. palaestina (Boiss.) Engler Pistacia terebinthus L. subsp. terebinthus Pisum sativum L. subsp. sativum var. arvense (L.) Poir. Plantago coronopus L. subsp. commutata (Guss.) Pilger Plantago coronopus L. subsp. coronopus Plantago holosteum Scop. Plantago lagopus L. Plantago lanceolata L. Plantago major L. subsp. intermedia (Gilib.) Lange Plantago major L. subsp. major Plantago maritima L.

1,2

ENDEMIC

  

BERN

3

IUCN  IUCN  4 RDB RDB 

THREATENED 

YILDIZ  MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE 

  

5

USES   

New  New  New  New  Thracian  App.  record  record  record  species  species  2000 (NEW) Global  European National    for  1   for  for   for  in  Yildiz  European  Turkey science Turkey  M: wounds

E

VU

VU

Global

NY

NET

NY NY NY

M: hemostatic , d various / food

FAMILY 

   PLANTAGINACEAE PLANTAGINACEAE ORCHIDACEAE ORCHIDACEAE PLATANACEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE CHENOPODIACEAE POLYGALACEAE POLYGALACEAE POLYGONACEAE POLYGALACEAE POLYGALACEAE LILIACEAE LILIACEAE POLYGONACEAE POLYGONACEAE POLYGONACEAE POLYGONACEAE POLYGONACEAE POLYGONACEAE POLYGONACEAE POLYGONACEAE POLYPODIACEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE ASPIDIACEAE ASPIDIACEAE SALICACEAE SALICACEAE

GENUS, SPECIES, AUTHORITY ETC 

   Plantago scabra Moench. Plantago sempervirens Crantz Platanthera bifolia (L.) L.C.M. Richard Platanthera chlorantha (Custer) Reichb. Platanus orientalis L. Poa angustifolia L. Poa annua L. Poa bulbosa L. Poa infirma Kunth Poa jubata A. Kerner Poa nemoralis L. Poa pratensis L. Poa timeleontis Heldr. ex Boiss. Poa trivialis L. Polycnemum verrucosum Lang Polygala anatolica Boiss. & Heldr. Polygala major Jacq. Polygala pruniosa Boiss. subsp. pruniosa Polygala supina Schreb. Polygala vulgaris L. Polygonatum hirtum (Bosc ex Poiret) Pursh Polygonatum multiflorum (L.) All. Polygonum arenastrum Bor. Polygonum aviculare L. Polygonum bistorta L. Polygonum convolvulus L. Polygonum hydropiper L. Polygonum laphatifolium L. Polygonum mesembricum Chrtek Polygonum pulchellum Lois. Polypodium vulgare L. subsp. vulgare Polypogon maritimus Willd. Subsp maritimus Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf. Polystichum aculeatum (L.) Roth. Polystichum setiferum (Forsk.) Woynar Populus alba L. Populus nigra L. subsp. nigra

1,2

ENDEMIC

  

BERN

3

IUCN  IUCN  4 RDB RDB 

THREATENED 

YILDIZ  MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE 

  

New  New  New  New  Thracian  App.  record  record  record  species  species  2000 (NEW) Global  European National    for  1   for  for   for  in  Yildiz  European  Turkey science Turkey  VU

national

TS NY NY

NY EN

national

TS NY NY

VU

national

TS NY NY NY NY

n/l

VU

national

TS

NY NY

n/l NY

NY

NY

5

USES   

FAMILY 

GENUS, SPECIES, AUTHORITY ETC 

  

  

SALICACEAE PORTULACACEAE POTAMOGETONACEAE POTAMOGETONACEAE POTAMOGETONACEAE POTAMOGETONACEAE POTAMOGETONACEAE ROSACEAE ROSACEAE ROSACEAE ROSACEAE ROSACEAE ROSACEAE PRIMULACEAE LABIATAE LABIATAE ROSACEAE ROSACEAE ROSACEAE ROSACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE LEGUMINOSAE HYPOLEPIDACEAE JUGLANDACEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE BORAGINACEAE BORAGINACEAE ROSACEAE ROSACEAE ROSACEAE ROSACEAE ROSACEAE FAGACEAE FAGACEAE

Populus tremula L. Portulaca oleraceae L. Potamogeton crispus L. Potamogeton natans L. Potamogeton panormitanus Biv. Potamogeton pectinatus L. Potamogeton trichoides Cham & Schlecht. Potentilla argentea L. Potentilla calabra Ten. Potentilla crantzii (Crantz) G. Beck ex Fritsch var. crantzii Potentilla inclinata Vill. Potentilla recta L. Potentilla reptans L. Primula vulgaris Huds subsp. sibthorpii (Hoffmanns.) W.W. Sm. F Prunella laciniata (L.) L. Prunella vulgaris L. Prunus divaricata Ledeb. subsp. divaricata Prunus domestica L. Prunus spinosa L. subsp. dasyphylla (Schur) Domin Prunus x domestica L. Pseudolysimachion orchideum (Crantz) T. Wraber Psoralea bituminosa L. Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn. Pterocarya fraxinifolia (Poiret) Spach Puccinellia festuciformis (Host) Parl. Puccinellia intermedia (Schur) Janchen Pulicaria dysenterica (L.) Bernh. Pulicaria sicula (L.) Morris Pulmonaria dacica Simonkai Pulmonaria obscura Dumort. Pyracantha coccinea Roemer Pyrus amygdaliformis Vill. var. amygdaliformis Pyrus bulgarica Kuthath. & Sachok. Pyrus communis L. subsp. communis Pyrus elaeagnifolia Pallas subsp. elaeagnifolia Quercus cerris L. var. austriaca (Willd.) Loudon Quercus cerris L. var.cerris

1,2

ENDEMIC

  

BERN

3

IUCN  IUCN  4 RDB RDB 

THREATENED 

YILDIZ  MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE 

  

5

USES   

New  New  New  New  Thracian  App.  record  record  record  species  species  2000 (NEW) Global  European National    for  1   for  for   for  in  Yildiz  European  Turkey science Turkey  M: nephritis, h

NY NY

M: cold, di b n/l

CR

national

TS M: rheumatism, diff

NY

n/l n/l

NT NT

national national

TS TS

M: nephritis, di bantifungal /f d/ M:

FAMILY 

   FAGACEAE FAGACEAE FAGACEAE FAGACEAE FAGACEAE FAGACEAE FAGACEAE FAGACEAE RANUNCULACEAE RANUNCULACEAE RANUNCULACEAE RANUNCULACEAE RANUNCULACEAE RANUNCULACEAE RANUNCULACEAE RANUNCULACEAE RANUNCULACEAE RANUNCULACEAE RANUNCULACEAE RANUNCULACEAE RANUNCULACEAE RANUNCULACEAE RANUNCULACEAE RANUNCULACEAE RANUNCULACEAE RANUNCULACEAE RANUNCULACEAE CRUCIFERAE RESEDACEAE RESEDACEAE ERICACEAE ANACARDIACEAE IRIDACEAE IRIDACEAE CRUCIFERAE CRUCIFERAE ROSACEAE

GENUS, SPECIES, AUTHORITY ETC 

  

1,2

ENDEMIC

  

BERN

3

IUCN  IUCN  4 RDB RDB 

THREATENED 

YILDIZ  MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE 

  

New  New  New  New  Thracian  App.  record  record  record  species  species  2000 (NEW) Global  European National    for  1   for  for   for  in  Yildiz  European  Turkey science Turkey 

Quercus frainetto Ten. Quercus hartwissiana Steven Quercus infectoria Olivier subsp. infectoria Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl. subsp. iberica (Steven ex Bi b ) K petraea il Quercus (Mattuschka) Liebl. subsp. petraea Quercus pubescens Willd. Berl. Quercus robur L. subsp. robur Quercus virgiliana Ten. Ranunculus aquatilis L. Ranunculus arvensis L. Ranunculus brutius Ten. Ranunculus constantinopolitanus (DC.) d’Urv. Ranunculus cuneatus Boiss. Ranunculus ficaria L. subsp. calthifolius (Reichb.) Arc Ranunculus ficaria L. subsp. ficariiformis Rauy. & Fouc. Ranunculus gracilis Clarke Ranunculus illyricus L. subsp. illyricus Ranunculus lanuginosus L. Ranunculus muricatus L. Ranunculus neapolitanus Ten. Ranunculus ophioglossifolius Vill. Ranunculus repens L. Ranunculus saniculifolius Viv. Ranunculus scleratus L. Ranunculus sphaerospermus Boiss. & Blanch. Ranunculus trichophyllus Chaix. Ranunculus velutinus Ten. Raphanus raphanistrum L. Reseda lutea L. var. lutea Reseda luteola L. Rhododendron ponticum L. subsp. ponticum Rhus coriaria L. Romulea columnae Seb. & Mauri subsp. columnae Romulea linaresii Parl. subsp. graeca Bég. Rorippa sylvestre (L.) Bess. Rorippa thracica (Gris.) Fritsch Rosa agrestis Savi

NY NY NY NY

NT

national

NY NY

TS

NY

EN

VU

national

TS NY

5

USES   

FAMILY 

   ROSACEAE ROSACEAE ROSACEAE LABIATAE RUBIACEAE RUBIACEAE ROSACEAE ROSACEAE ROSACEAE ROSACEAE ROSACEAE ROSACEAE ROSACEAE ROSACEAE POLYGONACEAE POLYGONACEAE POLYGONACEAE POLYGONACEAE POLYGONACEAE POLYGONACEAE POLYGONACEAE POLYGONACEAE LILIACEAE LILIACEAE LILIACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE SALICACEAE SALICACEAE SALICACEAE SALICACEAE CHENOPODIACEAE CHENOPODIACEAE CHENOPODIACEAE LABIATAE LABIATAE LABIATAE

GENUS, SPECIES, AUTHORITY ETC 

   Rosa canina L. Rosa gallica L. Rosa sempervirens L. Rosmarinus officinalis L. Rubia peregrina L. Rubia tinctorium L. Rubus caesius L. Rubus canescens DC. var. canescens Borkh. Rubus canescens DC. var. glabratus (Gordon) Davis & Meikle Rubus hirtus Waldst. & Kit. Rubus idaeus L. Rubus sanctus Schreber Rubus saxatilis L. Rubus tereticaulis P.J. Mueller Rumex acetosella L. Rumex conglomeratus Murray Rumex crispus L. Rumex dentatus L. subsp. halacsy (Rech. pat.) Rech. fil. Rumex obtusifolius L. Rumex pulcher L. Rumex sanguineus L. Rumex tuberosus L. subsp. tuberosus Ruscus aculeatus L. subsp. angustifolius Boiss. Ruscus aculeatus L. var. aculeatus Ruscus hypoglossum L. Sagina apetala Ard. Sagina maritima Don. Salix alba L. Salix caprea L. Salix cinerea L. Salix triandra L. subsp. triandra Salsola kali L. Salsola ruthenica Iljin Salsola tragus L. Salvia aetiophis L. Salvia amplexicaulis Lam. Salvia forskahlei L.

1,2

ENDEMIC

  

BERN

3

IUCN  IUCN  4 RDB RDB 

THREATENED 

YILDIZ  MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE 

  

5

USES   

New  New  New  New  Thracian  App.  record  record  record  species  species  2000 (NEW) Global  European National    for  1   for  for   for  in  Yildiz  European  Turkey science Turkey  M: cold, b diarrhea hi i M: NY NY NY

M: dyspepsia, i

M: cardiac, h cold, wounds, i M: i i /

M: inflammed food d / f d

NY M: nephritis, kid NY M: eczema, if l NY

NY NY

FAMILY 

   LABIATAE LABIATAE LABIATAE LABIATAE LABIATAE SALVINIACEAE CAPRIFOLIACEAE CAPRIFOLIACEAE PRIMULACEAE ROSACEAE ROSACEAE UMBELLIFERAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE LABIATAE SAXIFRAGACEAE DIPSACACEAE DIPSACACEAE DIPSACACEAE DIPSACACEAE DIPSACACEAE UMBELLIFERAE COMPOSITAE CYPERACEAE CYPERACEAE LILIACEAE LILIACEAE CYPERACEAE CYPERACEAE ILLECEBRACEAE ILLECEBRACEAE ILLECEBRACEAE COMPOSITAE SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE

GENUS, SPECIES, AUTHORITY ETC 

   Salvia nutans L. Salvia verbeneca L. Salvia verticillata L. subsp. verticillata Salvia virgata Jacq. Salvia viridis L. Salvinia natans (L.) All. Sambucus ebulus L. Sambucus nigra L. Samolus valerandi L. Sanguisorba minor Scop. subsp. muricata (Spach) Briq. Sanguisorba officinalis L. Sanicula europaea L. (Davis) Saponaria officinalis L. Satureja coerulea Janka Saxifraga adscendens L. subsp. parnassica (Boiss. & Heldr.) H k atropurpurea L. subsp. maritima (L.) Arc. Scabiosa

1,2

ENDEMIC

  

BERN

3

IUCN  IUCN  4 RDB RDB 

THREATENED 

YILDIZ  MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE 

  

New  New  New  New  Thracian  App.  record  record  record  species  species  2000 (NEW) Global  European National    for  1   for  for   for  in  Yildiz  European  Turkey science Turkey  VU VU national TS

BERN

VU

VU

European M: various M: wounds, h ld / NY

n/l

EN NT

national national

NY

TS TS

LC

national

NY

TS

Scabiosa columbaria L. subsp. columbaria var.columbaria Scabiosa columbaria L. subsp. ochroleuca (L.) Celac var. h l columbaria L. subsp. ochroleuca (L.) Celac var. Scabiosa webbiana (Don) Matthews Scabiosa triniifolia Friv. Scandix stellata Banks & Sol. Scariola viminea (L.) F. W. Schmidt Schoenoplectus lacustris (L.) Palla subsp. tabernaemontanii (C.C. Gmelin) A.& D Löve Schoenoplectus litoralis (Schrader) Palla Scilla autumnalis L. Scilla bifolia L. Scirpoides holoschoenus (L.) Sojak Scirpus sylvaticus L. Scleranthus annuus L. subsp. annuus Scleranthus perennis L. subsp. dichotomus (Schur.) Stoj. Et S f f Scleranthus perennis L. subsp. marginatus (Guss.) Arc. Scorzonera cretica Willd. Scrophularia canina L. subsp. bicolor (Sm.) Vis. Scrophularia nodosa L. Scrophularia scapolii (Hoppe ex) Pers., var. scapolii Scrophularia umbrosa Dum.

5

USES   

NY

NT NY

FAMILY 

   LABIATAE LABIATAE GRAMINEAE CRASSULACEAE CRASSULACEAE CRASSULACEAE CRASSULACEAE CRASSULACEAE CRASSULACEAE CRASSULACEAE CRASSULACEAE CRASSULACEAE CRASSULACEAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE ORCHIDACEAE ORCHIDACEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE RUBIACEAE LABIATAE LABIATAE LABIATAE LABIATAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE

GENUS, SPECIES, AUTHORITY ETC 

   Scutellaria albida L. subsp. albida Scutellaria galericulata L. Secale sylvestre Host. Sedum acre L. Sedum caespitosum (Cav.) DC. Sedum grisebachii Boiss. et Heldr. var. grisebachii Sedum hispanicum L. var. hispanicum Sedum ochroleucum Chaix. Sedum pallidum Bieb. var. bithynicum (B i )pallidum Ch b Bieb. l i var. pallidum Sedum Sedum sartorianum Boiss. subsp. sartorianum Sedum telephium L. subsp. maximum (L.) Krocker Sedum urvilleii DC. Senecio aquaticus Hill subsp. erraticus (Bertol.) Matthews Senecio doria L. subsp. umbrosus (Waldst. & Kit.) Soó Senecio lividus L. Senecio nemorensis L. subsp. nemorensis Senecio papposus (Reichb.) Less. subsp. papposus Senecio vernalis Waldst. & Kit. Senecio vulgaris L. Serapias orientalis Nelson Serapias vomeracea (Burm. fil.) Briq. subsp. orientalis Greuter Sesleria alba Sm. Setaria glauca (L.) P. Beauv. Sherardia arvensis L. Sideritis lanata L. Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana Sideritis scardica Griseb. subsp. scardica Sideritis taurica Stephan ex Willd. Silene compacta Fischer Silene conica L. Silene conoidea L. Silene dichotoma Ehrh. subsp. dichotoma Silene dichotoma Ehrh. subsp. euxina Silene dichotoma Ehrh. subsp. sibthorpiana (Reichb.) Reich. Silene gallica L. Silene italica (L.) Pers.

1,2

ENDEMIC

  

BERN

3

IUCN  IUCN  4 RDB RDB 

THREATENED 

YILDIZ  MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE 

  

5

USES   

New  New  New  New  Thracian  App.  record  record  record  species  species  2000 (NEW) Global  European National    for  1   for  for   for  in  Yildiz  European  Turkey science Turkey 

VU

national

TS

n/l

national

TS NY

NY NY

NY NY EN

national

TS

NY

VU

VU

national

TS NY NY

NY

M: cold, flu, h M: cold, b hi i fl /

FAMILY 

   CARYOPHYLLACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE COMPOSITAE CRUCIFERAE CRUCIFERAE CRUCIFERAE LILIACEAE LILIACEAE UMBELLIFERAE UMBELLIFERAE SOLANACEAE SOLANACEAE SOLANACEAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE ROSACEAE ROSACEAE ROSACEAE ROSACEAE SPARGANIACEAE SPARGANIACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE ORCHIDACEAE LABIATAE LABIATAE LABIATAE LABIATAE LABIATAE

GENUS, SPECIES, AUTHORITY ETC 

   Silene noctiflora L. Silene otites (L.) Wibel Silene sangaria Coode & Cullen Silene tenuiflora Guss. Silene viridiflora Lindley Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke var. commutata (Guss.) Coode & C ll vulgaris (Moench.) Garcker var. vulgaris Silene Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertner Sinapis arvensis L. Sison amanum L. Sisymbrium irio L. Sisymbrium officinale (L.) Scop. Smilax aspera L. Smilax excelsa L. Smyrnium olusatrum L. Smyrnium perfoliatum L. Solanum dulcamara L. Solanum nigrum L. subsp. nigrum Solanum nigrum L. subsp. schultesii (Opiz) Wessely Sonchus arvensis L. subsp. uliginosus (Bieb.) Bég Sonchus asper (L.) Hill. Subsp. glaucescens (Jordan) Ball. Sorbus aucuparia L. Sorbus domestica L. Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz var. orientalis (Schön.-Tem.) Gabr. Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz. var. torminalis Sparganium erectum L. subsp. erectum Sparganium erectum L. subsp. neglectum (Beeby) K. Richter Spergularia diandra (Guss.) Heldr. & Sart. Spergularia marina (L.) Gris. Spergularia media (L.) C. Presl. Spergularia rubra (L.) J. & C. Persl. Spiranthes spiralis (L.) Chevall. Stachys aff. cretica L. subsp. bulgarica Rech. fil. Stachys angustifolia Bieb. Stachys annua (L.) L. subsp. annua var. annua Stachys annua (L.) L. subsp. annua var. lycaonica Bh hgermanica j Stachys L. subsp. bithynica (Boiss.) Bhattacharjee

1,2

ENDEMIC

  

E

BERN

3

IUCN  IUCN  4 RDB RDB 

THREATENED 

YILDIZ  MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE 

  

5

USES   

New  New  New  New  Thracian  App.  record  record  record  species  species  2000 (NEW) Global  European National    for  1   for  for   for  in  Yildiz  European  Turkey science Turkey  NY NY BERN VU VU Global n/l

LC

NY NY

NY NY

NY

M: diabetes, hii

NY VU

national

TS

FAMILY 

   LABIATAE LABIATAE LABIATAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE BORAGINACEAE BORAGINACEAE BORAGINACEAE BORAGINACEAE BORAGINACEAE TAMARICACEAE DIOSCOREACEAE DIOSCOREACEAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE TAXACEAE CRUCIFERAE LABIATAE LABIATAE LABIATAE LABIATAE LABIATAE LABIATAE RANUNCULACEAE SANTALACEAE SANTALACEAE CRUCIFERAE CRUCIFERAE CRUCIFERAE LABIATAE

GENUS, SPECIES, AUTHORITY ETC 

  

1,2

ENDEMIC

  

Stachys maritima Gouan Stachys sylvatica L. Stachys thirkei C.Koch. Stellaria holostea L. Stellaria media (L.) Vill. subsp. pallida (Dumort.) Aschers. et G bbromoides (L.) Dörfler Stipa

BERN

3

IUCN  IUCN  4 RDB RDB 

Taraxacum gracilens Dahlst. Taraxacum scaturiginosum G. Hagl. Taxus baccata L. Teesdalia coronopifolia (Berg.) Thellung Teucrium chamaedrys L. subsp. chamaedrys Teucrium lamiifolium d'Urv. subsp. lamiifolium Teucrium lamiifolium d'Urv. subsp. stachyophyllum (P. H. Davis) H d Eki Teucrium montanum L. Teucrium polium L. Teucrium scordium L. subsp. scordioides (Schreber) Maire & P i i lucidum L. Thalictrum Thesium bergeri Zucc. Thesium divaricatum Jan. ex Mertens & Koch Thlaspi alliaceum L. Thlaspi perfoliatum L. Thlaspi praecox Wulf. subsp. praecox Thymus atticus Celak

YILDIZ  MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE 

  

5

USES   

New  New  New  New  Thracian  App.  record  record  record  species  species  2000 (NEW) Global  European National    for  1   for  for   for  in  Yildiz  European  Turkey science Turkey  NY

NY

Stipa capensis Thumb. Stipa pennata L. Stipa pulcherrima C.Koch subsp. crassiculmis (P. Smirnov) T l Symphytum bulbosum Schimper Symphytum orientale L. Symphytum pseudobulbosum Aznav. Symphytum tauricum Willd. Symphytum tuberosum L. subsp. nodosum (Schur) Soó Tamarix parviflora DC. Tamus communis L. subsp. communis Tamus communis L. subsp. cretica (L.) Kit Tan Tanacetum balsamita L. subsp. balsamitoides (Schultz Bip.) G i Tanacetum corymbosum (L.) Schultz Bip. subsp. cinereum (G i ) H parthenium k Tanacetum (L.) Schultz. Bip.

THREATENED 

NY NT E

CR

CR

national

NY

TS

Global NET

NY NY

n/l

VU

national

TS

NY LC NY n/l

NY

NY

VU

CR

national

TS feed

FAMILY 

   LABIATAE LABIATAE LABIATAE LABIATAE LABIATAE TILIACEAE TILIACEAE TILIACEAE TILIACEAE UMBELLIFERAE UMBELLIFERAE UMBELLIFERAE APOCYNACEAE BORAGINACEAE COMPOSITAE TRAPACEAE ZYGOPYLLACEAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE

GENUS, SPECIES, AUTHORITY ETC 

   Thymus longicaulis C. Presl var. longicaulis Thymus longicaulis C. Presl var. subisophyllus (Borbas) Jalas Thymus praecox Opiz. subsp. scorpilli (Velen.) Jalas var. illi roegneri C. Koch Thymus

1,2

ENDEMIC

  

BERN

3

IUCN  IUCN  4 RDB RDB 

THREATENED 

  

5

USES   

New  New  New  New  Thracian  App.  record  record  record  species  species  2000 (NEW) Global  European National    for  1   for  for   for  in  Yildiz  European  Turkey science Turkey  feed M: diabetes, hii ld / NY

Thymus striatus Vahl var. interrrubtus Jalas Tilia argentea Desf. ex. DC. Tilia cordata Miller Tilia platyphyllos Scop. Tilia rubra DC. subsp. caucasica (Rupr.) V. Engler. Tordylium apulum L. Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link Torilis nodosa (L.) Gaertner Trachomitum venetum (L.) Woodson subsp. sarmatiense (W d ) A orientalis i i Trachystemon (L.) G. Don. Tragopogon dubius Scop. Trapa natans L. Tribulus terrestris L. Trifolium alpestre L. var. lanigerum Ser. Trifolium angustifolium L. var. angustifolium Trifolium arvense L. var. arvense Trifolium aureum Thuill. Trifolium balansae Boiss. Trifolium bocconei Savi Trifolium campestre Schreb. Trifolium clusii Goldr. et Gren. Trifolium constantinopolitanum Ser. Trifolium dubium Sibth. Trifolium echinatum Bieb. Trifolium heldreichianum Hausskn. Trifolium heldreichianum Hausskn. Trifolium hirtum All. Trifolium hybridum L. var. anatolicum (Boiss.) Boiss. Trifolium hybridum L. var. hybridum Trifolium incarnatum L. var. incarnatum Trifolium incarnatum L. var. molinierii (Balb.) DC. Trifolium latinum Sebast. Trifolium leucanthum Bieb.

YILDIZ  MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE 

NY NY tea NY

NY food NY BERN

VU

VU

European NY

n/l

national

TS

NY NY DD

CR

national

TS NY NY NY

VU

VU

national

NET

n/l

CR

national

NET

feed

FAMILY 

   LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE UMBELLIFERAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE COMPOSITAE GRAMINEAE GRAMINEAE CISTACEAE LILIACEAE LILIACEAE UMBELLIFERAE COMPOSITAE TYPHACEAE

GENUS, SPECIES, AUTHORITY ETC 

   Trifolium ligusticum Balb. ex Lois. Trifolium medium L. var. medium Trifolium micranthum Viv. Trifolium nigrescens Viv. subsp. nigrescens Trifolium nigrescens Viv. subsp. petrisavii (Clem.) Holmboe Trifolium ochroleucum Huds. Trifolium pannonicum Jacq. subsp. elongatum (Willd.) Zoh. Trifolium patens Schreb. Trifolium pratense L. var. pratense Trifolium purpureum Lois. var. purpureum Trifolium repens L. var. biasolettii (Steud. & Hochst.) Aschers & G b repens L. var. orphanideum (Boiss.) Boiss. Trifolium Trifolium repens L. var. repens Trifolium resupinatum L. var. resupinatum Trifolium resupitanum L. var. microcephalum Zoh. Trifolium sebastiani Savi Trifolium speciosum Willd. Trifolium spumosum L. Trifolium striatum L. Trifolium strictum L. Trifolium subterraneum L. Trifolium tenuifolium Ten. Trifolium tomentosum L. Trifolium uniflorum L. Trifolium vesiculosum Savi var. rumelicum Gris. Trinia glauca (L.) Dum. Tripleurospermum parviflorum (Willd.) Pobed. Tripleurospermum sevanense (Manden.) Pobed. Tripleurospermum tenuifolium (Kit.) Freyn Trisetum flavescens (L.) P. Beauv. Triticum monococcum L. Tuberaria guttata (L.) Fourr. var. guttata Tulipa hageri Heldr. Tulipa sylvestris L. Turgenia latifolia (L.) Hoffm. Tussilago farfara L. Typha angustifolia L.

1,2

ENDEMIC

  

BERN

3

IUCN  IUCN  4 RDB RDB 

THREATENED 

YILDIZ  MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE 

  

New  New  New  New  Thracian  App.  record  record  record  species  species  2000 (NEW) Global  European National    for  1   for  for   for  in  Yildiz  European  Turkey science Turkey  NY

NY

n/l

national

TS

NY

NY NY NY

NY NY NY VU NY NY NY

5

USES   

FAMILY 

   TYPHACEAE TYPHACEAE COMPOSITAE ULMACEAE ULMACEAE ULMACEAE CRASSULACEAE CRASSULACEAE URTICACEAE URTICACEAE URTICACEAE URTICACEAE LENTIBULARIACEAE CARYOPHYLLACEAE ERICACEAE VALERIANACEAE VALERIANACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE VERBENACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE

GENUS, SPECIES, AUTHORITY ETC 

  

1,2

ENDEMIC

  

Typha domingensis Pers. Typha laxmanii Lepechin Tyrimnus leucographus (L.) Cass. Ulmus glabra Hudson Ulmus laevis Pallas Ulmus minor Miller subsp. minor Umbilicus erectus DC. var . lassithiensis (Gand.) Stoj. Umbilicus rupestris (Salisb.) Dandy Urtica dioica L. Urtica membranaceae Poiret Urtica pilulifera L. Urtica urens L. Utricularia australis R. Br. Vaccaria pyramidata Medik. var. grandiflora (Fisch. ex DC.) C ll Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. Valeriana alliariifolia Adams Valeriana officinalis L. Verbascum banaticum Schrader Verbascum blattaria L. Verbascum bugulifolium Lam. Verbascum degenii Hal. Verbascum densiflorum Bertol. Verbascum lagurus Fisch. et Mey. Verbascum macrurum Ten. Verbascum ovalifolium Donn. ex Sims subsp. ovalifolium Verbascum phoenicum L. Verbascum purpureum (Janka) Hub.-Mor. Verbascum sinuatum L. var. sinuatum Verbascum xanthophoniceum Griseb. Verbena officinalis L. Veronica anagallis-aquatica L. Veronica arvensis L. Veronica beccabunga L. Veronica bozakmanii M. A. Fischer Veronica chamaedrys L. Veronica crinita Kit. ex Schultes Veronica cymbalaria Bodard

BERN

3

IUCN  IUCN  4 RDB RDB 

THREATENED 

YILDIZ  MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE 

  

5

USES   

New  New  New  New  Thracian  App.  record  record  record  species  species  2000 (NEW) Global  European National    for  1   for  for   for  in  Yildiz  European  Turkey science Turkey  NY NY

NY

n/l

BERN

n/l

national

VU

tea / feed / diff

NY

European NY

E

BERN

VU

VU

n/l CR

NT CR

national

TS

national

TS

Global NY

NY BERN

VU

CR

European

NY NY

VU

VU

national

TS

FAMILY 

   SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE SCROPHULARIACEAE CAPRIFOLIACEAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE LEGUMINOSAE APOCYNACEAE APOCYNACEAE ASCLEPIDIACEAE ASCLEPIDIACEAE VIOLACEAE VIOLACEAE VIOLACEAE VIOLACEAE VIOLACEAE

GENUS, SPECIES, AUTHORITY ETC 

   Veronica filiformis J. E. Smith Veronica montana L. Veronica officinalis L. Veronica pectinata L. subsp. pectinata Veronica persica Poiret Veronica polita Fries Veronica serpyllifolia L. Veronica turrilliana Stoj. et Stef. Veronica verna L. Viburnum opulus L. Vicia barbazitae Ten. & Guss. Vicia cassubica L. Vicia cracca L. subsp. cracca Vicia cracca L. subsp. gerardii Gaudin Vicia cracca L. subsp. stenophylla Vel. Vicia grandiflora Scop. var. grandiflora Vicia hirsuta (L.) F. S. Gray Vicia hybrida L. Vicia lutea L. var. hirta (Balbis) Lois. Vicia melanops Sibth.& S.M. Vicia pannonica Crantz var. pannonica Vicia sativa L. subsp. incisa (Bieb.) Arc. var. incisa Vicia sativa L. subsp. nigra (L.) Ehrh. var. nigra Vicia sativa L. subsp. nigra (L.) Ehrh. var. segetalis (Thuill.) Ser. DCtetrasperma (L.) Schreb. Vicia Vicia villosa Roth subsp. dasycarpa (Ten.) Cav. Vicia villosa Roth subsp. villosa Vicia villosa Roth. subsp. eriocarpa (Hausskn.) P. W. Ball Vinca herbacea Walldst. et Kit. Vinca major L. subsp. major Vincetoxicum hirundinaria Medicus Vincetoxicum speciosum Boiss. et Spruner Viola alba Besser subsp. dehnhardtii (Ten.) Becker Viola arvensis Murray Viola canina L. Viola kitaibeliiana Roem. & Schultz. Viola odorata L.

1,2

ENDEMIC

  

BERN

3

IUCN  IUCN  4 RDB RDB 

THREATENED 

YILDIZ  MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE 

  

5

USES   

New  New  New  New  Thracian  App.  record  record  record  species  species  2000 (NEW) Global  European National    for  1   for  for   for  in  Yildiz  European  Turkey science Turkey  NY

NY

BERN

VU

VU

European NY

NY feed NY

NY NY DD

national

TS NY NY NY feed

NY

NY n/l

FAMILY 

  

GENUS, SPECIES, AUTHORITY ETC 

  

1,2

ENDEMIC

  

BERN

3

IUCN  IUCN  4 RDB RDB 

THREATENED 

YILDIZ  MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE 

  

5

USES   

New  New  New  New  Thracian  App.  record  record  record  species  species  2000 (NEW) Global  European National    for  1   for  for   for  in  Yildiz  European  Turkey science Turkey 

VIOLACEAE Viola parvula Tineo VIOLACEAE Viola sieheana Becker VIOLACEAE Viola tricolor L. LORANTHACEAE Viscum album L. subsp. album VERBENACEAE Vitex agnus-castus L. VITACEAE Vitis sylvestris Gmelin GRAMINEAE Vulpia bromoides (L.) Gray NY GRAMINEAE Vulpia ciliata Dumort subsp. ciliata COMPOSITAE Xanthium spinosum L. COMPOSITAE Xanthium strumarium L. COMPOSITAE Xeranthemum annuum L. COMPOSITAE Xeranthemum cylindraceum Sm. LABIATAE Ziziphora capitata L. 1 Davıs, P. H. (ed.) (1965-1988). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands, Vol. 1-10, University Press, Edinburgh. 2 Güner, A., Özhatay N., Ekim T. Et Başer H.S. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands, vol. 11, Edinburgh Univ. Press. Edinburgh. 3 Bern Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (1996). 4 Ekim, T., Koyuncu, M., Vural, M., Aytaç, Z. Adıgüzel, N. (2000). Türkiye Bitkileri Kırmızı Kitabı, Türkiye Tabiatını Koruma Derneği ve Van 100. Yıl Üniv. Yayını, Ankara. 5 Kültür, Ş. (2007). Medicinal plants used in Kirklareli Province (Turkey), Journal of Ethnopharmacology 111(2): 341-364.

M: ih

 

LIST OF 8 TAXA OCCURRING OUTSIDE THE PROPOSED BOUNDARY OF YILDIZ MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE FAMILY 

GENUS, SPECIES, AUTHORITY ETC 

ENDEMIC

  

  

  

UMBELLIFERAE EUPHORBIACEAE COMPOSITAE CISTACEAE LEGUMINOSAE ORCHIDACEAE ILLECEBRACEAE COMPOSITAE

Bupleurum flavum Forssk. Euphorbia barrelieri Savi var. thessala (Form.) K. Maly Carduus nutans L. subsp. Falcatoincurvus P.H. Davis Helianthemum nummularium (L.) Miller subsp. nummularium Onobrychis oxydonta Boiss. Ophrys apifera Hudson Paronychia cephalotes (Bieb.) Bess. Scorzonera cana (C.A. Meyer) Hoffm. var. cana

BERN  IUCN  IUCN 

YILDIZ MOUTAINS BIOSPHERE     USES  New  New  New  New  Thracian  record  record  record  species  species  App. 1  2000 (NEW)  Global  European National    for  for  for   for  in  Yildiz  European  Turkey science Turkey  NY VU NT national TS THREATENED 

NY NY NET NY

i

1. İĞNEADA A1 (E) Kırklareli / Demirköy

Coordinates: : 41°51’N 27°57’E NG 8133 Size: 5757 ha Altitude: s.l.-100 m

Characteristic vegetation and habitat: Floodplain forests (longos), thermophilous forests, fern and swamp, fresh water and brackish lakes, sand-dunes, calcareous petlands. Taxa number: 472 Endemic taxa: 4

CRITICAL

Present Conservation status: National Park Permanent Wildlife Reserv Area Strict Reserv Area, Natural Heritage Area Important Bird Area Important Plant Area Sites meet hot spot criteria : Global Conservation concern species: Centaurea kilaea, Peucedanum obtusifolium, Silene sangaria, Verbascum degenii European Conservation concern taxa: Aurinia uechtritziana, Cylamen coum var. coum, Salvinia natans, Trapa natans Nationally Rare and endangered taxa: Centaurea arenaria, Ferulago confusa, Leucojum aestivum, Logfia minima, Jurinea kilaea, Secale sylvestre, Trifolium bocconei, Pancratium maritimum Endangered natural habitats: 16.2113, 6.2124, 16.22B11, 22.415, 44.4322, 22.412, 41.47, 41. 7371, 41.76A1, 41.76A11, 41.76A12, 41. 76A4

SUMMARY İğneada Hot Spot (HS), which is located on the Black Sea Coast, is 12 km south of the Bulgarian border (Fig. 1). HS, including many different ecosystems, exhibits a rich diversity. Some of these ecosystems are floodplain forests, named also “longoz”, thermophilous forests, different types of swamps, lakes and sand-dunes, appearing not only near by the sea but also by rivers. Each of these ecosystems with specific plant diversity supplies extra contributions to the rich vegetation structure of the region. HS hosts 11 relic species at country level, one of which, Centaurea arenaria, is only registered from this region. Additionally, 6 species (Aurinia uechtritziana, Cyclamen coum, Salvinia natans, Silene sangaria, Trapa natans and Verbascum degenii), listed in appendix 1 of the Bern Convention, are distributed in İğneada province. In ecological terms, the floodplain forests are highly variable resulting in a rich floristic structure. These forests are mainly formed by Fraxinus angustifolia, Alnus glutinosa, Quercus robur, Carpinus betulus, Ulmus minor, Ulmus laevis and Acer trautwetteri. Floodplain forests in the region, which are specific for the vegetation of south-eastern Europe, are a typical example of this kind of forest in Turkey. In addition, sand-dune vegetation and its interesting flora, containing species subjected to the protection with international conventions, are the important components of biological richness in the region. The total area of HS was announced as National Park in 2008. However, the north-west highway, which is under development and will reach the Bulgarian Border, is potentially a threat for the diversity of the sand-dunes. Watershed management activities supplying water to İstanbul also threaten the floodplain forests and other wetlands in the region. Additionally, HS comes across local threats such as construction of summer houses, sand removal, intensive and irregular grazing and increasing touristic activities. SITE DESCRIPTION İğneada Hot Spot (HS), situated 12 km south of the Bulgarian border, has a rich ecosystem diversity with a mosaic of floodplain forests, thermophilous forests, sand-dunes, lakes and swamps. All of these ecosystems combine together in a very narrow distribution area, covering an area of nearly 5000 hectares. Many different vegetation types were developed as a result of the barrier effect of sand-dunes in front of the rivers, coming from the Yıldız (Stranca) Mountains in İğneada province (HS), one of the important plant areas. Specific vegetation is formed on the sand-dune. Behind this, floodplain forests including different plant communities, indicating the differences in ecological conditions, thermophilous oak forests and wetlands (lakes and swamps), appear.

There are six lakes in the region called Saka, Mert, Erikli, Deniz, Hamam and Pedina. Three of them, Erikli, Mert and Deniz, are seasonally connected with the Black Sea, making these lakes semi salty. The surrounding lakes are generally covered by swamps. Saka, Mert and Erikli lakes are associated with respective Saka Floodplain Forest, Mert Floodplain Forest and Erikli Floodplain Forest. The coverages of floodplain forests are as follows: Saka Floodplain Forest Mert Floodplain Forest Erikli Floodplain Forest TOTAL

Forest (ha) 767.17 485.2 379.5 1631.87

Lake (ha) 2.2 43.8 62.9 108,9

Swamp(ha) 38.6 244.9 75.2 58,7

Total (ha) 807.97 773.9 517.6 2099,47

Topography of floodplain forests is planar-kolin since the inclination is very low,.These places are formed by narrow river beds, seasonally carrying water in winter and spring. The increase of precipitation and water coming from the river to the floodplain forests especially in winter and spring, level of soil water and disconnection between lakes and sea cause seasonal and local floods in the floodplain forests. Thus, these forests are known as floodplain forest or longoze. The longoze term was firstly used by Stefanof in 1926 in his work relating to the vegetation of Western Thrace. The content of Longoze was clarified by further detailed studies. Riverine forests formed by Fraxinus angustifolia, Alnus glutinosa, Carpinus betulus, Acer campestre, Ulmus minor, Ulmus laevis, Quercus robur and charecterised with the great amount of woody and herb lians, are named longozes. The longitute and deepness of sand-dune are nearly 14 km and 200 m respectively. Sand-dune vegetation with the embrionic and stable parts except the sections in the city centre are generally well protected. However, the meadows behind the sand-dunes have intense degradation as a result of irregular grazing. Main rivers in the region are Bulanık river, Arnavut river, Derin Geçit river, Turla Geçidi river and Mavçora river. The most important one of these is Bulanık river, which lies on the northern border of Saka floodplain forest and flows to the sea. Another river, Arnavut river, shapes the southern border of Saka floodplain forest and reaches Saka lake. Deringeçit and Tarla Geçidi rivers lie in the Mert floodplain forests and finish in the swamp. Mavçora river, the most northern one in the HS, goes into Erikli Longoze by reaching the swamp. According to the Thornwaite Climate System, İğneada region has an oecanic semihumid climate with water deficiency in summer. Geologically it reflects the holosen structure.

FLORA and VEGETATION Sand-dune vegetation, which is an important component of the biological and ecological richness in the region, contains many relict plants, which are endemic for NW Turkey and Bulgaria. Some of these species are Aurinia uechtritziana, Centaurea arenaria, C kilaea, Jurinea kilaea, Pancratium matirimum, Peucedanum obtusifolium, Stachys maritima, Silene sangaria and S. dichotoma subsp. euxina. Vegetation structure of sand-dune shows big differences between sea side and hinterland, by the differences in ecological conditions. Dominant species of sand dune at the closest part to the sea are Amophilla arenaria, Leymus racemosus, Eryngium maritimum, Otanthus maritimus, Medicago marina, Stachys annua, Calytegia soldanella and Euphorbia paralias. Other species accompanying with these are Centaurea kilaea, Cionura erecta, Maresia nana, Silene dichotoma, Silene sangaria, Hypochaeris radicata, Secale sylvestre and Lolium rigidum. While this part of sand-dune has mobile structure, more stabilised conditions appear behind this. Vegetation is charecterised mainly by Cionura erecta and Medicago rigidula on these parts of sand-dune.The farthest part of sand-dune from the sea is dominated by the species charecterising meadow more than sand-dune vegetation. Main species of these places are Cynodon dactylon, Eryngium campestre, Vulpia cliata, Trifolium campestre, Poa bulbosa, Petrorhagia velutina, Parentucelia latifolia, Leontodon tuberosus and Arenaria serphyllifolia. Some patch shrublands add extra value to the richness of the region with Paliurus spina-christii, Phillyrea latifolia, Ligustrum vulgar, Crateagus monogyna, Clematis viticella, Cornus mas, Hedera helix, Ulmus minör, Periploca graeca and Vitis sylvestris, appearing at the transition zone between sand-dune and forests. Floodplain forest, an important component of biological and ecological wealth in the region also shows a plentiful structural richness with the height of 30-40 m, a multi layer structure and large and small gaps at canopy closure. Different forest types occur in the floodplain forests by depending on ecological differences. Important ecological factors in Floodplain forests are the apperance of soil water and stable water in soil related with flood regime. Small changes at microtopography effect the soil water and stable water level which cause local differences at floristic composition of floodplain forests (Fig. 2). There are three different forest types characterising hygrophile and mesophile conditions in floodplain forests. Alnus glutinosa, Fraxinus angustifolia and Ulmus leavis are dominant at the most hygrophile part of forests which water stabily covers the ground for a long time of year. Leujocum aestivum, a vulnerable species, is characteristic and diagnostic for this type of forest. Alnus appear in the most humid parts of the forest and its occurence is decreased with the derease of soil humidity. So the increased quantity of Fraxinus makes it the dominant tree instead of Alnus. The less hygrophile forest is formed with the intense accompany of U. leavis, Juglans regia, Acer campestre, Quercus robur and Acer trautwetteri. Carpinus betulus takes place at more mesophile conditions in floodplain forests and with the dryness of soil, the quantity of Carpinus and Q. robur increase and local dominance. In these places, U. minör js associated as an accompanying tree species in th esub-canopy layer. As the stand structure is observed in detail, the evidence of cutting in the past can easily be seen. As a result of these cuttings, quantity of Oak and Fraxinus having high quality stems were decreased and the quantity of Carpinus was increased. In actual fact, the dominancy of Carpinus in floodplain forest mostly resulted from these activities. In addition to the tree species richness, floodplain forests also exhibit rich herb and scrub species diversity. In particular, the gaps at the canopy closure are formed by Coryllus avellana, Cornus mas, C. sanguinea and Rubus species. These species are also charecteristic for lians which are an important component of floodplain forests. Some of these lians are Hedera helix, Humulus lupulus, Similax excelsa and Clematis viticella with Periploca greace accompanying them. Floodplain forests in the region are surrounded by thermophile oak forests dominated by Quercus petraea, Quercus frainetto, Quercus cerris. Carpinus orientalis and Fraxinus ornus accompanied by local oak species. The height of these forests, managed as coppice in the past and subjected to the conversion works to high forests today, is about 15 m. Oak forests usually have single layer stand structures, but they show multi two layer structures where C. orientalis , a shady tolerate species, joins the stand mixture.This causes not only species richness but also structural diversity. Additionally, openings and gaps in these forests add extra value to the HS with their specific floristic composition and ecological conditions. Themophilous oak forests are divided by narrow rivers carrying water in winter. The forest by these rivers exhibit different floristic and ecologic conditions from thermophilous forests and enrich the diversity of the region. C. betulus is the dominant tree of this area having specific floristic composition. Tilia argentea gradually joins to the stand mixture. In these areas, Fagus orientalis, which is typical for mountain belt in Yıldız mountains, locally join in the stand mixture. Additionally, small patches of Populus tremula add extra value to the richness of this forest type. Swamp flora of HS is very important due to its specific Euro-Siberian wetland floristic composition, which is very rare for Turkey. Juncus maritimus and J. litoralis are dominant species on the transition between

swamps and sand-dune. The closest parts of swamps to the lakes are mainly covered by Typha angustifolia and Phragmites australis. These structures can also be seen at the lakes situated in the hinterland. Some of the species forming the lake flora and showing high quality of water are Salvinia natans, Euphorbia palustris, Trapa natans, Oenanthe aquatica, O. fistulosa, Utricularia australis, Spirodela polyrhiza, Cladium mariscus, Hydrocharis morsus-ranae, Najas marina, N. minor, Potamogeton nodosus, P. panormitanus, P. trichoides and P. crispus. Some sandy meadows occur near the river beds, especially at dry sites. The flora and vegetation of these places was well documented and studied and enriches the diversity of HS. A new species, Filago minima, for flora of Turkey and some rare Trifolium species (such as T. bocconei and T. glomeratum) can be seen in these places.

Photo 1. Longos Forests

Photo 4. Shrub vegetation on Sandy

Photo 2. Longos Forests

Photo 5. Lake side

Photo 3. Themophilous oak forests

Photo 6. Dunes vegetation

RARE SPECIES

GLOBALY CONSERVATİON CONCERN SPP. [TAXA] Centaurea kilaea [END, V], Peucedanum obtusifolium[END, V], Silene sangaria [END, E], Verbascum degenii [END, E] EUROPEAN CONSERVATION CONCERN SPP. [TAXA] Cyclamen coum var coum[LC], OTHER NATIONALLY RARE SPP. [ TAXA] Centaurea arenaria [R*], Ferulago confusa [VU], Jurinea kilaea [R], Leucojum aestivum [VU], Logfia minima [n/l], Pancratium maritimum [EN], Secale sylvestre [VU], Trifolium bocconei [K] CONSERVATION İğneada Present Conservation status National Park Permanent Wildlife Reserv Area Strict Reserv Area, Natural Heritage Area Important Bird Area Important Plant Area Bern Convention APPENDIX I species: Cyclamen coum var. coum. Bern Convention Threatened Habitats Resolution No. 4 (1996): 16.2113 Pontic Embryonic Dunes; 16.2124 Pontic White Dunes; 16.22B11 South-Western Pontic Fixed Dunes; 22.412 Frogbit Rafts; 22.415 Salvinia Covers; 41.47 Euxinian Ravine Forests; 41. 7371 Thracian White Oak-Oriental Hornbeam Woods; 41.76A1 Euxino-Thracian Quercus frainetto-Quercus cerris Forests; 41.76A12 Sub-Euxino Quercus frainetto-Quercus cerris Forests; 41. 76A4 Stranja Quercus petrea subsp. iberica Forests; 44.4322 Coastal Bulgarian Longos Forests

The list of the flowering plants and ferns of İğneada

Acer campestre L. subsp. campestre Acer trautvetteri Medw. Achillea crithmifolia Waldst. & Kit. Achillea millefolium L. Aegilops umbellulata Zhukovsky Aegopodium podagraria L. Aethusa cynapium L. Agrimonia eupatoria L. Agrostis stolonifera L. Aira elegantissima Schur Ajuga chamaepitys (L.) Schreber subsp. chia Ajuga laxmannii (L.) Bentham Ajuga reptans L. Alisma lanceolatum With. Alkanna tinctoria (L.) Tausch Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande Allium guttatum Steven subsp guttatum Allium paniculatum L. subsp paniculatum Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertner subsp. glutinosa Alopecurus creticus Trin. Alopecurus rendlei Eig Althaea officinalis L. Alyssum alyssoides (L.) L. Alyssum strigosum Banks & Sol. subsp. strigosum Ammophila arenaria (L.) Link Anagallis arvensis L. Anchusa azurea Miller var azurea Anchusa officinalis L. Anemone pavonina Lam. Anthemis auriculata Boiss. Anthemis cotula L. Anthemis tinctoria L. var. euxina (Boiss.) Grierson Anthemis tinctoria L. var. tinctoria Anthoxanthum odoratum L. Arctium minus (Hill)Bernh. Arenaria serpyllifolia L. Arum italicum Miller Asparagus acutifolius L. Asparagus tenuifolius Lam. Aster tripolium L. Aurinia uechtritziana (Bornm.) Cullen&Dulley Avena fatua L. Ballota nigra L. subsp. Anatolica P.H. Davis Bellis perennis L. Berula erecta (Hudson) Coville Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla var cymosus (Reichb.) Kit Tan & Oteng – Yeboah Brachypodium pinnatum (L.) P. Beauv. Brachypodium sylvaticum (Hudson) P. Beauv. Bromus hordeaceus L. subsp. hordeaceus Bromus tectorum L. Buglossoides arvensis (L.) Johnston Butomus umbellatus L. Cakile maritima Scop. Calamagrostis epigejos (L.) Roth, Calepina irregularis (Asso) Thel. Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull Calystegia silvatica (Kit.) Griseb

Anemone blanda

Anthemis tinctoria subsp. euxina

Centaurea arenaria

Butomus umbellatus

Calystegia soldanella (L.) R. Br. Campanula persicifolia L. Campanula sparsa Friv. Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. Capsella rubella Reuter Cardamine bulbifera (L.) Crantz. Cardamine hirsuta L. Cardamine uliginosa Bieb. Carduus pycnocephalus L.subsp. albidus (Bieb.) Kazmi Carex acuta L. Carex distans L. Carex divisa Hudson Carex divulsa Stokes Carex flacca Schreber subsp. serrulata (Biv.) Greuter Carex otrubae Podb. Carex remota L. Carex riparia Curtis Carex sylvatica Hudson subsp. sylvatica Carlina corymbosa L. Carpinus betulus L. Carpinus orientalis Miller Centaurea arenaria Bieb, ex Willd. Centaurea cuneifolia Sm. Centaurea depressa Bieb. Centaurea kilaea Boiss. Centaurea stenolepis Kerner Centaurium erythraea Rafn subsp. erythraea Cephalanthera damasonium (Miller) Druce Cephalanthera longifolia (L.) Fritsch Cerastium fontanum Baumg subsp. triviale (Link) Jalas Cerastium pumilum Curtis Ceratophyllum demersum L. Chaerophyllum byzantinum Boiss. Chaerophyllum temulum L. Chamaecytisus supinus (L.) Link Chelidonium majus L. Chenopodium album L. subsp. album var. album Chenopodium polyspermum L. Chondrilla juncea L. var. juncea Chrysopogon gryllus (L.) Trin. subsp. gryllus (L.) Trin. Cichorium intybus L. Cionura erecta (L.) Griseb. Circaea lutetiana L. Cirsium italicum (Savi) DC. Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. Cistus creticus L. Cladium mariscus, (L.) Pohl Clematis vitalba L. Clematis viticella L. Clinopodium vulgare L. Clypeola jonthlaspi L. Convolvulus arvensis L. Cornus mas L. Cornus sanguinea L.

Cornus mas (Kızılcık)

Crocus flavus

Crocus pulchellus

Eryngium maritimum

G. Ecevit Genç

Corydalis solida (L.) Swartz subsp. solida Corylus avellana L. var. avellana Crataegus monogyna Jacq. subsp. monogyna Crataegus pentagyna Crithmum maritimum L. Crocus flavus Weston subsp. flavus Crocus pulchellus Herbert Cruciata laevipes Opiz Cucubalus baccifer L. Cyclamen coum Miller var. coum Cynanchum acutum L. Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Cynosurus cristatus L. Cynosurus echinatus L. Cyperus capitatus Vandelli Cyperus longus L. Dactylis glomerata L. Daphne pontica L. Datura metel L. Daucus guttatus Sm. Deschampsia caespitosa (L.) P. Beauv. Dianthus armeria L. Dianthus calocephalus Boiss. Digitalis ferruginea L.subsp. ferruginea Dipsacus laciniatus L. Doronicum orientale Hoffm. Dorycnium graecum (L.) Ser. Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott Echium italicum L. Echium vulgare L. Eleocharis mitracarpa Steudel Epimedium pubigerum (Dc.) Mor. & Dec. Equisetum arvense L. Equisetum ramosissimum Desf. Erodium cicutarium (L.) L’Herit subsp. cicutarium Erophila verna (L.) Chevall subsp.verna Eryngium campestre L. var. campestre Eryngium maritimum L. Euonymus europaeus L. Eupatorium cannabinum L. Euphorbia amygdaloides L. Euphorbia helioscopia L. Euphorbia paralias L. Euphorbia peplis L. Euphorbia stricta L. Fagus orientalis Lipsky Ferula communis L. Ferulago confusa Velen. Festuca callieri (Hackelex St.-Yves) F. Markgraf subsp. callieri Festuca drymeja Mertens&Koch Festuca gigantea (L.) Vill. Festuca heterophylla Lam. Filago vulgaris Lam Fragaria vesca L. Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl subsp. oxycarpa (Bieb. Ex Willd.) Franco&Rocha Afonso Fraxinus ornus L. subsp. ornus

Euphorbia paralias

Geranium robertianum

Glaucium flavum

Hydrocharis morsus – ranae

Fritillaria pontica, Wahlenb. Gagea chrysantha (Jan) Schultes & Schultes Galanthus nivalis L. subsp nivalis Galega officinalis L. Galeobdolon luteum Hudson Galium aparine L. Galium debile Desf. Galium paschale Forsskal Galium verum L. subsp. verum Genista carinalis Gris. Genista tinctoria L. Geranium asphodeloides Burm. subsp. asphodeloides Geranium dissectum L. Geranium lucidum L. Geranium molle L. subsp. molle Geranium ratundifolium L. Geranium robertianum L. Geum urbanum L. Glaucium flavum Crantz Glechoma hederacea L. Hedera helix L. Helianthemum nummularium (L.) Miller subsp. nummularium Hieracium sabaudum L. Holcus lanatus L. Hordeum geniculatum All. Hordeum marinum Hudson Hordeum murinum L. Humulus lupulus L. Hydrocharis morsus – ranae L. Hylotelephium telephium (L.) H. Ohba Hypecoum imberbe Sibth. & Sm. Hypericum bithynicum Boiss. Hypericum perforatum L. Hypochoeris radicata L. Ilex colchica Poj. Inula britannica L. Inula salicina L. Iris pseudacorus L. Juglans regia L. Juncus bufonius L. Juncus compressus Jacq. Juncus effusus L. Juncus inflexus L. Juncus littoralis C. A. Meyer Juncus maritimus Lam Jurinea kilaea Azn. Kickxia elatine (L.) Dumort Lactuca saligna L. Lamium maculatum L. var maculatum Lapsana communis L. subsp. intermedia (Bieb.) Hayek Laser trilobum (L.) Borkh. Lathraea squamaria L. Lathyrus laxiflorus (Desf.) O. Kuntze subsp. laxiflorus Lathyrus niger (L.) Bernh. subsp. niger

Lemna minor

Lithospermum purpurocaeruleum

Lysimachia nummularia

Mespilus germanica

Lathyrus venetus (Miller) Wohlf. Lemna minor L. Leontodon tuberosus L. Lepidium campestre (L.) R. Br. Leucojum aestivum L. Leymus racemosus (Lam.) Tzvelev subsp. sabulosus Ligustrum vulgare L. Limodorum abortivum (L.) Swartz Limonium virgatum (Willd.) Fourr. Linaria genistifolia (L.) Miller subsp. genistifolia Linaria grandiflora (L.) Miller Linum bienne Miller Linum trigynum L. Listera ovata (L.) R. Br. Lithospermum purpurocaeruleum L. Lolium perenne L. Lolium rigidum Gaudin var. rottbollioides Heldr. Ex. Boiss. Lotus corniculatus L. var. tenuifolius L. Luzula forsteri (Sm.) DC. Luzula multiflora (Ehrh. Ex Retz) Lej. Lychnis coronaria (L.) Desr. Lysimachia nummularia Lysimachia punctata L. Lysimachia verticillaris Sprengel Lysimachia vulgaris L. Lythrum salicaria L. Malus sylvestris Miller subsp. orientalis (A.Uglitzkich) Browicz var orientalis Malva sylvestris L. Maresia nana (DC.) Batt. Mathiola fruticulosa (L.) Maire Mathiola incana (L.) R. Br. Matricaria chamomilla L Medicago marina L. Medicago minima (L.) Bart. var. minima Medicago orbicularis (L.) Bart. Medicago polymorpha L. var. vulgaris (Benth.)Shinner Medicago rigidula (L.) All. var. rigidula Melica uniflora Retz. Melilotus officinalis (L.) Desr. Melissa officinalis L. Mentha aquatica L. Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson Mentha pulegium L. Mercurialis pernennis L. Mespilus germanica L. Millium effusum L. Moehringia trinervia (L.) Clairv. Moenchia mantica (L.) Bertl. subsp. mantica Muscari neglectum Guss. Mycelis muralis (L.) Dum. Myosotis alpestris F. W. Schmidt subsp. alpestris Myosotis arvensis (L.) Hill subsp. arvensis Myosotis laxa Lehm. subsp. caespitosa (C.F.Schultz) Hyl. ex Nordh.

Nectaroscordum siculum

Otanthus maritimus

Quecus frainetto (Macar meşesi)

Quercus petraea (sapsız meşe)

Myriophyllum spicatum L. Myrrhoides nodosa (L.) Cannon Nectaroscordum siculum (Ucria) Lindl. Nymphae alba L. Oenanthe fistulosa L. Oenanthe pimpinelloides L. Oenanthe silaifolia Bieb. Ononis sinosa L. Orchis laxiflora Lam. Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare Ornithagalum sigmoideum Freyn&Sint Ornithagalum sphaerocarpum Kerner Ornithopus compressus L. Orobanche caryophyllaceae Smith Orobanche minör Sm. Otanthus maritimus (L.) Hoffmans. & Link Paliurus spina – christi Miller Pallenis spinosa (L.) Cass. Pancratium maritimum L Papaver lacerum Popov Papaver rhoeas L. Parentucellia latifolia (L.) Caruel subsp. latifolia Parietaria officinalis L. Periploca graeca L. var. graeca Petasites hybridus (L.) Gaertner Petrorhagia velutina (Guss. ) Ball & Heywood Phillyrea latifolia L. Phleum pratense L. Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel Physalis alkakengi L. Phytolacca americana L. Pilosella hoppeana subsp. pilisquama (NP.)Sell&West Pilosella piloselloides (Vill.) Sojak subsp. piloselloides Plantago coronopus l. subsp. coronopus Plantago lanceolata L. Plantago major L. subsp. major Plantago scabra Moench Platanthera bifolia (L.) L.C.M. Richard Poa annua L. Poa bulbosa L. Poa nemoralis L. Poa trivialis L. Polygala supina Schreb. Polygonatum hirtum (Bosc ex Poiret) Pursh Polygonum aviculare L. Polygonum hydropiper L. Polygonum lapathifolium L. Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf. Polystichum setiferum (Forsk.) Woynar Populus alba L. Populus tremula L. Potamogeton panormitanus Biv. Potamogeton pectinatus L. Potentilla recta L. Potentilla reptans L. Primula vulgaris Huds. subsp. sibthorpii

Quercus petraea

Ranunculus ficaria

Ranunculus repens

Ranunculus saniculifolius

(Hoffmanns.) W.W. Sm.&Forrest Prunella laciniata (L.) L. Prunella vulgaris L. Prunus x domestica L. Psoralea bituminosa L. Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn Puccinellia festuciformis (Host) Parl. Puccinellia intermedia (Schur) Janchen Pulicaria dysenterica (L.)Bernh. Pulmonaria obscura Dumort. Pyracantha coccinea Roemer Pyrus elaeagnifolia Palas subsp. elaeagnifolia Quercus cerris L. var. austriaca (Willd.) Loudon Quercus frainetto Ten. Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl. subsp. iberica Quercus robur L. subsp. robur Ranunculus constantinopolitanus (DC.) d’Urv. Ranunculus ficaria L. subsp.calthifolius Ranunculus neapolitanus Ten. Ranunculus ophioglossifolius Vill. Ranunculus repens L. Ranunculus saniculifolius Viv. Ranunculus sceleratus L. Ranunculus trichophyllus Chaix. Raphanus raphanistrum L. Rhododendron ponticum L. subsp. ponticum Rhus coriaria L. Romulea linaresii Parl. subsp. graeca Bég Rorippa sylvestre (L.) Bess. Rosa canina L. Rubus caesius L. Rubus canescens DC. var. glabratus (Gordon) Davis&Meikle Rubus hirtus Waldst. & Kit. Rumex acetosella L. Rumex conglomeratus Murray Rumex crispus L. Rumex obtusifolius L. Rumex pulcher L. Rumex tuberosus L. subsp. tuberosus Ruscus aculeatus L Ruscus hypoglossum L. Salix alba L. Salix caprea L. Salix cinerea L. Salvia forskahlei L. Salvia verbenaca L. Sambucus ebulus L. Sambucus nigra L. Sanguisorba minor Scop. subsp.muricata (Spach) Brig. Sanicula europaea L. Saponaria officinalis L. Scabiosa atropurpurea L. subsp. maritima (L.) Arc. Schoenoplectus lacustris (L.) Palla subsp. tabernaemontani (C.C. Gmelin) A.&D. Löve Scilla autumnalis L.

Rosa canina

Ruscus hypoglossum

Salvia forskahlei

Salvinia natans

Scilla bifolia L. Scirpoides holoschoenus (L.) Sojak Scirpus sylvaticus L. Scrophularia scapolii (Hoppe ex) Pers., var. scapolii Scutellaria albida L. subsp. albida Scutellaria galericulata L. Secale sylvestre Host Sedum acre L. Sedum caespitosum (Cav.) DC. Sedum pallidum Bieb. Senecio aquaticus Hill. subsp. erraticus (Bertol) Matthews Senecio vulgaris L. Serapias vomeraceae (Burm. Fil.)Briq. Sesleria alba Sm. Sherardia arvensis L. Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana Silene conica L. Silene dichotoma Ehrh. subsp. sibthorpiana (Reichb.) Rech. Silene gallica L. Silene italica (L.) Pers. Silene sangaria Coode & Cullen Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertner Sinapis arvensis L. Sisymbrium officinale (L.) Scop. Smilax excelsa L. Solanum dulcamara L. Solanum nigrum L. Sonchus asper (L.) Hill subsp. glauscens (Jordan) Ball, Sorbus domestica L. Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz var. orientalis (Schön.-Tem.) Gabr. Sparganium erectum L. subsp. neglectum (Beeby) K. Richter Stachys annua (L.) L. subsp. annua var. annua Stachys thirkei C. Koch Stellaria holostea L. Stellaria media (L.) Vill. Symphytum tuberosum L. subsp. nodosum (Schur) Soó Tamarix parviflora DC. Tamus communis L. subsp. communis Tanecetum corymbosum (L.) Schultz subsp. cinereum (Gris.) Hayek Tanecetum parthenium (L.) Schultz Teucrium chamaedrys L, subsp. chamaedrys Teucrium polium L. Thalictrum lucidum L. Thlaspi perfoliatum L. Tilia argentea Desf. ex. DC. Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link Trachomitum venetum (L.)Woodsoon Trachystemon orientalis (L.) G. Don. Trapa natans L. Trifolium campestre Schreb.

Saponaria officinalis

Scilla bifolia

Silybum marianum

Sorbus torminalis var. orientalis

Trifolium hirtum All. Trifolium hybridum L. var. hybridum Trifolium medium L. var. medium Trifolium micranthum Viv. Trifolium nigrescens Viv. subsp. petrisavii (Clem.) Holmboe Trifolium panonicum Jacq. subsp. elongatum (Willd.) Zoh. Trifolium patens Schreb. Trifolium pratense L. subsp. pratense Trifolium repens L. var. repens Trifolium resupinatum L. var. resupinatum Trifolium subterraneum L. Trifolium vesiculosum Savi var. rumelicum Gris. Trisetum flavescens (L.) P. Beauv. Typha angustifolia L. Typha domingensis Pers. Ulmus glabra Hudson Ulmus laevis Palas Ulmus minor Miller Urtica dioica L. Utricularia australis R. Br. Verbascum blattaria L. Verbascum bugulifolium Lam. Verbascum densiflorum Bertol. Verbascum sinuatum L. var. sinuatum Verbena officinalis L. Veronica chamaedrys L. Veronica montana L. Veronica officinalis L. Veronica serpyllifolia L. Vicia villosa Roth. subsp. villosa Vincetoxicum hirundinaria Medicus Viola alba Beser subsp. dehnhardtii (Ten.) Becker Viola kitaibeliana Roem.&Schult Viola sieheana Becker Viscum album L. subsp. album L. Vitis sylvestris Gmelin Vulpia ciliata Dumort subsp. ciliata Xanthium spinosum L. Xanthium strumarium L.

Orobanche minor

Teucrium polium

Thypa angustifolia

Circaea lutetiana

Davıs, P. H. (ed.) (1965-1988). Ekim, T., Koyuncu, M., Vural, M., Aytaç, Z. Adıgüzel, N. (2000). Güner, A., Özhatay N., Ekim T. Et Başer H.S. (eds.) (2000). Kavgacı, A. (2007). Kavgacı, A. (2007). Kavgacı, A., Özalp, G. and Özhatay, N., (2007). Özhatay, N., Byfield, A., Atay, S. (2003). Pamay, B. (1967). Seçmen, Ö. and Leblebici, E. (1997). Standards and Petitions Working Group. (2006). Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Stefanoff, B. (1921). Stefanoff, B. (1924). Stojanov, N. (1928). Sykora, K. V., Babalonas, D. and Papastergıadou, E. D. (2003). Turoğlu, H. (1997). Tzonev, R., Dımıtrov, M. and Roussakova, V. (2005).

A. KAVGACI

10. TEKKAYA A1 (E) Kırklareli / Demirköy

MODERATE

Coordinates: : 41°46’N 27°44’E, 41°45’N 27°47’E

Present Conservation status:

Size: 980 ha / 9,8 km2 Altitude:

No conservation status

Characteristic vegetation and habitat: Broad-leaved Deciduous Forests (Beech Forest, Mixed Linden Forests, Ash-Oak- Alder Forests)

Sites meet hot spot criteria :

Taxa number: 133 Endemic taxa: 1

Global Conservation concern species: Cirsium baytopae Davis et Parris European Conservation concern taxa: Cyclamen coum var. coum, Vaccinium arctostaphylos, Nationally Rare and endangered taxa: Acer pseudoplatanus, Anemone nemorosa, Geranium lanuginosum, Knautia drymeia, Lychnis viscaria Endangered natural habitats: 41.1E121; 41.1E122; 41.76A42; 41.H1111; 41.H1112

SUMMARY Tekkaya Hotspot is located in at heights reaching 700-800 meters. The forests are in the form of oriental beech and oak-beech in the field. The most important habitat for Tekkaya is Istranca Mountain- Rhodendron (ormangülü)-oriental beech forests. The rocky places in higher areas are very important because of plant diversity. Moreover, Calluna vulgaris brushwood takes a very significant place in the area. 133 taxa have been identified in the area. 2 of them, Cyclamen coum var. coum (siklamen) and Vaccinium arctostaphylos (ayıüzümü), are listed in the Bern Convention Appendix I. 2 taxa are considered as threatened species in European scale and 5 taxa are considered as threatened species in national scale. There is 1 endemic taxa in the field (Cirsium baytopae). The field also inhabits 5 threatened habitats listed on resolution No.4 (1996) Standing Committee of the Bern Convention, particularly deciduous broad-leafed forests: Istranca Mountains Vaccinium arctostaphylos – oriental beech forests; Istranca Mountains Rhodendron – oriental beech forests; Istranca Mountains Fagus orientalis-Quercus petraea subsp. iberica forests; Istranca Mountains beechcarpinus-lime forests; Istranca Mountains beech- Quercus petraea subsp. iberica forests. There is no conservation status in the region and there does not seem to be any threatened species in the area. SITE DESCRIPTION Tekkaya Hotspot is located in the highest parts of the south-western section of the Yıldız Mountains, very close to Mahya Mountain. The Hotspot is separated from Monopetra rocks by Panayır road. Sergen road sits to the south, Tekkaya stream to the north, and Panayır road to the west of the area. The area is made of metamorphic massif, which also constitutes the base of the Yıldız Mountains. The nucleuses of the metamorphic massif are composed of granite, gneiss and schist. Gneisses have rather different qualities in color and structure. In general, brown soil forests are regular in the field. Tekkaya has a very humid climate. The cool humid climate causes the regularity of beech forests. FLORA and VEGETATION In general, there are Fagus orientalis and Quercus petraea subsp. iberica (sapsız meşe) and Fagus orientalis-Rhodendron ponticum forests in the higher parts of the area. Furthermore, kızılağaç (Alnus glutinosa), Dişbudak (Fraxinus excelsior subsp. excelsior). Saplı meşe (Q. robur) and akçaağaç (Acer sp.) are regularly seen in the area, although they don’t constitute a forest. Also trees of Fındık (Corylus avellana), üvez (Sorbus torminalis) as well as species of bushes such as ağaç mülveri (Sambucus nigra) adi muşmula (Mespilus germanica), ahlat (Pyrus eleagnifolia subsp.eleagnifolia) yabani armut (Pyrus communis), alıç (Crataegus monogyna subsp. monogyna), kızılcık (Cornus mas), çakal eriği (Prunus spinosa) are regularly seen in the hotspot. Taflan (Laurocerasus officinalis) is also found in the field. The species of Acer pseudoplatanus, which is a rare species in national scale, appears inside beech of beech-carpinus forests, and in humid valleys with common ash trees. This species is found only in the higher parts of the Yıldız Mountains. Tekkaya is also a place that constitutes the south-eastern border for various species grown in Europe. (For instance: Lychnis viscaria.) There are 2 rare taxa in European scale. These are also listed in the Bern

Convention Appendix I: Cyclamen coum var. coum (siklamen) ve Vaccinium arctostaphylos (ayıüzümü). Also, there are 7 rare taxa in national scale: Acer pseudoplatanus, Anemone nemorosa, Geranium lanuginosum , Lychnis viscaria, Linum hirsutum subsp. byzantinum Knautia drymeia and Rosa agrestis. The Tekkaya Hotspot inhabits 5 habitats from the Bern Convention rare habitat list: 41.1E121 Stranja Bearbery tree-Oriental Beech Forests, 41.1E122 Stranja Rhodendron-Oriental Beech Forests, 41.76A42 Stranja Fagus orientalis- Quercus petraea subsp. iberica Forests, 41.H1111 Stranja Beech-Hornbeam-Lime Forests, 41.H1112 Stranja Beech- Quercus petraea subsp. iberica Forests. RARE SPECIES GLOBALY CONSERVATİON CONCERN SPP. [TAXA] Cirsium baytopae [VU] EUROPEAN CONSERVATION CONCERN SPP. [TAXA] Cylamen coum var. coum [LC], Vaccinium arctostophyllos [VU] OTHER NATIONALLY RARE SPP. [TAXA] Acer pseudoplatanus[VU], Anemone nemorosa[VU], Geranium lanuginosum [EN], Lychnis viscaria [VU], Knautia drymeia [VU]. CONSERVATION There are 2 taxa from the Bern Convention appendix list in the area: Cyclamen coum var. coum, Vaccinium arctostaphylos IPA 4 (Important Plant Area)- Istranca Mountains Bern Covention (Resolition No: 4, 1996) Threatened Habitats: 41.1E121 Istranca Dağları Vaccinium arctostaphylos -doğu kayın ormanları 41.1E122 Istranca Dağları Rhodendron-doğu kayın ormanları; 41.76A42 Istranca dağları Fagus orientalis-Quercus petraea subsp. iberica ormanları; 41.H1111 Istanca Dağları kayın-gürgen-ıhlamur ormanları; 41.H1112 Istanca Dağları kayın-Quercus petraea subsp. iberica ormanları THREATS and OTHER CONSERVATION ISSUES Recently, there has not been any threat in the Hotspot. Reforestation, excessive grazing and forest road constructions will cause possible threats in the future.

The list of the flowering plants and ferns of Tekkaya Acer campestre L. subsp. campestre Acer pseudoplatanus L. Achillea grandifolia Friv. Adiantum capillus-veneris L. Aegopodium podagraria L. Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande Anemone nemorosa L. (Photo 1) Anthemis tinctoria L. var. tinctoria Anthoxanthum odoratum L.

Photo 1 Anemone nemorosa (Kır lalesi)

Y. Yeşil

Anthriscus nemorosa (Bieb.) Sprengel Bellis perennis L. Calluna vulgaris ( L. ) Hull. (Photo 2) Campanula persicifolia L. Campanula rapunculus L. var. lambertiana (A. DC). Boiss. Cardamine bulbifera (L.) Crantz. (Photo 3) Cardamine hirsuta L. Carex pallescens L. var. pallescens Caucalis platycarpos L. Centaurea cuneifolia Sm.

Photo 2 Calluna vulgaris (Püren)

Y. Yeşil

Centaurium erythraea Rafn. subsp. erythraea Cerasteum holostea (Bieb.) Rupr. Cerastium illyricum Ard. subsp. comatum (Desv.) P.D.Sell et Whitehead Chamaecytisus austriacus(L.) Link Circaea lutetiana L. Cirsium baytopae Davis et Parris Cirsium vulgare (Savi.) Ten. Cornus mas L. Cyclamen coum Miller var. coum Dactylis glomerata L. subsp. hispanica (Roth) Nyman Daphne pontica L. Dianthus barbatus L. Digitalis ferruginea L. subsp. ferruginea Digitalis lanata Ehrh. Doronicum orientale Hoffm. (Photo 4)

Photo 3 Cardamine bulbifera

Y. Yeşil

Dorycnium graecum (L.) Ser. Dropteris filix-mas Epilobium montanum L. Erica arborea L. Erodium cicutarium (L.) L’Herit subsp. cicutarium Euonymus latifolius (L.) Miller subsp. latifolius Eupatarium cannabinum L. Fagus orientalis Lipsky

Photo 4 Doronicum orientale

Y. Yeşil

Fagus sylvatica L. Fragaria vesca L. Fraxinus excelsior L. subsp. excelsior Galeobdolon luteum Hudson subsp. montanum (Pers.) R. Mill Galium aparine L. Galium odoratum (L.) Scop. Geranium lanuginosum Lam. (Photo 5) Geranium lucidum L.

Photo 5 Geranium lanuginosum

Y. Yeşil

Geum urbanum L. Hedera helix L. Hypericum perforatum L. Ilex colchica Poj. Knautia degeni Borbas ex Formanek Knautia drymeia Heuffel Lamium garganicum L. subsp. laevigatum Arcangeli Lamium purpureum L. var. purpureum

Photo 6 Laurocerasus officinalis (Karayemiş)

Y. Yeşil

Lathyrus laxiflorus (Desf.) O.Kuntze subsp. laxiflorus Lathyrus sphaericus Retz. Laurocerasus officinalis Roemer (Photo 6) Linaria pelisseriana (L.) Miller (Photo 7) Linum hirsutum L. subsp. byzantinum Azn. (Photo 14) Lithospermum purpurocaeruleum L. Luzula sylvatica Hudson) Gaudin Lychnis viscaria L. Lysimachia punctata L. (Photo 13)

Photo 7 Linaria pelisseriana

Y. Yeşil

Lythrum salicaria L. Melica uniflora Retz. Mercurialis pernennis L. Mespilus germanica L. Milium effusum L. Moehringia trinervia (L.) Clairv. Mycelis muralis (L.) Dum. Myosotis arvensis (L.) Hill. subsp. arvensis Myosotis ramosissima Rochel ex Schultes subsp.

Photo 8 Polygonatum multiflorum (Mühürotu)

Y. Yeşil

ramosissima Ornithopus compresus L. Parentucellia latifolia (L.) Caruel subsp. latifolia Phyllitis scolopendrium (L.) Newm. Phytolacca americana L. Plantago major L. subsp. intermedia (Gilib.) Lange Poa bulbosa L. Poa nemoralis L. Polygonatum multiflorum (L.) All. (Photo 8)

Photo 9 Rhododendron ponticum ssp. ponticum (Komar) Y. Yeşil

Polygonum bistorta L. Populus tremula L. Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl. subsp. iberica (Steven ex Bieb.) Krassiln. Ranunculus brutius Ten. Ranunculus constantinopolitanus (DC.) d’Urv. Ranunculus ficaria L. subsp. ficariiformis Rauy. & Fouc. Ranunculus gracilis Clarke Ranunculus repens L. Rhododendron ponticum L. subsp. ponticum (Photo 9) Rosa agrestis Savi (Photo 10) Rosa canina L. Rubus canescens DC. var. canescens Borkh. Rubus sanctus Schreber Rumex acetosella L. Ruscus aculeatus L. subsp. angustifolius Boiss. Ruscus hypoglossum L.

Photo 10 Rosa agrestis (Yaban gülü)

E. Akalın

Salix caprea L. Salvia verticillata L. subsp. verticillata Sambucus ebulus L. Sambucus nigra L. Sanicula europaea L. (Davis) Scorzonera cretica Willd. Scrophularia scapolii (Hoppe ex) Pers., var. scapolii Senecio nemorensis L. subsp. nemorensis Silene compacta Fischer (Photo 11) Smyrnium perfoliatum L.

Photo 11 Silene compacta

Y. Yeşil

Solanum dulcamara L. Solanum nigrum L. Sorbus domestica L. Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz. var. torminalis Stellaria holostea L. Tamus communis L. subsp. communis Tanacetum balsamita L. subsp. balsamitoides (Schultz Bip.) Grierson Tilia cordata Miller

Photo 12 Veronica chamaedrys

Y. Yeşil

Torilis nodosa (L.) Gaertner Trachystemon orientalis (L.) G. Don. Tussilago farfara L. Umbilicus erectus DC. Umbilicus rupestris (Salisb.) Dandy Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. Verbascum blattaria L. Verbena officinalis L. Veronica beccabunga L. Veronica chamaedrys L. (Photo 12) Veronica filiformis J. E. Smith Vicia cracca L. subsp. stenophylla Vincetoxicum hirundinaria Medicus Viola sieheana Becker Viola tricolor L.

Photo 13 Lysimachia punctata

E. Akalın

Photo 14 Linum hirsutum ssp. byzantinum Azn. Akalın

E.

Başak, N. and Kıyıcı, S. (2004). Bern Convention (1996). Davıs, P. H. (ed.) (1965-1988). Dönmez, Y. (1968). Ekim, T., Koyuncu, M., Vural, M., Aytaç, Z. Adıgüzel, N. (2000). Güner, A., Özhatay N., Ekim T. Et Başer H.S. (eds.) (2000). Ketin, İ. (1983). Kurter, A. (1983). Kültür, Ş. (2007). Özhatay, N., Byfield, A., Atay, S. (2003). Standards and Petitions Working Group. (2006). Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Turoğlu, H. (1997). Webb, D. A. (1966). Yarcı, C. (1997). Yılmaz, G. and Dane, F. (2007).

E. AKALIN & Y. YEŞİL & S. DEMİRCİ

41°58’-41°59’N, 27°1’-28°34’E

11. DEREKÖY VICINITY A1 (E) Kırklareli

MODERATE

Size: 20,000 ha Altitude: 425-717 m

Present Conservation status: Very limited conservation status by way of a Beech Gene Protection Forest. A 2 km stretch benefits from being located within a first degree military zone to which access to forbidden. Characteristic vegetation and habitat: Beech, hornbeam and oak forests

Taxa number: 426 Endemic taxa: 4 IUCN globally threatened species: Circium baytopae [END, VU], Euphorbia amygdoloides var. robbiae [END, NT], Symphytum pseudobulbosum [END, CR] European conservation concern taxa: Cyclamen coum var. coum [LC], Verbascum purpureum [DD] (Bern Convention Appendix 1) Other nationally rare/threatened taxa: Acer pseudoplatanus [VU], Achillea clypeolata [VU], Allium moschatum [CR], Anthyllis vulneraria subsp. variegata [END, LC], Armeria cariensis var. rumelica [VU], Carex brizoides [VU], Cirsium candelabrum [CR], Dianthus pinifolius [VU], Digitalis grandiflora [CR], Digitalis viridiflora [NT], Erysimum diffusum [CR], Ferulago confusa [CR], Fragaria viridis [CR], Galium uligunosum [VU], Knautia drymeia [LC], Lilium martagon [VU], Ophrys oestrifera subsp. oestrifera [VU], Orchis papilionacea var. papilionacea [LC], Rorippa thracica [VU], Sideritis scardica subsp. scardica [VU], Trifolium bocconei [CR], Trifolium heldreichianum [VU], Trifolium latinum [CR], Veronica crinita [VU]

Threatened habitats (Bern Convention Resolution No. 4 1996): 22.351 Ponto-Pannonic Riverbank Dwarf Sedge Communities 24.2 River Gravel Banks 41.1E122 Stranja Rhododendron-Oriental Beech Forests 41.2C South-EasternEuropean Oak-Hornbeam Forests 41.76A Thracian Sub-Continental Thermophilous Oak Woods 41.H1111 Stranja Beech-Hornbeam-Lime Forests 41.H1112 Stranja Beech- Quercus petraea subsp. iberica Forests 41.H21 Thracian Oak-Hornbeam Forests

SUMMARY Dereköy hotspot extends 10 km in a south-east direction from the Turkish-Bulgarian border and is located in the higher parts of the Yıldız Mountains, the highest mountain chain of Thrace. This area is mostly covered with humid forest vegetation,mainly beech, oak and hornbeam forests. A total of 426 taxa were recorded in the vicinity of Dereköy, 34 of which are rare across the country. Two of these species (Circium baytopae and Symphytum pseudobulbosum) are globally threatened and two (Cyclamen coum var. coum and Verbascum purpureum) are listed as threatened in Appendix I of the Bern

Convention. The number of Turkish endemic plants is low (4 species) since the area is very close to the Bulgarian border. The area is biogeographically very important, forming the western boundary of the distribution of some Euxine flora elements in the Yıldız Mountains, and the southern boundary of various Balkan and MidEuropean distributions of plant taxa. Eight habitats are listed as threatened under under Resolution No. 4 (1996) of the Bern Convention, among which is the Euxine Fagus orientalis-Rhododendron ponticum forest community that is uncommon in Europe. The area lies within an Important Plant Area (Istranca Mountains) but none of it has any protected area status. There is a Beech Gene Protection Forest and some parts of the hotspot along the border with Bulgaria lie inside a first degree military zone, which effectively restricts access to members of the public and, thereby, provides an important conservation function. Key threats include excessive grazing in some localities, highway contruction and their maintenance, use of herbicides along road verges (habitat of certain threatened plant species) and invasion by exotic species deep within the forest. Also, the vegetation needs to recover from former less appropriate forestry practices throughout much of the hotspot. Three core areas of high floristic diversity and importance for habitats have been identified within this area, namely: Dereköy, Taşköprü and an area between Armağan and Karlık Hill. SITE DESCRIPTION The survey area, which lies within the boundaries of Kırklareli Central District and Demirköy Town, constitutes the north-western point of the proposed Yıldız Mountains Biosphere. It covers an area of approximately 20 km in length and 10 km in width, in parallel with the Bulgarian border. Dereköy, Kapaklı, Şükrüpaşa, Karadere, Armağan, Armutveren and Çukurpınar villages are located within the area. The hotspot is located in the highest part of the Yıldız Mountains, the various hills ranging between 717 m and 425 m. There are numerous valleys that include several rivers that, generally, do not become dry because of humid precipitation regimes. The most important ones are Mutlu River and Kocadere (Paspala) Stream. Bedrocks in area are predominantly marble, granite and a small amount of schist. Soils are acidic (pH 5.6-6.5), slightly calcareous (less than 2%), and brown podzolic in structure with a high ratio of organic matter (3-6%). In general, the climate is humid and oceanic, typical of this Black Sea region. Mean annual precipitation is 800-1200 mm, with 14% falling in summer, 27% in autumn, 35% in winter and 24% in spring. The prevailing wind is from the north (Black Sea), playing an important role in the development of moist forest 0 vegetation (i.e. humid beech forests).Mean annual temperature is 11-13 C, with a mean minimum of 0-3 0 0 C and mean maximum of 20-22 C. Hence, the regional climate is suited to the development of EuroSiberian floral elements. The area is predominantly covered with beech and oak forest. Some forest has been converted to agricultural land in the vicinity of settlements. In general, beech forests are extremely healthy and cover large areas. Oak is found growing in association with beech in some places and with hornbeam in others. Three important core areas have been identified on account of floristic richness and important habitat, each of which is briefly described below. 1. Dereköy: This core area lies in the higher parts of the Yıldız Mountains and comprises with mainly oak and hornbeam forests. A new species for Thracian Trifolium heldreichianum Hausskn.,and 10 rare/threatened plants exist in the area, namely Cyclamen coum var. coum (European), Acer pseudoplatanus (national), Armeria cariensis var. rumelica (national), Aster tripolium (national), Digitalis grandiflora (national), Digitalis viridiflora (national), Ferulago confusa (national), Knautia drymeia (national), Ophrys oestrifera subsp. oestrifera (national) and Teucrium lamiifolium subsp. lamiifolium (national). Five threatened habitats are present: 22.351 Ponto-Pannonic Riverbank Dwarf Sedge Communities, 24.2 River Gravel Banks, 41.2C South-EasternEuropean Oak-

Hornbeam Forests, 41.76A Thracian Sub-Continental Thermophilous Oak Woods, 41.H21 Thracian Oak-Hornbeam Forests. 2. Taşköprü: This core area is located along the Turkish-Bulgarian border in the highest mountain of Yıldız. It is mostly covered by beech and beech-oak forests. Notable taxa include three endemics, all globally threatened (Circium baytopae, Symphytum pseudobulbosum and Euphorbia amygdoloides var. robbiae), two new records for Turkey (Elatine triandra Schkuhr and Galium bulgaricum), three new records for Thrace (Epipactis pontica Taubenheim, Galium uliginosum L. and Trifolium incarnatum L. var. incarnatum), one European threatened taxon (Cyclamen coum var. coum) and 14 nationally threatened taxa (Digitalis viridiflora, Acer pseudoplatanus, Carex brizoides, Digitalis viridiflora, Doronicum orientale, Ferulago confusa, Fragaria viridis, Galinsoga parviflora, Galium uligunosum, Hypericum hirsutum, Knautia drymeia, Orchis papilionacea var. papilionacea, Rorippa thracica and Viola canina). Six threatened habitatsa are present: 22.351 Ponto-Pannonic Riverbank Dwarf Sedge Communities, 24.2 River Gravel Banks, 41.1E122 Stranja RhododendronOriental Beech Forests, 41.2C South-Eastern European Oak-Hornbeam Forests, 41.H1111 Stranja Beech-Hornbeam-Lime Forests and 41.H1112 Stranja Beech-Quercus petraea subsp. iberica Forests. 3. Armağan - Karlık Hill: This core lies south of Dereköy in the higher parts of Yıldız Mountain. Oak forests occur around Armağan, beech-oak-lime en route to Karlık Hill and open rocky areas at Karlık Hill. Notable flora include: three endemic taxa, of which Anthyllis vulneraria subsp. variegata is nationally threatened and a new record for Thrace, and Symphytum pseudobulbosum and Euphorbia amygdoloides var. robbiae which are both globally threatened; five new taxa for Thrace, Astragalus angustifolius C. Koch subsp. longidens Hub. -Mor. & Matthews, Lapsana communis L. subsp. pisidica (Boiss. & Heldr.) Rech., Trifolium incarnatum L. var. incarnatum, T. latinum Sebast. and T. heldreichianum (nationally threatened); one European threatened taxon: Cyclamen coum var. coum; and 14 nationally threatened taxa (Acer pseudoplatanus, Achillea clypeolata, Dianthus pinifolius, Erysimum diffusum, Ferulago confusa, Hypericum hirsutum, Knautia drymeia, Matthiola fruticulosa, Rorippa thracica, Sideritis scardica subsp. scardica, Teucrium scordium subsp. scordioides, Trifolium bocconei and Veronica crinita). Six threatened habitats are present in this core area: 22.351 Ponto-Pannonic Riverbank Dwarf Sedge Communities, 24.2 River Gravel Banks, 41.2C South-Eastern European Oak-Hornbeam Forests, 41.76A Thracian Sub-Continental Thermophilous Oak Woods, 41.H1111 Stranja Beech-Hornbeam-Lime Forests and 41.H21 Thracian Oak-Hornbeam Forests. FLORA and VEGETATION Surveys started in places outside the military zone during the months between May and July and extended to the entire area once permission had been obtained to enter this zone, ending in September. The majority of the area is covered with wonderful beech forests (Fagus orientalis) that cover the area from the northern parts of Armağan to the western border of Şükrüpaşa. These beech forests are common in hills at a height above 650 m and inside valleys between these hills. Exceeding 30 meters length in some places, beeches create natural communities that constitute 90% of the flora in the region. F. orientalis and Q. petraea forests dominate this region. Also, Rhododendron poncticum , Daphne pontica, Trachystemon orientalis, Euphorbia amygdaloides, Hypericum sp., Trifolium sp., Campanula sp. species and ferns cover areas beneath the forest canopy. In the north-west of the region, Cornus mas (cornelian cherry), Sorbus torminalis (whitebeam), Acer campestre (maple), Coryllus avellana (hazel), Mespulus germanica (medlar) and Prunus spinosa (sloe) occur in beech forests. These also continue all the way east, particularly in Armutveren basin, in parts. Quercus petraea, Carpinus betulus, Populus tremula are common associates in these parts, and Alnus glutinosa and Corylus avellana in riverine areas. Locally, Quercus hartwissiana, Tilia argentea, Acer platanoides and Acer pseudoplatanus may also be present. Furthermore, Ayrıca Crataegus monogyna, Cornus mas, Sorbus torminalis, Sorbus acuparia and Mespilus germanica may form a lower canopy tree layer. The flora of understory regularly consists of Rhododendron poncticum, Ilex colchica, Daphne pontica, Euphorbia amygdaloides and Trachystemon orientalis. The rest of the area is covered with sessile oak (Quercus petraea) and hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) forests. For instance, hornbeam forests,

which are as high-quality as beech forests, appear inside valleys and hillsides between Çukurpınar and Armutveren. Beech is also present in some places. There are many agricultural lands. Transition zones between agricultural lands and forests are covered with bushes and have rich plant diversity. In general, such agricultural lands are located inside the European-Siberian Euxine region. Characteristically, Fagus orientalis, Rhododendron ponticum, Acer campestre, Alnus glutinosa, Carpinus betulus, Carpinus orientalis, Corylus avellana, Mespilus germanica, Quercus hartwissiana, Q. petraea, Q. robur and Sorbus torminalis occur in these Euxine areas. Black Pine plantation is located between Dereköy and Bulgarian border. Also, a Beech Gene Protection Forest is found at the end of the region. THREATS AND OTHER CONSERVATION ISSUES Key threats and other issues relevant to Dereköy and its vicinity are as follows: ƒ

A number of agricultural activities, including animal husbandry and especially along stream sides are impacting the vegetation and flora. Similarly, some forestry activities and collection of forest products (makta) are unsustainable.

ƒ

The transporting of water from the Yıldız Mountains to Istanbul will potentially impact the Dereköy hotspot.

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Stone quarries near Kapaklı are also a serious threat to the area.

ƒ

Serious damage has occurred from highway construction activities between Dereköy and the Bulgarian border where, unfortunately, habitats of species such as Allium moschatum were destroyed. Furthermore, it is expected that the large highway project planned to connect Istanbul to Bulgaria will be a serious threat for beech forests, especially since the area has no conservation status. (Note: details of this project have not yet been determined.) It has also been observed that the verges of roads have been cut, as part of their maintenance and repair, and herbicide has been used to prevent weed growth along the waysides. Such herbicides also endanger species inhabiting the temporary ponds of the waysides. For instance, Verbascum purpureum (a European threatened species), Cirsium candelabrum (a nationally threatened species that is only known from this locality in the region) and Cardamine penzesii (a Balkan and north-western Black Sea endemic) occur in the verges along the Çukurpınar-Üsküp highway and such species are further threatened by herbicides. Thus, herbicides should not be used in this hotspot.

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The survey indicates that, in places where there is no settlement, exotics such as Robinia pseudoacacia and Galinsago parviflora have invaded streams deep inside the forest. The local flora is not able to compete with these invasive species, which quickly become established.

ƒ

The survey started in mid-May and later in the military zone. Thus, many plant species (including bulbs) that bloom in the early spring could not be identified. It is vital to extend to surveys to other seasons, especially along the international border with Bulgaria as this restricted area is a source of genetic diversity for threatened species in other parts of the Yıldız Mountains. Moreover, this study underlines the importance of the area and likelihood that new taxa await discovery.

List of flowering plants and ferns Acer campestre L. subsp. campestre Acer platanoides L. Acer pseudoplatanus L. Achillea clypeolata Sm. Achillea millefolium L. subsp. millefolium Achillea millefolium L. subsp. pannonica (Scheele) Hayek Achillea setacea Waldst. & Kit. Acinos arvensis (Lam.) Dandy Acinos rotundifolius Pers. Acinos suaveolens (Sm.) G. Don Aegilops triuncialis L. subsp. triuncialis Agrimonia eupatoria L. Agrostis gigantea Roth Ajuga chamaepitys (L.) Schreber subsp. chia (Schreber) Arcangeli var. chia Ajuga genevensis L. Ajuga laxmannii (L.) Bentham Alcea pallida Waldst et Kit. (Foto 1) Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara et Grande Allium paniculatum L. subsp. fuscum (Waldst. & Kit.) Arc. (Foto 2) Allium scorodoprasum L. subsp. rotundum (L.) Alcea pallida Waldst et Kit. Stearn Allium scorodoprasum L. subsp. scorodoprasum Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertner subsp. glutinosa Alyssum murale Waldst. et Kit. subsp. murale Alyssum stribrnyi Vel. Anacamptis pyramidalis (L.) L.C.M. Richard (Foto 3) Anagallis arvensis L. var. arvensis Anchusa leptophylla Roemer & Schultes subsp. incana (Ledeb.) Chamb. Anemone pavonina Lam. Anthemis tinctoria L. var. pallida D.C. Anthoxanthum odoratum L. Anthriscus nemorosa (Bieb.) Sprengel Anthyllis vulneraria L. subsp. variegata (Boiss.)Beg. Allium paniculatum L. subsp. fuscum (Waldst. & Kit.) & Diratz. Arc. Arabis sagitata (Bertol.) DC. Arabis turrita L. Arctium minus (Hill.) Bernh. subsp. minus (Foto 4) Aremonia agrimonoides (L.) DC. Armeria cariensis Boiss. var. rumelica (Boiss.) Boiss. Asperula tenella Heuffel ex Degen Asplenium adiantum-nigrum L. Asplenium ruta-muraria L. subsp. ruta-muraria Asplenium trichomanes L. Aster tripolium L. Astragalus angustifolius C. Koch subsp. longidens

Hub. -Mor. & Matthews Asyneuma limonifolium (L.) Jachen subsp. limonifolium Athyrium filix-foemina (L.) Roth Atropa belladonna L. (Foto 5) Barbarea vulgaris R.Br. in Aiton Bellardia trixago (L.) All. Bellis perennis L. Briza media L. Bromus hordeaceus L. subsp. hordeaceus Bromus hordeaceus subsp. molliformis (Lloyd) Maire & Weiller Bromus japonicus Thunb. subsp. japonicas Bromus sterilis L. Calamagrostis epigejos (L.) Roth. Calamintha grandiflora (L.) Moench. Meth Calamintha sylvatica Bromf. subsp. ascendens (Jordan) P.W.Ball Calepina irregularis (Asso) Thellung Calystegia sylvatica (Kit.) Griseb. Campanula lingulata Waldst. & Kit. Campanula macrostachya Waldst. & Kit. Campanula persicifolia L. (Foto 6) Anacamptis pyramidalis (L.) L.C.M. Richard Campanula rapunculus L. var. lambertiana (A. DC). Boiss. Campanula trachelium L. subsp. athoa (Boiss. & Heldr.) Hayek Cardamine bulbifera (L.) Crantz. (Foto 7) Cardamine hirsuta L. Carduus acanthoides L. Carduus nutans L. subsp. leiophyllus (Petr.) Stoj. et Stef. Carex birizoides L. Carex pendula Hudson Carpinus betulus L. Carpinus orientalis Miller subsp. orientalis Carthamus lanatus L. Centaurea salonitana Vis. Centaurea solstitialis L. subsp.solstitialis Arctium minus (Hill.) Bernh. subsp. minus Centaurium erythraea Rafn subsp. rumelicum (Velen.) Melderis Centaurium erythraea Rafn. subsp. erythraea Cephalanthera damasonium (Miller) Druce Cephalanthera longifolia (L.) Fritsch Cephalanthera rubra (L.) L.C.M. Richard Cerastium brachypetalum Pers. subsp. roeseri (Boiss. et Heldr.) Nyman Cerastium glomeratum Thuill. Cerinthe minor subsp. auriculata (Ten.) Domac Ceterach officinarum DC. Chaerophyllum byzantinum Boiss. Chamaecytisus pygmaeus (Willd.) Rothm. Chelidonium majus L.

Cicer montbretii Jaub. & Spach Cichorium intybus L. Circaea lutetiana L. Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. subsp. arvense Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. subsp. vestitum (Wimmer & Grab.) Petrak Cirsium baytopae Davis & Parris Cirsium candelabrum Griseb. (Foto 8) Cirsium creticum (Lam.) d'Urv. subsp. creticum Cirsium vulgare (Savi.) Ten. Clematis vitalba L. Clinopodium vulgare L. subsp. arundanum (Boiss.) Nyman Clinopodium vulgare L. subsp. vulgare Convolvulus arvensis L. Convolvulus cantabrica L. Cornus mas L. Coronilla scorpioides (L.) Koch Coronilla varia L. var. varia Corydalis solida (L.) Swartz subsp. solida Coryllus avellana L. var. avellana Crataegus monogyna Jacq. subsp. monogyna Crepis foetida L. subsp. commutata (Spreng.) Babcock Crepis zacintha (L.) Babcock Crocus flavus Weston subsp. flavus Crocus pulchellus Herbert Cruciata leavipes Opiz. Cynosurus cristatus L. . var. purpurescens Piori & Paol. Dactylis glomerata L. subsp. glomerata Dactylis glomerata L. subsp. hispanica (Roth) Nyman Dactylis glomerata L.subsp. lobata (Drej.) Lindb. Dactylorhiza saccifera (Brongn.) Soó Daphne pontica L. Daucus carota L. Dianthus armeria L. subsp. armeriastrum (Wolfn.) Velen. Dianthus giganteus d’Urv. Dianthus leptopetalus Willd. Dianthus pinifolius Sibth. et Sm. Dictamnus albus L. Digitalis ferruginea L. subsp. ferruginea (Foto 9) Digitalis grandiflora Miller Digitalis lanata Ehrh. Digitalis viridiflora Lindley Dipsacus laciniatus L. Doronicum orientale Hoffm. Dorycnium graecum (L.) Ser. Dorycnium pentaphyllum Scop. subsp. herbaceum (Vill.) Rouy. Echium vulgare L.

Atropa belladonna L.

Campanula persicifolia L.

Cardamine bulbifera (L.) Crantz.

Elatine triandra Schkuhr (Foto 10) elegantissima Schur subsp. ambigua (Arc.) M. Doğan Epilobium hirsutum L. Epilobium lanceolatum Seb. et Mauri Epilobium montanum L. (Foto11) Epilobium parviflorum Schreber Epilobium roseum Schreber subsp. roseum Epilobium tetragonum L. subsp. tetragonum Epipactis helloborine (L.) Crantz Epipactis microphylla (Ehrh.) Sw. Epipactis pontica Taubenheim Equisetum arvense L. Erodium cicutarium (L.) L’Herit subsp. cicutarium Erysimum cuspidatum (Bieb.) DC. Erysimum diffusum Ehrh. Euonymus europaeus L. Euonymus latifolius (L.) Miller subsp. latifolius Eupatorium cannabium L. (Foto 12) Euphorbia amygdaloides L. var. amygdaloides Euphorbia myrsinites L. Euphorbia nicaeensis All. subsp. glareosa (Pallas ex Bieb.) A. Radcliffe-Smith var. lasiocarpa Boiss. Euphorbia seguieriana Necker subsp. niciciana (Borbas ex Novak) Rech.fil. Euphorbia sequieriana Necker subsp. sequieriana Euphorbia stricta L. Fagus orientalis Lipsky Ferulago confusa Velen. Festuca drymeja Mertens & Koch Festuca valesiaca Schleicher ex Gaudin Fragaria vesca L. Fragaria viridis L. Fraxinus ornus L. subsp. ornus Fritillaria pontica Wahlenb. Galanthus nivalis L. Galinsoga parviflora Cav. Galium album Miller subsp. pycnotrichum (H. Braun.) Krendl. Galium aparine L. Galium bulgaricum Velen. ? Galium odoratum (L.) Scop. (Foto 13) Galium uliginosum L. Galium verum L. subsp. verum Genista carinalis Gris. Genista tinctoria L. Geranium asphodeloides Burm. fil. subsp. asphodeloides Geranium columbinum L. Geranium lucidum L. Geranium purpureum Vill. Geranium pyrenaicum Burm. f. Geranium robertianum L.

Cirsium candelabrum Griseb.

Digitalis ferruginea L. subsp. ferruginea

Elatine triandra Schkuhr

Geranium sanguineum L. Geum urbanum L. Hedera helix L. Helianthemum nummularium (L.) Miller subsp. nummularium Heracleum sphondylium L. subsp. ternatum (Velen.) Brummitt Herniaria incana Lam. Hesperis matronalis L. var. matronalis Holcus lanatus L. Hordeum geniculatum All. Hordeum murinum L. subsp. glaucum (Steud.) Tzvelev Hypericum hirsutum L. Hypericum perfoliatum L. (Foto 14) Epilobium montanum L. Hypericum perforatum L. Hypericum rumeliacum Boiss. (Foto 15) Hypericum tetrapterum Fr. Ilex colchica Poj. Inula germanica L. Inula oculus-christi L. Inula salicina L. Iris sintenisii Janca. (Foto 16) Jasione heldreichii Boiss. & Orph. subsp. heldreichii Jurinea mollis (L.) Reichb. Kickxia elatine (L.) Dumort subsp. crinita Knautia degenii Sorbas ex Formanek Knautia drymeia Heuffel Knautia integrifolia (L.) Bert. var. bidens (Sm.) Borbas (Foto 17) Eupatorium cannabium L. Lamium galeobdolon (L.) L. Lamium garganicum L. subsp. laevigatum Arcangeli Lamium maculatum L. var. maculatum Lamium purpureum L. var. purpureum Lapsana communis L. subsp. alpina (Boiss. & Balansa) P.D.Sell Lapsana communis L. subsp. intermedia (Bieb.) Hayek Lapsana communis L. subsp. pisidica (Boiss. & Heldr.) Rech. Lathraea squamaria L. Lathyrus hirsutus L. Lathyrus laxiflorus (Desf.) O. Kuntze subsp. laxiflorus Lathyrus niger (L.) Bernh. subsp. niger Lathyrus nissolia L. Galium odoratum (L.) Scop Lilium martagon L. (Foto 18) Limodorum abortivum (L.) Swartz Linaria genistifolia (L.) Miller subsp. genistifolia Linum corymbulosum Reichb. Linum tenuifolium L. Linum trigynum L. Lonicera etrusca Santi var. etrusca

Lotus corniculatus L. var. tenuifolius Luzula forsteri (Sm.) DC. Luzula multiflora (Ehrh. ex Retz) Lej. Lychnis coronaria (L.) Desr. (Foto 19) Lychnis viscaria L. Lysimachia atropurpurea L. Lysimachia nummularia L. Lysimachia puctata L. Lysimachia verticillaris Sprengel Matricaria chamomilla L. var. recutita (L.) Grierson Matthiola fruticulosa (L.) Maire Medicago arabica (L.) Huds. Medicago lupulina L. Medicago minima (L.) Bart. var. minima Melica uniflora Retz. Melilotus alba Desr. Melissa officinalis L. subsp. officinalis Mercurialis pernennis L. Mespilus germanica L. Misopates orontium (L.) Raf. Moehringia trinervia (L.) Clairv. Moenchia mantica (L.) Bartl. subsp. mantica Mycelis muralis (L.) Dum. Myosotis arvensis (L.) Hill subsp. arvensis Myrrhoides nodosa (L.) Cannon Neottia nidus-avis (L.) L.C.M. Rrichard Nigella arvensis L. var. involucrata Boiss. Oenanthe silaifolia Bieb. Onobrychis gracilis Besser Ononis arvensis L. Onopordum tauricum Willd. Onosma thracicum Velen. Ophrys mammosa Desf. Ophrys oestrifera Bieb. subsp. oestrifera (Foto 20) Orchis coriophora L. Orchis laxiflora Lam. Orchis morio L. subsp. morio Orchis morio L. subsp. picta (Loisel.) K. Richter Orchis papilionacea x morio Orchis papilionaceae L. var. papilionaceae Orchis purpurea Huds. Orchis tridentata Scop. Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare Orlaya daucoides (L.) Greuter Orlaya grandiflora (L.) Hoffm. Ornithopus compresus L. Orobanche caryophyllacea Smith Orobanche cernua Loefl. Oryzopsis hymenoides (Roemer & J.A. Schultes) Ricker ex Piper Paeonia peregrina Miller (Foto 21) Paronychia cephalotes (Bieb.) Besser var. minutiflora Chaudhri

Hypericum perfoliatum L.

Hypericum rumeliacum Boiss.

Iris sintenisii Janca.

Petrorhagia prolifera (L.) Ball. et Heywood Petrorhagia velutina (Guss.) Ball. & Heywood Physalis alkekengi L. Pilosella hoppeana (Schultes) C.H. & F W.Schultz subsp. troica (Zahn) Sell & West Pilosella x auriculoides (A. F. Lang) Sell & West Pisum sativum L. subsp. sativum var. arvense (L.) Poir. (Foto 22) Plantago lagopus L. Plantago lanceolata L. Platanthera chlorantha (Custer) Reichb. (Foto 23) Poa annua L. Poa bulbosa L. Poa infirma Kunth Poa pratensis L. Poa timeleontis Heldr. ex Boiss. Poa trivialis L. Polygala major Jacq. Polygala supina Schreb. Polygonatum hirtum (Bosc ex Poiret) Pursh Polygonatum multiflorum (L.) All. Polypodium vulgare L. subsp. vulgare Polystichum setiferum (Forsk.) Woynar Populus tremula L. Potentilla argentea L. Potentilla recta L. Potentilla reptans L. Prunella laciniata (L.) L. Prunella vulgaris L. Prunus x domestica L. Psoralea bituminosa L. Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn. Pulicaria dysenterica (L.) Bernh. Quercus cerris L. var. cerris Quercus hartwissiana Steven Quercus infectoria Olivier subsp. infectoria Quercus petrae (Mattuschka) Liebl. subsp. petrae Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl. subsp. iberica (Steven ex Bieb.) Krassiln. Ranunculus constantinopolitanus (DC.) d’Urv. Ranunculus neapolitanus Ten. Ranunculus repens L. Reseda lutea L. var. lutea Reseda luteola L. Rorippa thracica (Gris.) Fritsch Rosa canina L. Rosa gallica L. (Foto 24) Rubus canescens DC. var. canescens Borkh. Rubus idaeus L. Rubus sanctus Schreber Rumex acetosella L. Rumex conglomeratus Murray Rumex obtusifolius L. subsp. subalpinus

Knautia integrifolia (L.) Bert. var. bidens (Sm.) Borbas

Lilium martagon L.

Lychnis coronaria (L.) Desr.

Rumex pulcher L. Rumex tuberosus L. subsp. tuberosus Ruscus aculeatus L. var. angustifolius Boiss Ruscus hypoglossum L. Salix alba L. Salvia amplexicaulis Lam. Salvia forskahlei L. Salvia verticillata L. subsp. verticillata Salvia virgata Jacq. Sambucus ebulus L. Sambucus nigra L. Sanguisorba minor Scop. subsp. muricata (Spach) Briq. Sanicula europaea L. Saponaria officinalis L. (Foto 25) Scleranthus perennis L. subsp. dichotomus (Schur.) Stoj. et Stefanof Scrophularia canina L. subsp. bicolor (Sm.) Greuter Scrophularia nodosa L. Scrophularia scopolii (Hoppe ex) Pers. var. scopolii Scrophularia umbrosa Dum. Scutellaria albida L. subsp. albida Sedum acre L. Sedum ochroleucum Chaix. Sedum pallidum Bieb. var. bithynicum (Boiss.) Chamberlain Sherardia arvensis L. Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana Sideritis scardica Griseb. subsp. scardica Silene compacta Fischer (Foto 26) Silene dichotoma Ehrh. subsp. dichotoma Silene italica (L.) Pers. Silene viridiflora L. Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke var. commutata (Guss.) Coode & Cullen Smyrnium olusatrum L. Smyrnium perfoliatum L. Solanum dulcamara L. Sorbus aucuparia L. Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz. var. torminalis Stachys germanica L. subsp. bithynica (Boiss.) Bhattacharjee Stachys sylvatica L. Stellaria holostea L. Tanacetum corymbosum (L.) Schultz Bip. subsp. cinereum (Gris.) Hayek Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz. Bip. Teucrium chamaedrys L. subsp. chamaedrys Teucrium lamiifolium d'Urv. subsp. lamiifolium Teucrium montanum L. (Foto 27) Teucrium polium L. Teucrium scordium L. subsp. scordioides (Schreber) Maire & Petitmengin

Ophrys oestrifera Bieb. subsp. oestrifera

Paeonia peregrina Miller

Pisum sativum L. subsp. sativum var. arvense (L.) Poir.

Thalictrum lucidum L. Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis var. longicaulis Tilia argentea Desf. ex. DC. Tilia rubra DC. subsp. caucasica (Rupr.) V. Engler. (Foto 28) Trachystemon orientalis (L.) G. Don. Trifolium arvense L. var. arvense Trifolium bocconei Savi Trifolium campestre Schreb. Trifolium dubium Sibth. Trifolium heldreichianum Hausskn. Trifolium hirtum All. Trifolium hybridum L. var. hybridum Trifolium incarnatum L. var. incarnatum Trifolium latinum Sebast. Trifolium nigrescens Viv. subsp. nigrescens Trifolium ochroleucum Huds. Trifolium pratense L. subsp. pratense Trifolium repens L. var. repens Trifolium sebastiani Savi Trifolium strictum L. Trifolium vesiculosum Savi var. rumelicum Gris. Tripleospermum tenuifolium (Kit.) Freyn Tuberaria guttata (L.) Fourr. var. guttata Turgenia latifolia (L.) Hoffm. Tyrimnus leucographus (L.) Cass. Urtica dioica L. Valeriana officinalis L. Verbascum blattaria L. Verbascum phoeniceum L. Verbascum purpureum (Janka) Hub.-Mor. Verbascum xanthophoniceum Griseb. Verbena officinalis L. Veronica chamaedrys L. Veronica crinita Kit. ex Schultes Veronica cymbalaria Bodard Veronica officinalis L. Veronica serpyllifolia L. Vicia cassubica L. Vicia cracca L. Vicia cracca L. subsp. gerardii Gaudin Vicia grandiflora Scop. var. grandiflora Vicia hirsuta (L.) F. S. Gray Vicia pannonica Crantz var. pannonica Vicia sativa L. subsp. sativa var. segetalis (Thuill.) Ser. ex DC. Vicia tetrasperma (L.) Moench Vicia villosa Roth subsp. dasycarpa (Ten.) Cav. Vicia villosa Roth subsp. villosa Vincetoxicum hirundinaria Medicus Viola arvensis Murray Viola canina L.

Platanthera chlorantha (Custer) Reichb.

Rosa gallica L.

Saponaria officinalis L

Viola tricolor L. (Foto 29) Vulpia bromoides (L.) Gray Xeranthemum cylindraceum Sm.

Silene compacta Fischer

Teucrium montanum L.

Tilia rubra DC. subsp. caucasica (Rupr.) V. Engler.

Viola tricolor L.

NECMETTIN GÜLER

12.KIYIKÖY COASTS A2 (E) Kırklareli / Vize

Coordinates: 413748 280555 Size: 6.3 ha / 63.000 m2 Altitude:s.l.-100 m

413730N 280613E

Characteristic vegetation and habitat: Sand dunes,cliffs near sea,coastal sandy habitats, moisture rocks Coastal maquis, cliff-top grasslands, rocks, sand dunes and reedbeds, beech-oak-hornbeam forest, Freshwater aquatic & swamp, sand dunes, Quercus coppice forest, maquis and heathland, calcareous grassland; s.l.-417 m. Taxa number: 152 Endemic taxa: 7

CRITICAL

Present Conservation status: No conservation status

Sites meet hot spot criteria : Global Conservation concern species: Asperula littoralis, Centaurea kileae, Cirsium baytopae, Erysimum sorgarae, Isatis arenaria, Silene sangaria, Verbascum degenii. European Conservation concern species: -Nationally rare and endangered species: Anthemis tinctoria subsp. euxina, Jurinea kileae, Leucojum aestivum, Mathiola fruticulosa, Saxifraga adscendens subsp. parnassica Endangered natural habitats:: 16.2113, 16.2124, 16.22B11

SUMMARY The Kıyıköy Coast hot spot is a composite site comprising three surviving fragments of sand dune, cliffs near sea, moisture rocks and fresh water flora. It is situated on the Black Sea coast between Panayır Deresi and Kasatura. The vegetation includes fine, albeit small, examples of rare dune vegetation types, and supports a flora rich in rare species. Despite its small size, the site still retains considerable botanical interest, notably as a fragment of highly localised, species-rich Black Sea sand dune vegetation, of a type restricted to north-west Turkey; its rich flora (with 16 local and nationally rare species, regarded as floristically the third richest site on Turkey’s Black Sea coastline); the occurrence of large populations of three Bern Convention Appendix I species (Asperula littoralis, Silene sangaria and Verbascum degenii); together with substantial populations of four additional Globally Threatened species (most notably Isatis arenaria and Erysimum sorgarae ) . The site is thus of exceptional importance as one of the richest sand dune systems and coastal vegetation along Yıldız Mountain Biosphere Area for plant diversity.

SITE DESCRIPTION The Kıyıköy Coasts HS comprises a block of sand dunes originally occupying an area approximately 2 km by 2 km, lying on the Black Sea coast of the village of Kıyıköy (Midye) .The dunes rise relatively rapidly to a height of 90 m (where they are blown up adjacent hills), and were bordered historically by Erica manipuliflora dry heath, Arbutus unedo-Erica arborea tall heath, Quercus-dominated coppice forests, and agricultural grazing lands. A considerable proportion of these adjacent vegetation types have been destroyed or grossly altered in the past few decades.

FLORA and VEGETATION The FOREDUNE VEGETATION is characterised by two communities: the Leymus racemosus ssp. sabulosus-Elymus farctus foredune community and the Otanthus maritimus-Leymus racemosus ssp. sabulosus foredune community. The handsome, but declining Pancratium maritimum is abundant within this zone of the site, whilst the rare Jurinea kilaea and Erysimum sorgarea have been recorded in damp sand close to the beach. Much of the central zone of the dunes can be classified as SEMI-STABILISED (YELLOW) DUNE, partially fixed by a sparse cover of vegetation. Three different vegetation types can be identified within this zone, dominated by (i) Centaurea kilaea and Stachys recta ssp. subcrenata; (ii); and Calystegia saldonella (iii) Isatis arenaria with increasing distance from the sea. The yellow dunes are rich in rare species including Asperula littoralis (very rare here), Centaurea kilaea, (confined to the shores of the Caspian Sea, with the exception of a handful of SW Black Sea sites), Linaria odora, Matthiola fruticulosa, and Silene sangaria, At over one kilometre from the shore, the dunes are largely stabilised as FIXED (GREY) DUNE, where the following two vegetation types occur: Juniperus oxycedrus-Pistachia terebinthus fixed dune scrub, in a mosaic of Festuca beckeri fixed grey dune grassland. A number of nationally rare species are concentrated within this zone including Festuca beckeri (typically a species of sandy steppe in S. Russia) and the endangered Isatis arenaria (associated with erosion features within the grey dunes). RARE SPECI ES GLOBAL CONSERVATION CONCERN SPP. [TAXA] Asperula littoralis [END, VU], Centaurea kilaea [END, VU], Cirsium baytopae [END, VU], Isatis arenaria [END, EN], Silene sangaria [END, EN], Verbascum degenii [END, CR] OTHER NATIONALLY RARE SPP. [TAXA] Anthemis tinctoria subsp. euxina [LC], Jurinea kilaea [VU], Leucojum aestivum [VU], Mathiola fruticulosa [NT], Saxifraga adscendens subsp. parnassica [NT] CONSERVATION SPECIES • The Kıyıköy HS receives no formal protection. •

Bern Convention APPENDIX I species: Silene sangaria, Verbascum degenii.



Bern Convention Endangered Natural Habitats Resolution No. 4 (1996):

16.2113 Pontic Embryonic Dunes; 16.2124 Pontic White Dunes; 16.22B11 South-Western Pontic Fixed Dunes;

The list of the flowering plants and ferns of Kıyıköy 1. Achillea millefolium. subsp. pannonica Yarrow 2. Adiantum capillus-veneris 3. Agrostis stolonifera 4. Aira caryophyllea L. 5. Aira elegantissima Schur. subsp. elegantissima 6. Ajuga laxmannii (L.) Bentham 7. Allium amethystinum Tausch Photo 1 8. Allium paniculatum L. ssp. paniculatum 9. Allium scorodoprasum L. subsp. rotundum (L.) Stearn Sand Leek 10. Alyssum alyssoides (L.) L. Small Alison 11. Alyssum repens Baumg. subsp. trichostachyum (Rupr.) Hayek var. trichostachyum 12. Anacamptis pyramidalis (L.) L.C.M. Richard Pyramidal Orchid 13. Anemone pavonina Lam.

Photo 1. Allium amethystinum

14. Anthemis tinctoria L. Yellow Chamomile 15. Anthemis tinctoria L. var. euxina (Boiss.) Grierson 16. Arenaria serphyllifolia L. Thyme-leaved Sandwort 17. Asperula littoralis Sm. 18. Asyneuma limonifolium (L.) Bornm. subsp. limonifolium 19. Blackstonia perfoliata (L.) Huds. subsp. perfoliata Yellow-wort 20. Bupleurum flavum Forssk. 21. Calamagrostis epigejos (L.) Roth.

Photo 2. Campanula lingulata

22. Calystegia soldenalla (L.) R. Br. Sea Bindweed 23. Campanula 24. Campanula lingulata Waldst. & Kit Photo 2 25. Campanula persicifolia L. Peach-leaved Bellflower 26. Campanula rapunculus L. var. rapunculus Rampion Bellflower 27. Carduus candicans Waldst. & Kit. subsp. candicans 28. Carex flacca Schreb. 29. Carthamus lanatus L. Photo 3 30. Centaurea cuneifolia Sm. 31. Centaurea diffusa Lam. 32. Centaurea kilaea Boiss. 33. Centaurium erythraea Rafn. subsp. erythraea Common Centaury 34. Cephalanthera rubra (L.) Rich. Red Helleborine 35. Cerinthe minor L. 36. Circaea lutetiana L. Enchanter’snightshade 37. Cirsium baytopae P.H.Davis & Parris 38. Cirsium vulgare (Savi.) Ten. Spear Thistle

Photo 3. Carthamus lanatus

39. Colchicum bivonae Guss. Photo 4

Photo 4. Colchicum bivonae

40. Convolvulus lineatus L. 41. Cotinus coggyria Scop. 42. Crithmum maritimum L. Rock Samphire Photo 5 43. Crocus flavus subsp. flavus 44. Crocus olivieri Gay. subsp. olivieri 45. Cuscuta epithymum Murray Common Dodder 46. Datura stramonium L. Thorn-apple 47. Daucus carota L. Wild Carrot 48. Daucus carota L. subsp. maritima 49. Daucus carota L. subsp. maritimus (Lam.) Batt.

Photo 5. Crithmum maritimum Rock Samphire

50. Dianthus calocephalus Boiss. 51. Dianthus giganteus d'Urv. 52. Digitalis lanata Ehrh. 53. Digitalis lanata Ehrh. 54. Dipsacus laciniatus L. 55. Ecbalium elaterium L. Squirting cucumber Photo 6 56. Echinops ritro L. 57. Echium vulgare L. 58. Elymus elongatus (Host) Runemark 59. Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz. Broadleaved Helleborine 60. Equisetum telmateia Ehrh.

Photo 6. Ecbalium elaterium

61. Eryngium maritimum L. Sea-holly 62. Erysimum sorgarae Polatschek 63. Euphorbia seguieriana Neck. subsp. niciciana (Borbás ex Novák) Rech. f. 64. Euphorbia stricta L. 65. Ferulago confusa Velen. 66. Ferulago confusa Velen. 67. Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Fennel 68. Gagea chrysantha (Jan) Schultes & Schultes 69. Galium paschale Forssk. 70. Glaucium flavum Crantz Yellow Hornedpoppy 71. Gratiola officinalis L. Gratiole

Photo 7. Iris pseudacorus Yellow Iris, yellow flag

72. Helleborus orientalis Lam. 73. Heptaptera triquetra (Vent.) Tutin 74. Hypochoeris radicata L. Common Cat’sear 75. Iris pseudacorus L. Yellow Iris, yellow flag Photo 7 76. Iris sintenisii Janka 77. Inula salicina L. Irish Fleabane 78. Isatis arenaria Azn. 79. Juncus effusus L. 80. Juncus inflexus L. 81. Juncus striatus Griseb.

Photo 8. Leymus racemosus subsp. sabulosus

82. Juncus thomasii Ten. 83. Jurinea kilea Azn. 84. Jurinea macrocalathia C. Koch 85. Jurinea mollis (L.) Reichb. 86. Kickxia commutata (Rchb.) Fritsch subsp. commutata 87. Lathyrus laxiflorus (Desf.) O. Kuntz subsp. laxiflorus 88. Lathyrus niger Bernh. subsp. niger Black Pea 89. Leymus racemosus (Lam.) Tzvelev subsp. sabulosus (Bieb.) Tzvelev Photo 8 90. Limodorum abortivum (L.) Sw.

Photo 9. Limonium virgatum

91. Limonium virgatum (Willd.) Fourr. Photo 9 92. Linaria genistifolia (L.) Miller subsp. genistifolia 93. Linum bienne Miller Pale Flax 94. Linum hirsutum L. subsp. byzantinum Azn. 95. Linum nodiflorum L. 96. Linum tenuifolium L. 97. Linum trigynum L. 98. Lithospermum purpurocaeruleum L. 99. Lotus corniculatus L. var. Tenuifolius L. Common Bird’s-foot-trefoil 100. Lythrum salicaria L. Purpleloosestrife 101. Maresia nana (DC.) Batt. 102.

Marrubium peregrinum L.

Photo 10. Matthiola fruticulosa

103. Mathiola fruticulosa (L.) Maire Photo 10 104. 105.

Medicago marina L. Melilotus albus Medik.

106.

Mentha pulegium L. Pennyroyal

107.

Molinia caerulea (L.) Moench

108. 109. mist 110.

Muscari Nigella damascena L. Love-in-aNonea atra Griseb.

111. Nuphar lutea (L.) Sm. Yellow Water-lily Photo 11 112. Ononis spinosa L. subsp. leiosperma (Boiss.) Sirf. Spiny Restharrow 113. Onopordum tauricum Willd.

Photo 11. Nuphar lutea Yellow Water-lily

114. Ophrys oestrifera Bieb. ssp. oestrifera 115. Ornithogalum narbonense L. 116. Orobanche minor Sm. Common Broomrape 117. Otanthus maritimus (L.) Hoffmans. & Link Cottonweed 118. Parapholis incurva (L.) C.E. Hubbard 119. Parapholis pycnantha (Heckel) C.E. Hubbard 120. Peucedanum obtusifolium Sm. 121. Plantago coronopus L. subsp. coronopus Buck’s-horn Plantain

Photo 12. Saxifraga adscendens subsp. parnassica

122. Plantago lagopus L. 123. Plantago lanceolata L. Ribwort Plantain 124. Plantago scabra Moench 125. Platanthera chlorantha Cust. ex Rchb. Greater Butterfly-orchid 126. Polygala anatolica Boiss. & Heldr. 127.

Polygala supina Schreb.

128. Polygonum mesembricum Chrtek 129. Potamogeton natans L. Broadleaved Pondweed 130. Potentilla argentea L. Hoary Cinquefoil 131. 132.

Ranunculus neopolitanus Ten. Reseda lutea L. Wild Mignonette

133. Rhododendron ponticum L. subsp. ponticum Rhododendron 134.

Rubus sanctus Kuntze

135.

Salsola ruthenica Iljin

136. Salvia verbenaca L. Wild Clary 137. Saxifraga adscendens L. subsp. parnassica (Boiss. & Heldr.) Hayek Photo 12 138.

Scilla autumnalis L. Autumn Squill

Photo 13. Stachys cretica subsp. bulgarica

139. Sedum pallidum Bieb. var. pallidum 140. Silene dichotoma Ehrh. subsp. sibthorpiana (Reichb.) Reich. Forked Catchfly 141. Silene sangaria Coode & Cullen 142. Spergularia marina (L.) Gris. Lesser Sea-spurrey 143. Stachys cretica L. subsp. bulgarica Rech. fil. Photo 13 144. Stachys maritima Gouan 145. Tamus communis L. subsp. cretica (L.) Kit Tan Black Bryony 146. Tanacetum corymbosum Schulz subsp. Cinereum (Gris.) Hayek 147. Teucrium polium L. 148. Thesium divaricatum Jan. ex Mertens & Koch 149. Trisetum flavescens (L.) P.Beauv. 150. Verbascum degenii Hal. 151. Vicia grandiflora Scop. var. grandiflora 152. Vincetoxicum hirundinaria Medik. Swallow-wort Bern Convention (1996). Davıs, P. H. (ed.) (1965-1988). Dönmez, Y. (1968). Ekim, T., Koyuncu, M., Vural, M., Aytaç, Z. Adıgüzel, N. (2000). Güner, A., Özhatay N., Ekim T. Et Başer H.S. (eds.) (2000). Kültür, Ş. (2007). Özhatay, N., Byfield, A., Atay, S. (2003). Standards and Petitions Working Group. (2006). Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Webb, D. A. (1966). Yarcı, C. (1997).

N. ÖZHATAY & D. DEMİR

2. DUPNİSA CAVE AND VICINITY A1 (E) Kırklareli / Demirköy

MODERATE

Coordinates: Size: 107 ha Altitude:

Present Conservation status:

Characteristic vegetation and habitat: Oak forests, other leafed forest trees and bushes, calcareous rocks that are lying in forest openings and numerous humid and arid herbaceous species.

Sites meet hot spot criteria :

Taxa number: 102 Endemic taxa: --

No conservation status

Global Conservation concern species: -European Conservation concern taxa: Cyclamen coum var. coum Nationally Rare and endangered taxa: Acer pseudoplatanus, Leontodon cichoraceus, Satureja coerulea ve Sideritis scardica subsp. scardica Endangered natural habitats: 34.311, 34.532, 38.252, 41.76A1

SUMMARY Dupnisa Cave Hotspot (HS) is located to the west of the Yıldız Mountains and north of the Mahya Mountains. The area is covered with oak forests, other leafed forest trees and bushes, calcareous rocks that are lying in forest openings and numerous humid and arid herbaceous species. Particularly, calcareous rocks in forest openings attract a great deal of attention as a result of the richness of various herbaceous species. Dupnisa Cave Hotspot features Cyclamen coum var. coum which is considered as one of the threatened species within European scale due to the Bern Convention Appendix I. Furthermore, the endangered species in national scale such as Acer pseudoplatanus, Leontodon cichoraceus, Satureja coerulea ve Sideritis scardica ssp. scardica appear in the vicinty. The hotspots also supports threatend habitats listed under the Bern Convention Appendix IV , notably Helleno-Balcanic Savory Steppes - Satureja coerulea habitat; Helleno-Balcanic Short Grass and Therophyte Communities - the forest openings flora of the upper Dupnisa Cave; Moeso-Thracian Mesophile Hay Meadows - calcareous rocky open area of the upper Dupnisa Cave; and EuxinoThracian Quercus frainetto-Quercus cerris forests. The area differs from humid habitat, which occurs in the middle of the oak forests around the cave, and the other ecosystems in the Yıldız Mountains. Various herbaceous species occurred on calcareous rocks in the forest openings which enrich the habitat. The field does not have any conservation status. Only Dupnisa Cave, which is in charge of the Kirklareli Governorship Special Provincial Administration, is open to visitors during some periods of the year. SITE DESCRIPTION Dupnisa Cave District is located in the West of the Yıldız Mountains. The research area is approximately 107 hectares. This region is located in the IPA 4 Istranca Mountains Section of the Important Plant Areas in Turkey. The area keeps numerous ecosystems together. The region surrounding the cave is covered with extensive oak forests. Among these, there appears Oriental Beech and other decideous forest trees and bushes. Because of the humid habitat of the cave and surrounding area, herbaceous plant species and ferns emerge. This area is surrounded by a wide zone which is enriched by decideous trees and bushes. Two separate rocky fields, which are located just above the cave and intertwined with areas containing decideous trees and bushes, appear in the middle of these populations in the form of wider openings. These calcareous rocks contain numerous herbaceous species that enrich the area with their humid and arid characters.

FLORA and VEGETATION The most significant feature of the Dupnisa Cave District Hotspot contains 1 endangered taxon in European scale and 4 endangered taxa at national level. The endangered taxon in European scale is Cyclamen coum var. coum (Cyclamen). This herb is found beneath the areas of oak and beech trees in the region. The endangered taxa at national level are: Acer pseudoplatanus, vegetating around the opening that is located in the vicinity of calcareous rocks above the cave; Leontodon cichoraceus growing on the calcareous rocks above the cave; Satureja coerulea ve Sideritis scardica ssp. scardica growing above calcareous rocks. Despite Satureja corulea species having several vegetation areas in the light calcareous rocky fields throughout Balkans, it only appears in this region within borders of Turkey. The species is threatened by a continuous destruction since it is used as thyme in foodstuff. It draws attention by beginning to bloom in autumn and having azure blue flowers. The species Sideritis scardica ssp. scardica also blooms in mid-summer with remarkable flowers. This plant is also collected and consumed as tea in the region, and sold by local people. Widely grown varieties of oak in the region are Quercus hartwissiana, Quercus frainetto, Quercus petraea ssp. petraea, Quercus petraea ssp. iberica ve Quercus cerris var. cerris. These taxa create wide forest area around the cave and constitute the outer borders of the research field. The most widespread taxa are Quercus frainetto ve Quercus petraea ssp. iberica. These taxa cover the area with large numbers of individuals. The individuals of Fagus orientalis (Oriental Beech) species appear from place to place among the oak forest. Near the entrance of Dupnisa Cave, which is located in the middle of the field, fern species attract attention together with Tilia argentea (Linden), Acer trautvetteri, Acer platanoides ve Acer pseudoplatanus species and isolated individuals of Acers/Maples Fraxinus ornus subsp. ornus (Ash Tree) Corylus avellana subsp. avellana (Cobnut). Also the community of Platanus orientalis (Sycamore) appears in front of the entrance of the cave. The tree populations of Carpinus betulus ve Carpinus orientalis ssp. orientalis (Carpinus) are situated on the way to the calcareous rock opening above the cave. The Dupnisa Cave Hotspot comprises 4 of the endangered habitats listed in the Annex IV List of the Bern Convention. These are Satureja coerulea population spreading in the area within the scope of 34.311 Helleno-Balcanic Savory Steppes, the forest opening flora of the upper Dupnisa Cave as part of 34.532 Helleno-Balcanic Short Grass and Therophyte Communities, the calcareous rocky open area of the upper Dupnisa Cave in the scope 38.252 Moeso-Thracian Mesophile Hay Meadows and Quercus frainetto-Quercus cerris forests as part of 41.76A1 Euxino-Thracian Quercus frainettoQuercus cerris Forests. RARE SPECIES EUROPEAN CONSERVATION CONCERN SPP. [TAXA] Cyclamen coum var. coum [LC] OTHER NATIONALLY RARE SPP. [TAXA] Acer pseudoplatanus [VU], Leontodon cichoraceus [n/l], Satureja coerulea [VU] and Sideritis scardica subsp. scardica [VU]. CONSERVATION Dupnisa Cave District HS receives no formal protection. Bern Convention APPENDIX I species: Cyclamen coum var. coum. Bern Convention Threatened Habitats Resolution No. 4 (1996): 34.311 − Helleno-Balcanic Savory Steppes; 34.532 − Helleno-Balcanic Short Grass and Therophyte Communities; 38.252 − Moeso-Thracian Mesophile Hay Meadows; 41.76A1 − Euxino-Thracian Quercus frainetto-Quercus cerris Forests. THREATS and OTHER CONSERVATION ISSUES The cave, which is located inside the district and opened as an establishment by the Kırklareli Governorship Special Provincial Administration, has an important position for the region. Many visitors come to the region during the spring and summer months in order to visit the cave. For that purpose, the road between Sarpdere Village and Dupnisa Cave was constructed and therefore the number of visitors has increased. Also a concrete walking path, which lies to the interior parts of the cave, was made in order to provide a comfortable entry into the cave. Since the number of cave visitors has increased, the environmental pollution and the destruction of vegetation are problems that have risen.

The species Sideritis scardica ssp. scardica are extensively collected in order to sell to the cave visitors. Accordingly, almost no flowers remain in the species population during the summer months. Also the species Satureja coerulea grown in the same region is under pressure of visitors and local peoples’ gathering activity. Both species mentioned above are not considered to be in danger since they have vegetative diffusion patterns in the region. On the other hand, these species may disappear if processes such as removal of roots, etc. are widely performed. If the region is protected, then the 4 separate, special, rich habitats of the region are conserved and will continue to live together. SUGGESTIONS The field must be taken under protection. In addition, the number of cave visitors must be controlled in certain seasons.

The list of the flowering plants and ferns of Dupnisa Cave

Acer palatanoides L. Acer pseudoplatanus L. Acer trautvetteri Medw. Adianthum capillus – veneris L. Agrostis stolonifera L. Ajuga reptans L. Anemone pavonina Lam. (Photo 1) Anthemis cretica L. subsp. tenuiloba (DC.) Grierson Asperula rumelica Boiss. Asplenium adianthum – nigrum L: Berberis vulgaris L. Berula erecta (Hudson) Coville Bromus squarrosus P.M. Smith. Calamintha grandiflora (L.) Moench. Campanula rapunculus L. var. lambertiana (A. DC.) Boiss. (Photo 1) Cardamine bulbifera (L.) Crantz. Carpinus betulus L. Carpinus orientalis Miller subsp. orientalis Ceterach officinarum DC. Cirsium hypoleucum DC. Cistus creticus L. (Photo 2) Clinopodium vulgare L. subsp. arundanum (Boiss.) Nyman Corylus avellana L.subsp. avellana (Photo 3) Crataegus pentagyna Waldst. & Kit. Ex Willd. Crocus biflorus Miller subsp. adamii (Gay) Mathew Cyclamen coum Miller var. coum Dorycnium graecum (L.) Ser Equisetum ramosissimum Desf. Erica arborea L. Erysimum diffusum Ehrh. Fagus orientalis Lipsky Festuca drymeja Mertens & Koch Fragaria vesca L. Fraxinus ornus L. subsp. ornus Fritillaria pontica Wahlenb. Gagea chrysantha (Jan.) Schultes & Schultes fil. Galeobdolon luteum Hudson subsp. montanum (Pers.) R. Mill Geranium robertianum L. Hedera helix L. Helianthemum salicifolium (L.) Miller Hypericum montbretii Spach Hypericum perforatum L. Iris sintenisii Janca. Iris suaveolens Boiss. & Reuter. Lamium purpureum L. var. purpureum Lathraea squamaria L. Lathyrus laxiflorus (Desf.) O. Kuntze subsp. laxiflorus Leontodon cichoraceus (Ten.) Sanguinetti Limodorum abortivum (L.) Swartz

Photo 1 Campanula rapunculus var. lambertiana (Çan çiçeği) H. Ersoy

Photo 2 Cistus creticus (Laden) Ersoy

H.

Photo 3 Corylus avellana subsp. avellana (Fındık)

H. Ersoy

Photo 4 Ornithogalum ortophyllum

Y.

Linaria genistifolia (L.) Miller subsp. genistifolia Linum tenuifolium L. Medicago minima (L.) Bart. var. minima Melilotus neapolitana Ten. Mespilus germanica L. Milium effusum L. Myosotis alpestris F.W. Schmidt subsp. alpestris Nasturtium officinale R. Br. Ophrys apifera Hudson (Photo 11) Orchis purpurea Hudson Ornithogalum ortophyllum Ten. (Photo 4) Paeonia peregrina Miller (Photo 10) Plantago major L. subsp. major Platanthera bifolia (L.) L.C.M. Richard Platanus orientalis L. Poa angustifolia L. Poa nemoralis L. Polygala supina Schreb. Polypodium vulgare L. subsp. vulgare Potentilla inclinata Vill. Primula vulgaris Huds subsp. vulgaris Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn. Quercus cerris L. var. cerris Quercus frainetto Ten. Quercus hartwissiana Steven Quercus petrae (Mattuschka) Liebl. subsp. iberica (Steven ex Bieb.) Krassiln. Quercus petrae (Mattuschka) Liebl. subsp. petrae Ranunculus gracilis Clarke Ranunculus repens L. Rubus canescens DC. var. canescens Rubus hirtus Waldst. & Kit. Salvia viridis L. Sambucus nigra L. (Photo 5) Sanguisorba minor Scop. Satureja coerulea Janka (Photo 6) Scutellaria albida L. subsp. albida Sedum telephium L. subsp. maximum (L.) Krocker Sideritis scardica Griseb. subsp. scardica (Photo 7) Silene compacta Fischer Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcker var. vulgaris (Photo 8) Stellaria media (L.) Vill. Teucrium chamaedrys L. subsp. chamaedrys Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis var. subisophyllus (Borbas) Jalas Tilia argentea Desf. ex DC. (Photo 9) Trachystemon orientalis (L.) G. Don. Trifolium aureum Thuill. Trifolium nigrescens Viv. subsp. petrisavii

Yeşil

Photo 5 Sambucus nigra (Mürver)

H. Ersoy

Photo 6 Satureja coerulea Ötekin

M.

Photo 7 Sideritis scardica ssp. scardica (Kuyruklu adaçayı, M. Öztekin Kırçayı, Karlıçay)

Photo 8. Silene vulgaris subsp. vulgaris (Gıvışkanotu) H. Ersoy

(Clem.) Holmboe Vaccaria pyramidata Medik. var. grandiflora (Fisch. ex DC.) Cullen (Photo 12) Valeriana alliariifolia Adams Veronica anagallis-aquatica L. Veronica serpyllifolia L. Vicia cracca L. subsp. gerardii Gaudin Vinca herbacea Walldst. et Kit. (Photo 13)

Photo 9 Tilia argentea (Ihlamur)

Photo 10 Paeonia peregrina (Kame) Öztekin

M. Öztekin

Photo 11 Ophrys apifera (Salep)

M. Öztekin

M.

Photo 12 Vaccaria pyramidata var. grandiflora N. Özhatay Photo 13 Vinca herbacea

N. Özhatay

Başer, K. H. C., Koca, F., Tümen, G., Akyalçın, H. (1994 Bern Convention (1996). Davıs, P. H. (ed.) (1965-1988). Ekim, T., Koyuncu, M., Vural, M., Aytaç, Z. Adıgüzel, N. (2000). Güner, A., Özhatay N., Ekim T. Et Başer H.S. (eds.) (2000). Özhatay, N., Byfield, A., Atay, S. (2003).

M. ÖZTEKİN & M. KARADAĞ

3. TAXUS BACCATA FOREST A1 (E) Kırklareli / Demirköy

MODERATE

Coordinates: :

Present Conservation status:

Size: 145 ha Altitude:

No conservation status

Characteristic vegetation and habitat: Beech Forests and Taxus baccata (Porsuk) forest.

Sites meet hot spot criteria :

Taxa number: 52 Endemic taxa: --

Global Conservation concern species: -European Conservation concern taxa: Cylamen coum var. coum Nationally Rare and endangered taxa: Acer pseudoplatanus, Anemone nemorosa, Digitalis viridiflora Endangered natural habitats: : 41.1E122, 42.A7

SUMMARY Taxus baccata area is located in the northern parts of the Mahya Mountain, which is a part of the Yıldız Mountains Chain. Hotspot area is a mixed forest containing a small community of approximately 50 Taxus baccata (Yew/Taxus) individuals inside Beech forests. The approximate size of the field is 145 ha. This area was intensively covered with the Fagus orientalis (East Beech) forest. This area attained the status of the Yew/Taxus (Taxus baccata) Gene Conservation Forest Area in 2007. This region constitutes the western spreading of the Taxus baccata (Yew/Taxus) species within the borders of Turkey. Taxus baccata Hotspot inhabits Cylamen coum var. coum taxa which are considered one of the threatened species within European scale according to the Bern Convention Appendix I. Furthermore, the endangered species in national scale such as Acer pseudoplatanus, Anemone nemorosa, and Digitalis viridiflora appeared in the Hotspot. Besides which, according to Bern Convention Appendix IV Threatened Habitats the area also contains Istranca Mountains Rhododendron – oriental beech forests and West Pleoarctic yew forests. The area is surrounded by Rhododendron ponticum ssp. ponticum communities located within the Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis) dense forests. The habitat is entirely dense and receives very low light. Acer trautvetteri (Acer/Maple), Sambucus nigra (Elderberry) and Laurocerasus officinalis (Cherry Laurel/Taflan) spices appear in the openings that forest roads pass through. There is 1 Gene Conservation Field inside the area. The forest operation activities continue in the field. The area has been left without cutting/lumbering for the last 10 years. SITE DESCRIPTION Taxus baccata forest is located in the northern parts of the Mahya Mountain, which is a part of the Yıldız Mountains Chain, and southeast of Dupnisa Cave. The total size of the field is approximately 145 hectares. FLORA and VEGETATION The main characteristics of the Taxus baccata Hotspot is the Taxus baccata (Yew/) forest inside the area, which is also considered as the western diffusion of that species in Turkey. This area comprises approximately 50 Taxus baccata (Yew/Taxus) individuals within Fagus orientalis (Oriental Beech) forests and dense Rhododendron ponticum ssp. ponticum bushes. The habitat is entirely dense and receives very low light. Fagus orientalis trees densely cover the area and Acer trautvetteri (Acer/Maple), Sambucus nigra (Elderberry) and Laurocerasus officinalis (Cherry Laurel/Taflan) spices appear in the openings that forest roads pass through. Limited numbers of individuals of Ilex colchica (Onosis) and Daphne pontica are found in the low-light places inside the forest.

RARE SPECIES EUROPEAN CONSERVATION CONCERN SPP. [TAXA] Cyclamen coum var. coum [LC] OTHER NATIONALLY RARE SPP. [TAXA] Acer pseudoplatanus [VU], Anemone nemorosa [VU], Digitalis viridiflora [NT]. CONSERVATION Taxus baccata Hotspot inhabits Cyclamen coum var. coum taxa which are considered as one of the threatened species within European scale according to Bern Convention Appendix I. Anemone nemorosa, which is listed as endangered species in national scale in the Bern Convention Appendix I, is visible in the months of spring in the form of small communities. Additionally, Taxus baccata Hotspot inhabits 2 species which appear in the Bern Convention Appendix IV Threatened Habitats. These are: 41.1E122 Stranja Rhododendron-Oriental Beech Forests and 42.A7 Western Palaearctic Yew Woods. THREATS and OTHER CONSERVATION ISSUES Taxus baccata specimen trees in this Taxus baccata hotspot are protected within a Gene Conservation Forest Area, declared in 2007 under Forestry Law. Consequently, this area obtained conservation status. The forestry activities continued until the year 2007 since the field is located within the borders of the Kurudere Forest Operation Directorate. Until 2007 the forest was left to grow over a ten year period during which no cutting activity occurred. Therefore, the area was considered as lucky in terms of conservation. Moreover, it is very difficult to reach the area since the maintenance of forestry roads that come to the hotspot area have not been done in the scope of the growing period activities. For that reason, the area becomes distanced both from human impact and pollution.

The list of the flowering plants and ferns of Taxus baccata Area

Acer pseudoplatanus L. Acer trautvetteri Medw. Anemone nemorosa L. Anthemis cretica L. subsp. tenuiloba (DC.) Grierson (Photo 1) Asplenium adianthum – nigrum L. Aphodeline lutea (L.) Reichb. lutea (Photo 6) Bellis perennis L. Brassica nigra (L.) Koch Calamintha grandiflora (L.) Moench Campanula rapunculus L. var. lambertiana (A. DC.) Boiss. Cardamine bulbifera (L.) Crantz. Ceterach officinarum DC. Chamaecytisus austriacus (L.) Link Chelidonium majus L. (Photo 2) Cirsium hypoleucum DC. Clinopodium vulgare L. subsp. arundanum (Boiss.) Nyman Cornus mas L. Cyclamen coum Miller var. coum Daphne pontica L. (Photo 3) Digitalis viridiflora Lindley Dorycnium graecum (L.) Ser. Epilobium angustifolium L. Fagus orientalis Lipsky (Photo 4) Fagus sylvatica L. Fragaria vesca L. Galium rotundifolium L. Genista carinalis Gris. Gentiana asclepiadea L. Geranium robertianum L. Hedera helix L. Hypericum androsaemum L. Hypericum bithynicum Boiss. Ilex colchica Poj. Laurocerasus officinalis Roemer Ligustrum vulgare L. Limodorum abortivum (L.) Swartz Lysimachia punctata L. Petasites hybridus (L.) Gaertner Polygonatum hirtum (Bosc ex Poiret) Pursh Polypodium vulgare L. subsp. vulgare Primula vulgaris Huds subsp. vulgaris (Photo 5) Prunus spinosa L. subsp. dasyphylla

Photo 1 Anthemis cretica subsp. tenuiloba (Papatya) Yeşil

Photo 2. Chelidonium majus (Kırlangıçotu)

Photo 3 Daphne pontica (Kurtbağı) Öztekin

Y.

Y. Yeşil

M.

(Schur) Domin Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn. Rhododendron ponticum L. subsp. ponticum Ruscus hypoglossum L. Sambucus ebulus L. Sambucus nigra L. Taxus baccata L. (Photo 7) Teucrium chamaedrys L. subsp. chamaedrys Trachystemon orientalis (L.) G. Don. Vinca herbacea Walldst. et Kit. Viola arvensis Murray

Photo 4 Fagus orientalis (Kayın)

H. Ersoy

Photo 5 Primula vulgaris ssp. vulgaris (Çuha çiçeği)

H.

Ersoy

Photo 6 Asphodeline lutea ssp. lutea (Çirişotu) Y.Yeşil

Photo 7 Taxus baccata (Porsuk ağacı)

M. Öztekin

Başer, K. H. C., Koca, F., Tümen, G., Akyalçın, H. (1994 Bern Convention (1996). Davıs, P. H. (ed.) (1965-1988). Ekim, T., Koyuncu, M., Vural, M., Aytaç, Z. Adıgüzel, N. (2000). Güner, A., Özhatay N., Ekim T. Et Başer H.S. (eds.) (2000). Özhatay, N., Byfield, A., Atay, S. (2003).

M. ÖZTEKİN & M. KARADAĞ

4. BALABAN RIVER AND VICINITY A1 (E) Kırklareli / Demirköy

MODERATE

Coordinates: :

Present Conservation status:

Size: 21 ha Altitude:

No conservation status

Characteristic vegetation and habitat: Fagus sylvatica (Avrupa kayını) and Fagus orientalis (Doğu kayını) Forests, Other Leafed Forest Trees on Riverside.

Sites meet hot spot criteria :

Taxa number: 100 Endemic taxa: --

Global Conservation concern species: -European Conservation concern taxa: Cyclamen coum var. coum Nationally Rare and endangered taxa: Acer pseudoplatanus, Anemone nemorosa, Digitalis viridiflora, Senecio papposus subsp. papposus Endangered natural habitats: : 41.1E122, 41.76A1

SUMMARY Balaban Stream Hotspot constitutes the south-west basin of the Balaban Stream in the Yıldız Mountains. Dense beech forest vegetation that is mostly comprised of Fagus orientalis (Oriental beech) and Fagus sylvatica (Avrupa kayını) species appears in the area. Furthermore, the individuals of Quercus frainetto and Q. cerris var. cerris are generally visible among the beech forest. Many herbaceous species and broad-leafed trees are encountered along the Balaban Stream which flows across the beech forest, since the area has moist forest climate and these species have adapted to such climatic conditions. Balaban Stream district Hotspot inhabits Cyclamen coum var. coum taxa which are considered one of the threatened plants within European scale due to the Bern Convention Appendix I. Moreover, the endangered species within national scale such as Acer pseudoplatanus, Digitalis viridiflora, and Senecio papposus subsp. papposus also occurred in the Hotspot. In addition, it also contains Istranca Mountains Rhododendron – oriental beech forests and Euxcin-Tharace Quercus frainetto-Quercus cerris forests which are listed in the Bern Convention Appendix IV Threatened Habitats. The area is unique in terms of 2 different beech species and special plants of stream vegetation that appear among oak forests. The field does not have any conservation status. The area is of great importance since it is located along the Kırklareli - Demirköy highway, home to many valuable plant species. SITE DESCRIPTION This Hotspot is located in the Istranca Mountains constituting the south-west basin of the Balaban Stream. The approximate size of the field is 21 ha. Kırklareli - Demirköy highway crosses the valley of the Balaban Stream. The district draws attention to itself by the rich beech forest (Fagus orientalis and Fagus sylvatica) and oak forests. The area also supports a diversity of herb, tree and bush species owing to the moist conditions afforded by the stream. FLORA and VEGETATION The main feature of the Balaban Stream Hotspot is that it hosts 1 European endangered species (Cyclamen coum var. coum) in oak and beach forest and 4 nationally endangered species. The nationally endangered species in national scale are: Acer pseudoplatanus that occurs in streamside vegetation; Anemone nemorosa that appears in spring under beech and oak forests; Digitalis viridiflora that is visible in forest openings located in conjunction of the Balaban Stream and the highway; and Senecio papposus ssp. papposus that occurs in sunlit forest openings located near the Stream. The Balaban Streams’ south-west basin supports beech and oak forest, as well as Acer/Maple species such as Tilia argentea (Lime), Euonymus latifolius ssp. latifolius (İğde ağacı), Acer trautvetteri, A. platanoides, A. campestre and trees such as Sambucus nigra (Elderberry), Cornus mas (Kızılçık), and Fraxinus ornus ssp. ornus (Ash). Moreover, the individuals of Carpinus betulus and C. orientalis ssp.

orientalis can also be seen in the region. Dense stands of Rhododendron ponticum ssp. ponticum also occur beneath the forest. In addition, single individuals of willow species, such as Salix caprea and Salix cinerea, appear within tree species spreading along the Stream. The large Alnus glutinosa ssp. glutinosa (Alnus/Redwood) communities spread naturally along the basin and Kırklareli- Demirköy highway. Many herbaceous and semi-ligneous species occur beside the Stream. For instance, Epimedium pubigerum, Sambucus ebulus (Elderberry) and Polygonatum hirtum are found in the middle of the basin. Moreover, violet species (Viola arvensis, V. tricolor), Symphytum tauricum, Carex species and various Poaceae species are present. RARE SPECIES EUROPEAN CONSERVATION CONCERN SPP. [TAXA] Cyclamen coum var. coum [LC] OTHER NATIONALLY RARE SPP. [TAXA] Acer pseudoplatanus, Anemone nemorosa [VU], Digitalis viridiflora [NT], Senecio papposus subsp. papposus

[EN]. CONSERVATION Balaban Stream Hotspot inhabits two habitats that are listed as Threatened Habitats in Bern Convention Appendix IV. These are 41.1E122 Stranja Rhododendron-Oriental Beech Forests and 41.76A1 − Euxino-Thracian Quercus frainetto-Quercus cerris Forests. THREATS and OTHER CONSERVATION ISSUES Balaban Stream and its environment do not have any conservation status today. However, the basin is under the threat of pollution due to Kırklareli-Demirköy highway connection. Therefore, taking appropriate consewrvation measures is an important step towards reducing human impacts from external sources.

The list of the flowering plants and ferns of Balaban Acer campestre L. subsp. campestre Acer pseudoplatanus L. Acer platanoides L. Acer trautvetteri Medw. Adianthum capillus – veneris L. Ajuga reptans L. (Photo 1) Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertner subsp. glutinosa (Photo 2) Anemone nemorosa L. Anthemis arvensis L. Anthemis cretica L. subsp. tenuiloba (DC.) Grierson Apera intermedia Hackel apud Zederbauer Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. Bellis perennis L. Brassica nigra (L.) Koch Brachypodium sylvaticum (Hudson) P. Beauv Calamintha grandiflora (L.) Moench Campanula persicifolia L. Campanula rapunculus L. var. lambertiana (A. DC.) Boiss. Cardamine bulbifera (L.) Crantz. Carex hirta L. Carex sylvatica Hudson subsp. sylvatica Carpinus betulus L. Carpinus orientalis Miller subsp. orientalis Chamaecytisus austriacus (L.) Link Cirsium hypoleucum DC. Clematis vitalba L. Clinopodium vulgare L. subsp. arundanum (Boiss.) Nyman Cornus mas L. Coronilla varia L. subsp. varia Crepis foetida L. subsp. foetida Cyclamen coum Miller var. coum Cynosurus echinatus L. Digitalis viridiflora Lindley (Photo 9) Dorycnium graecum (L.) Ser. Epilobium angustifolium L. Epilobium montanum L. Epimedium pubigerum (DC.) Moren & Decaisne Equisetum ramosissimum Desf. Euonymus latifolius (L.) Miller subsp. latifolius

Photo 1 Ajuga reptans

Photo 2 Alnus glutinosa ssp. glutinosa (Kızılağaç)

Photo 3 Fagus sylvatica (Kayın)

Y. Yeşil

M. Öztekin

M. Öztekin

Fagus orientalis Lipsky Fagus sylvatica L. (Photo 3) Filago vulgaris Lam. Fragaria vesca L. (Photo 4) Fraxinus ornus L. subsp. ornus Galeobdolon luteum Hudson subsp. montanum (Pers.) R. Mill Galium rotundifolium L. Geranium pyrenaicum Burm. fil. Geranium robertianum L. Hedera helix L. Hypericum androsaemum L. Ilex colchica Poj. (Photo 5) Juncus effusus L. Lathraea squamaria L. Lathyrus laxiflorus (Desf.) O. Kuntze subsp. laxiflorus Limodorum abortivum (L.) Swartz (Photo 4) Lotus corniculatus L. var. tenuifolius Luzula forsteri (Sm.) DC. Luzula sylvatica (Hudson) Gaudin Melilotus neapolitana Ten. Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson subsp. longifolia var. typhoides (Briq.) Harley Milium effusum L. Nasturtium officinale R. Br. Petasites hybridus (L.) Gaertner (Photo 6) Plantago major L. subsp. major Polygonatum hirtum (Bosc ex Poiret) Pursh Populus tremula L. Potentilla inclinata Vill. Primula vulgaris Huds subsp. vulgaris Prunella laciniata (L.) L. Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn Ranunculus repens L. Rhododendron ponticum L. subsp. ponticum (Photo 7) Rubus canescens DC. var. canescens Rubus hirtus Walldst. & Kit. Ruscus hypoglossum L. Salix caprea L. Salix cinerea L. Sambucus ebulus L. Sambucus nigra L. Sanguisorba minor Scop. Sanicula europaea L. (Davis) Senecio papposus L. subsp. papposus Silene vulgaris (Moench.) Garcker var. vulgaris

Photo 4 Fragaria vesca (Dağ çileği)

Y. Yeşil

Photo 5 Ilex colchica (Işığan)

M. Öztekin

Photo 6 Petasites hybridus

Y. Yeşil

Photo 7 Rhododendron ponticum ssp. ponticum (Komar, M. Öztekin Zelenica)

Sonchus asper (L.) Hill.subsp. glaucescens (Jordan) Ball. Stellaria holostea L. Stellaria media (L.) Vill. (Photo 8) Symphytum tauricum Sims Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz. Bip. Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis var. subisophyllus (Borbas) Jalas Tilia argentea Desf. ex DC. Trachystemon orientalis (L.) G. Don. (Photo 10) Trifolium nigrescens Viv. subsp. petrisavii (Clem.) Holmboe Trifolium pratense L. var. pratense Veronica anagallis-aquatica L. Veronica serpyllifolia L. Vinca herbacea Walldst. et Kit. Viola arvensis Murray Viola sieheana Becker Viola tricolor L. Photo 8 Stellaria media

Photo 9 Digitalis viridiflora (Yüksükotu)

M. Öztekin

H. Ersoy

Photo 10 Trachystemon orientalis (Kaldırık)

Y.

Yeşil Başer, K. H. C., Koca, F., Tümen, G., Akyalçın, H. (1994 Bern Convention (1996). Davıs, P. H. (ed.) (1965-1988). Ekim, T., Koyuncu, M., Vural, M., Aytaç, Z. Adıgüzel, N. (2000).

Güner, A., Özhatay N., Ekim T. Et Başer H.S. (eds.) (2000). Özhatay, N., Byfield, A., Atay, S. (2003).

M. ÖZTEKİN & M. KARADAĞ

5. MUTLU (REZVE) RIVER (INCLUDING KARACADAĞ) A1 (E) Kırklareli / Demirköy

CRITICAL

Coordinates: 41°50’-41°59’N, 27°34’-28°01’E

Present Conservation status:

Size: 12.000 ha Altitude:

No conservation status

Characteristic vegetation and habitat: Beech, Hornbeam Oak forests, floodplain forests (longose)

Sites meet hot spot criteria :

Taxa number: 224 Endemic taxa: 2 (Cardamine penzesii ??)

Global Conservation concern species: Centaurea kilaea European Conservation concern taxa: Cyclamen coum var. coum Nationally Rare and endangered taxa: 12 Endangered natural habitats: 16.2113, 16.22B11, 22. 3233, 22.351, 24.2, 31.22C, 41.1E122, 41.2C, 41.76A, 41.H1111, 41.H1112, 41.H21, 44.4322

SUMMARY The Hotspot is located in the Mutlu (Revze) River valley which constitutes part of the north-west border of Bulgaria. Approximately 70% of the Mutlu River valley, which defines the natural border in the region, is located inside Turkish land. Starting from the Dereköy Aziziye Hill, the river joins with Kocadere and flows to the sea from Beğendik. In general, the flora of the area is covered with oak (Quercus petraea) forests. In other words, starting from the highest part of the Yıldız Mountains the area continues to the Black Sea and most of the area is covered with forest vegetation. In this research, 224 taxa have been identified in the area. Among these, 1 species (Centaurea kilea Boiss.) is considered threatened in global scale and 1 species (Cyclamen coum L. var.coum ) is listed in Bern Convention Appendix I. Also identified were 19 rare taxa in national scale. Since the area is on the Bulgarian border, there are not many endemic plants to Turkey. The region is very important for phytosociology because it creates the western boundary of the diffusion area of some Euxine flora elements in Yıldız Mountains, and the southern boundary of various Balkanian and Mid-European plant taxa’s diffusion area. Furthermore, the region has international importance since it includes a wide range of high forest vegetation types, particularly Euxine Fagus orientalisRhododendron ponticum forest community, which are not very common in Europe. Pseudomacchie vegetation, which is found along the Black Sea coast, has special importance for the area. The region does not have official conservation status. However, the area may be considered for protection since it is located inside the first degree military zone. The area is under threat because of the task of transferring water from Yıldız Mountains to Istanbul. Additionally, excessive grazing and cutting end grain (makta) continues in the area. SITE DESCRIPTION Mutlu River, which constitutes the Bulgarian Border, starts from Aziziye Hill, joins with Kocadere (Paspala) in the region between the İncesırt and Armutveren, and flows into the Black Sea in Beğendik. Kocadere flows in the direction of Dereköy-Armağan-Çukurpınar and joins with Balaban (Velika) Deresi, which flows in the direction of BalabanSarpdere-Gökyaka, flowing into Mutlu Dere in the region between the İncesırt and Armutveren. Moreover, there are several large and small streams carrying water to Mutlu Dere. 70% of the Mutlu Dere basin is located within the borders of Turkey. Along the river, terraces are usually destroyed and the field is used as agricultural land. The steep hillsides of the river usually maintain the natural forest vegetation. The alttitude of the river varies between 0-400 meters. The area between Beğendik and the conjuction of Kocadere is considered to be inside this Hotspot. There are villages such as İncesırt, Yiğitbaşı, Boztaş, Karacadağ, Avcılar, Sislioba and Beğendik in the region. Bedrocks are visible in groups throughout the Mutlu Dere. In general, the geologic structure of the area is a mixture. For instance, places around İncesırt and Yiğitbaşı are composed of granite; places between Karacadağ-Avcılar are composed of gabbro and serpentine; places between Avcılar-Sislioba are composed of schist; places around SisliobaBeğendik are composed of mica-schist and ground facies. In the upper parts of the river where steep hillsides are dominant, there are small river terraces which expand toward the bottom. In general, the area has acidic (ph 5.6-6.5), slightly calcareous (less than 2%), brown podzolic-forest soil structure which contains a high ratio of organic matters (%3-6). The precipitation decreases with descending altitude and accordingly the influence of the winds from Black sea is less. Therefore, the development of humid forest is far less in the region. Thus, the Mediterranean elements sometimes dominate the region. The average annual precipitation is between 800 and 1000 mm, although the higher places are rainier. Prevailing winds come from the North in this

region. The average annual temperature is about 13 0C in higher places and 14 0C in lower places. The average minimum temperature is about 1 0C in higher places, and 5 0C in lower places. The average maximum temperature is about 22 0C in higher places, and 24 0C in lower places. The regional climate is suitable for the development of EuroSiberian elements, but the continental climate is also seen in the coastal regions, which is suitable for the development of Irano-Turanian and Mediterranean elements. The majority of the hotspot area is covered with oak forests. Hornbeam, ash trees, lime trees, and maple are also seen within oaks. There is a rich flora in the lower parts. The bushes and shrubs such as hawthorn (alıç), Cornelian cherry (Kızılcık), medlar (muşmula), whitebeam (üvez) appear in the area. Elm (Karaağaç) and Redwood (Kızılağaç) appear inside the river, and Hazelnut (fındık) also appears near these species. In upper places, where the climate is humid, there are beech forests on some islands. The beech forest is also located on smaller islands in places between Sislioba-Avcılar. In lower places, Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian elements are seen because of low humidity and altitude. In these parts, pseudomaki elements cover bigger areas. In some places, Ruscus aculeatus covers large parts. Wetland plants are frequently seen along the river. The place where the river flows into the Black Sea is covered with subasar forests. The bed of the river extends and accumulates sand and these riverside places are very important for the area. It is possible to see steep hillsides and river terraces, of which some are used as agricultural lands, in the upper parts of the valley. FLORA and VEGETATION Hotspot is inside the first degree military zone. Therefore, entering the area was possible after getting official permission. Subsequently, the research started in July, which is very late for flora studies. Despite the limited time, 224 species were identified in the research. The photos of some of these species are given in Table-1. The upper parts of the Mutlu Dere basin are covered with Oak (Quercus petraea) forests. Apart from this, there are other oak species such as Quercus robur, Q. cerris, Q.infectoria, Q. frainetto and Q.hartwissiana. Other species such as Carpinus betulus, C. orientalis, Acer campestre, A. platanoides, A.pseudoplatanus, Tilia argentea, Fraxinus ornus, F.angustifolia are dominant species. Among shrubs, the spread species are Sorbus torminalis, S.acuparia, Carataegus monogyna and Corylus avellana. In the areas below the forests, the dominant species are Ruscus aculeatus, Trachystemon orientalis, Stellaria holostea and Euphorbia amygdaloides. Moreover, there are some broad openings within the forests since the place is used as end grain (makta) area. In some places, Crataegus monogyna, Prunus divaricata, P. spinosa and Populus tremula diffuse to the area. Other places without these plants are covered with rich grass layer. Approaching through the sea, the pseudomaki elements (Calluna vulgaris, Cystus creticus, Rubus sanctus) are regularly visible. Beech forests are locally visible in places between Avcılar-Sislioba. The lower flora of these places consists of Rhododendron ponticum, Daphne pontica and Trachystemon orientalis. The altitude of the area between Sislioba and Beğendik is low. In this area near the riverside, there are Ash Tree-Oak forests, which can be entitled as Longos (Subasar). However, on the Sislioba side, the under forest flora is almost negligible. Typically, the area is not seemed as longos but it carries the characteristics of longos. Due to the river levels rising, the areas are covered with water and mud even in July-August. The Beğendik area, where the river flows into the sea, was reforested by Pinus maritime and behind the area there is typical longos with swamps and lagoons. This constructed set irreversibly changes the structure of the area. Large parts of the area are covered with young and very dense ash trees (Fraxinus angustifolia). Sometimes, it is difficult to enter the area. There are also Ulmus laevis, Salix alba, Alnus glutinosa, Populus tremula, P. canadensis, A. campestre, Carpinus betulus, Quercus robur trees in the area. Under the forest and in the edges Coryllus avellana and Amorpha fruticulosa are spread. There are scrambling plants such as Smilax excelsa, Periploca graeca, Clematis viticella, C. flammula, Vitis sylvestris, Hedera helix and Tamus cammunis. The area around Karacadağ is generally covered with oak forests (Quercus petraea, Q. cerris, Q. infectoria, Q. hartwissiana). Inside these forests, particularly within valleys, there are Tilia argentea, Carpinus betulus, Acer campestre and Alnus glutinosa. Moreover, Fraxinus ornus, F. angustifolia, Carpinus orientalis, Populus tremula are visible trees in terms of forest formation. In the shrub layer, Crataegus are regular as well as Cornus mas, Cornus sanguinea, Sorbus torminalis, Sorbus acuparia, Mespilus germanica and Malus sylvestris species. These species create a dense formation since this area has been damaged by human settlement. The under flora of this area is covered with mainly Cystus creticus and other species such as Chamaecytisus, Genista, and Poaceae. Beech forests in the hotspot are located in the higher parts of Yıldız Mountains and constitute the north border of beech forests. In some places, these beech forests cover large areas and reach Mutlu River east of Karacadağ. The typical under plant of the area is Rhododenron ponticum, seen inside the oak forests where the beech forests are destructed. This is easily observed in the area between Avcılar-Yeşilce. RARE SPECIES GLOBAL CONSERVATION CONCERN SPP. [TAXA] Centaurea kilaea [END, V] EUROPEAN CONSERVATION CONCERN SPP. [TAXA] Cylamen coum var. coum [BERN + LC] OTHER NATIONALLY RARE SPP. [TAXA] Acer pseudoplatanus [VU], Allium guttatum subsp. dalmaticum [CR], Anthemis tinctoria var. euxina [LC], Bertoroa obligua [VU], Cardamine penzesii [n/l], Digitalis grandiflora [NT], Digitalis viridiflora [VU], Ferulago confusa [LC], Knautia drymeia [LC], Lilium martagon [VU], Orchis papilionacea var. papilionacea [LC], Rorippa thracica [VU].

CONSERVATION ƒ Mutlu Dere Hotspot and its environment have no conservation status. The area is located inside the first-degree military forbidden zone since it is in Bulgarian border. Accordingly, the area gains some protection due to military prohibition. ƒ The research in the area indicates that exotic occupant species such as Galinsago parviflora, Gleditshia triacantos and Amorpha fruticulosa lie inside the river within the deep forest. Longos forests around Beğendik valley are particularly attractive features of the area. Similarly, Ailanthus altissima trees are found near the settlement places on riverside hills. The local species are not able to compete with these exotic species since they become easily adapted to the region. ƒ There is 1 species which is listed in Bern Convention Appendix I: Cyclamen coum var. coum ƒ Bern Convention Threatened Habitats Resolution No. 4 (1996): 16.2113 Pontic Embryonic Dunes; 16.22B11 South-Western Pontic Fixed Dunes; 22.3233 Wet Ground Dwarf Herbs; 22.351 Ponto-Pannonic Riverbank Dwarf Sedge Communities; 24.2 River Gravel Banks; 31.22C Pontic Ling Heaths 41.1E122 Stranja Rhodendron-Oriental Beech Forests; 41.2C South-EasternEuropean Oak-Hornbeam Forests; 41.76A Thracian Sub-Continental Thermophilous Oak Woods; 41.H1111 Stranja Beech-Hornbeam-Lime Forests; 41.H1112 Stranja Beech- Quercus petraea subsp. iberica Forests; 41.H21 Thracian Oak-Hornbeam Forests; 41. 76A4 Stranja Quercus petrea subsp. iberica Forests; 44.4322 Coastal Bulgarian Longos Forests

THREATS and OTHER CONSERVATION ISSUES • The area will surely be affected by the transporting of water from Yıldız Mountains to Istanbul. The future of the area is seriously under threat. The details of the project can be found in the official side of the ISKI. (http://www.iski.gov.tr/Web/statik.aspx?KID=1000845) ISKI declared that water of Mutlu River will be transferred to the Pabuçdere dam through pipelines and negotiations are continuing between Turkish Ministry and Bulgaria concerning this drinking water project. According to the project, the planned pipeline will be constructed and passed through the forest roads. This pipeline will be 43 km in length and it is aimed to transfer 200 million m3 of water to Istanbul, which actually requires 750 million m3 of water annually, through these pipelines. • It is expected that the huge highway project planned to connect Istanbul to Bulgaria will be a serious threat to the area. (Here, it has to be mentioned that the details of the project have not yet been determined.) This project will cause destruction and pollution in the area, and also threats natural and landscape characteristics. Moreover, it will become easier for the public to access the area when the highway project is finished. • Another threat for the area is the transformation of dry brushwood and river terraces, which are extremely important endangered habitats, to agricultural land or reforestation of these places with populus trees. • Due to the delay in starting the research, the vegetation of autumn, winter, and the early months of the spring cannot be identified despite many plant species (including bulbous plants) blooming during the early spring. Without military permission, the project started in non-military areas in mid-May, and the collected plants have been added to the total list. Actually, it is vital to identify species in the regions around the Bulgarian border since these places are sources of genes for threatened species in other areas of the Yıldız Mountain because of greater human impact and destruction. Moreover, this study underlines the importance of the area and suggests that new researches, which cover the whole vegetation periods, should be conducted in the same region to identify new taxa.

The list of the flowering plants and ferns of Mutlu River 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52.

Acer campestre L. subsp. campestre Acer platanoides L. (Photo 1) Acer pseudoplatanus L. Achillea setacea Waldst. & Kit. Agrimonia eupatoria L. Ajuga laxmannii (L.) Bentham Ajuga reptans L. Alcea pallida Waldst et Kit. Alisma gramineum Lej. Allium guttatum Steven subsp. dalmaticum (A. Kerner ex Janchen) Stearn Allium vineale L. Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertner subsp. Glutinosa Amorpha fruticosa L. Anagallis arvensis L. var. Arvensis Anchusa leptophylla Roemer & Schultes subsp. incana (Ledeb.) Chamb. Anthemis tinctoria L. var. euxina (Boiss.) Grierson Anthemis tinctoria L. var. tinctoria (Photo 2) Anthoxanthum odoratum L. subsp. odoratum Arctium minus (Hill.) Bernh. subsp. minus Artemisia vulgaris L. Asplenium trichomanes L. Aster tripolium L. Athyrium filix-foemina (L.) Roth Ballota nigra L. subsp. nigra Bellis perennis L. Bertoroa obligua (Sm. & Sm.) DC. Briza maxima L. Calamintha grandiflora (L.) Moench. Calamintha sylvatica Bromf. subsp. ascendens (Jordan) P.W.Ball Calystegia sylvatica (Kit.) Griseb. Campanula persicifolia L. Campanula trachelium L. subsp. athoa (Boiss. & Heldr.) Hayek (Photo 3) Cardamine hirsuta L. Cardamine penzesii Ancev & Marhold Carduus acanthoides L. Carex birizoides L. Carpinus betulus L. Carpinus orientalis Miller subsp. orientalis Centaurea kilaea Boiss. Centaurium erythraea Rafn. subsp. erythraea Cephalanthera longifolia (L.) Fritsch Cerastium glomeratum Thuill. Cerasus avium (L.) Moench Cerinthe minor L. subsp. auriculata (Ten.) Domac Chaerophyllum byzantinum Boiss. Chamaecytisus austriacus (L.) Link Chenopodium polyspermum L. Chondrilla juncea L. var. juncea Cichorium intybus L. Circaea lutetiana L. Cirsium vulgare (Savi.) Ten. Cistus creticus L.

Photo 1. Acer platanoides

N. Güler

Photo 2. Anthemis tinctoria L. var. tinctoria

H. Ersoy

Photo 3. Campanula trachelium subsp. athoa

H. Ersoy

Photo 4. Dactylorhiza saccifera

N. Güler

53. Clematis vitalba L. 54. Clinopodium vulgare L. subsp. arundanum (Boiss.) Nyman 55. Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist 56. Cornus mas L. 57. Cornus sanguinea L. 58. Corylus avellana L. var. avellana 59. Corylus colurna L. 60. Crataegus monogyna Jacq. subsp. monogyna 61. Crepis foetida subsp. rhoeadifolia (Bieb.) Celak 62. Cucubalus baccifer L. 63. Cyperus longus (L.) Hay. 64. Dactylorhiza saccifera (Brongn.) Soó (Photo 4) 65. Daphne pontica L. (Photo 5) 66. Datura stramonium L. 67. Daucus carota L. 68. Dianthus armeria L. subsp. armeriastrum (Wolfn.) Velen. 69. Digitalis ferruginea L. subsp. ferruginea 70. Digitalis viridiflora Lindley 71. Echium italicum L. 72. Echium vulgare L. 73. Epilobium hirsutum L. 74. Epilobium montanum L. 75. Epilobium tetragonum L. subsp. tetragonum 76. Euonymus europaeus L. (Photo 6) 77. Eupatorium cannabium L. 78. Euphorbia amygdaloides L. var. amygdaloides 79. Euphorbia sequieriana Necker subsp. sequieriana 80. Euphorbia stricta L. 81. Fagus orientalis Lipsky (Photo 7) 82. Fragaria vesca L. 83. Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl subsp. oxycarpa (Bieb. ex Willd.) Franco & Rocha Afonso 84. Fraxinus ornus L. subsp. ornus 85. Galega officinalis L. 86. Galeopsis speciosa Mill. 87. Galinsoga parviflora Cav. 88. Genista carinalis Gris. 89. Genista tinctoria L. 90. Geranium asphodeloides Burm. fil. subsp. asphodeloides 91. Geranium columbinum L. 92. Geranium lucidum L. 93. Hedera helix L. 94. Herniaria glabra L. 95. Hypericum perforatum L. 96. Hypericum rumeliacum Boiss. 97. Hypericum umbellatum A. Kerner ?? 98. Inula salicina L. 99. Jasione heldreichii Boiss. & Orph. subsp. heldreichii 100. Kickxia elatine (L.) Dumort subsp. crinata (Mabile) Greuter 101. Knautia degenii Sorbas ex Formanek 102. Knautia drymeia Heffel 103. Lamium purpureum L. var. purpureum

Photo 5. Daphne pontica

Photo 6. Euonymus europaeus

Photo 7. Fagus orientalis

Photo 8. Listera ovata

N. Güler

H. Ersoy

N. Güler

N. Güler

104. Lapsana communis L. subsp. intermedia (Bieb.) Hayek 105. Lapsana communis L. subsp. pisidica (Boiss. & Heldr.) Rech. 106. Lathraea squamaria L. 107. Lathyrus laxiflorus (Desf.) O.Kuntze subsp. laxiflorus 108. Lavatera thuringiaca L. 109. Leonurus cardiaca L. 110. Ligustrum vulgare L. 111. Lilium martagon L. 112. Linaria genistifolia (L.) Miller subsp. genistifolia 113. Listera ovata (L.) R. Br. (Photo 8) 114. Loranthus europaeus Jacq. 115. Luzula forsteri (Sm.) DC. 116. Lycopus europaeus L. 117. Lysimachia atropurpurea L. (Photo 9) 118. Lysimachia verticillaris Sprengel 119. Lysimachia vulgaris L. 120. Lythrum salicaria L. 121. Malus sylvestris Miller subsp. orientalis (A.Uglitzkich) Browicz var. orientalis 122. Malva sylvestris L. 123. Melilotus alba Desr. 124. Melissa officinalis L. subsp. altissima (Sm.) Arcangeli 125. Melissa officinalis L. subsp. officinalis 126. Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson subsp. typhoides (Briq.) Harley var. typhoides 127. Mentha pulegium L. 128. Mulgedium tataricum (L.) DC. 129. Mycelis muralis (L.) Dum. 130. Myosotis arvensis (L.) Hill. subsp. arvensis 131. Neottia nidus-avis (L.) L.C.M. Rrichard 132. Nepeta cataria L. 133. Orchis morio L. subsp. morio 134. Orchis morio L. subsp. picta (Loisel.) K. Richter 135. Orchis palustris Jacq. (Photo 10) 136. Orchis papilionacea L. var. papilionacea 137. Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare 138. Ornithopus compresus L. 139. Orobanche caryophyllacea Smith 140. Parentucellia latifolia (L.) Caruel subsp. latifolia 141. Parietaria officinalis L. 142. Pastinaca sativa L. subsp. urens (Req.ex Godron) Celak 143. Periploca graeca L. var. graeca 144. Phyllitis scolopendrium (L.) Newm. 145. Pilosella hoppeana (Schultes) C.H. & F W.Schultz subsp. troica (Zahn) Sell & West 146. Platanthera chlorantha (Custer) Reichb. 147. Poa bulbosa L.

Photo 9. Lysimachia atropurpurea

Photo 10. Orchis palustris

Photo 11. Salvia forskahlei

Photo 12. Smilax excelsa

H. Ersoy

N. Güler

H. Ersoy

N. Güler

148. Polygala supina Schreb. 149. Polygonatum multiflorum (L.) All. 150. Polygonum convolvulus L. 151. Polygonum laphatifolium L. 152. Polypodium vulgare L. subsp. vulgare 153. Polystichum setiferum (Forsk.) Woynar 154. Populus tremula L. 155. Prunella vulgaris L. 156. Prunus divaricata Ledeb. 157. Prunus spinosa L. subsp. dasyphylla (Schur) Domin 158. Prunus x domestica L. 159. Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn. (Photo 10) 160. Pulicaria dysenterica (L.) Bernh. 161. Pyracantha coccinea Roemer 162. Pyrus bulgarica Kuthath. & Sachok.? 163. Quercus cerris L. var. cerris 164. Quercus frainetto Ten. 165. Quercus hartwisiana Steven 166. Quercus infectoria Olivier subsp. infectoria 167. Quercus petrae (Mattuschka) Liebl. subsp. petrae 168. Quercus robur L. subsp. robur 169. Ranunculus constantinopolitanus (DC.) d’Urv. 170. Ranunculus gracilis Clarke 171. Rorippa sylvestre (L.) Bess. 172. Rorippa thracica (Gris.) Fritsch 173. Rosa canina L. 174. Ruscus aculeatus L. var. angustifolius Boiss. 175. Salix alba L. 176. Salvia forskahlei L. (Photo 11) 177. Salvia verbeneca L. 178. Salvia virgata Jacq. 179. Saponaria officinalis L. 180. Scleranthus perennis L. subsp. dichotomus (Schur.) Stoj. et Stefanof 181. Scleranthus perennis L. subsp. marginatus (Guss.) Arc. 182. Scrophularia umbrosa Dum. 183. Sedum pallidum Bieb. var. bithynicum (Boiss.) Chamberlain 184. Senecio aquaticus Hill subsp. erraticus (Bertol.) Matthews 185. Senecio vulgaris L. 186. Setaria glauca (L.) P. Beauv. 187. Silene dichotoma Ehrh. subsp. dichotoma 188. Silene noctiflora L. 189. Silene viridiflora L. 190. Smilax excelsa L. (Photo 12) 191. Solanum dulcamara L. 192. Solanum nigrum L. subsp. schultesii (Opiz) Wessely 193. Sorbus aucuparia L. 194. Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz. var. torminalis 195. Sparganium erectum L. subsp.

Photo 13. Stellaria holostea

Photo 14. Tanacetum parthenium

Photo 15. Umbilicus erectus var. lassithiensis

Photo 16. Verbena officinalis

N. Güler

H. Ersoy

H. Ersoy

N. Güler

erectum 196. Spergularia rubra (L.) J. & C. Persl. 197. Stachys germanica L. subsp. bithynica (Boiss.) Bhattacharjee 198. Stachys sylvatica L. 199. Stellaria holostea L. (Photo 13) 200. Stellaria media (L.) Vill. 201. Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz. Bip. 202. Teucrium lamiifolium d'Urv. subsp. lamiifolium 203. Thymus roegneri C. Koch 204. Tilia argentea Desf. ex. DC. 205. Tilia platyphyllos Scop. 206. Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link subsp. neglecta (Sprengel) Thellung 207. Trifolium arvense L. var. arvense 208. Trifolium nigrescens Viv. subsp. nigrescens 209. Ulmus laevis Pallas 210. Ulmus minor Miller. subsp. minor 211. Umbilicus erectus DC. var. lassithiensis (Gand.) Stoj. (Photo 15) 212. Urtica dioica L. 213. Verbena officinalis L. (Photo 10) 214. Veronica chamaedrys L. 215. Veronica officinalis L. 216. Veronica persica Poiret 217. Veronica serpyllifolia L. 218. Vicia cracca L. subsp. gerardii Gaudin 219. Vicia hirsuta (L.) F. S. Gray 220. Vicia sativa L. subsp. nigra (L.) Ehr. var. nigra 221. Vincetoxicum hirundinaria Medicus 222. Viola arvensis Murray 223. Viola tricolor L. 224. Vitis sylvestris Gmelin Başak, N. (1993). Bern Convention (1996). Davıs, P. H. (ed.) (1965-1988). Demiriz. H. (1988). Dönmez, Y. (1968). Duman, H. (Koordinatör) (2005). Ekim, T., Koyuncu, M., Vural, M., Aytaç, Z. Adıgüzel, N. (2000). Güner, A., Özhatay N., Ekim T. Et Başer H.S. (eds.) (2000). Kültür, Ş. (2007). Özhatay, N., Byfield, A., Atay, S. (2003). Standards and Petitions Working Group. (2006). Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Webb, D. A. (1966). Yarcı, C. (1997).

N. GÜLER & H. ERSOY

41°52’N 27°34’E, 41°46’N 27°33’E Size: 13,800 ha Altitude: 250-1,031 m

7. MAHYA MOUNTAIN (including Balaban/Velika Rıver, Dupnisa Cave & Sarpdere Vicinity, Taxus baccata Forest) (part of Mahya Mountain Hotspot) A1 (E) Kırklareli / Demirköy

MODERATE

Present Conservation status: No legal protection exept for Dupnisa Cave which is a Second Degree Natural Site. Characteristic vegetation and habitat: Broad-leaved deciduous forests (beech forest, oakhornbeam forests, thermophilous oak forest communities, mixed oak-beech, hornbeam and linden forests, ash-oak-alder forests)

Taxa number: 367 Endemic taxa: 2 IUCN globally threatened species: Allium rumelicum (Sp.nov.) [EN], Euphorbia amygdaloides var. robbiae [VU] European conservation concern taxa: Cyclamen coum var. coum [LC], Vaccinium arctostophyllos [VU] Verbascum purpureum [EN], Veronica turrilliana [EN] (Bern Convention Appendix 1) Other nationally rare/threatened taxa: Acer pseudoplatanus [VU], Achillea clypeolata [VU], Achillea crithmifolia [VU], Allium moschatum [EN], Anemone nemorosa [VU], Anthoxanthum gracile [VU], Bertorea obliqua [VU], Bupleurum praealtum [VU], Campanula patula subsp. patula [VU], Dianthus roseoluteus [VU], Digitalis viridiflora [EN], Ferulago confusa[VU], Hesperis macedonica [VU], Hesperis pycnotricha [VU], Knautia drymeia [VU], Lychnis viscaria [VU], Onosma thracicum [VU], Ranunculus illyricus subsp. illyricus [VU], Rorippa thracica [EN], Satureja coerulea [VU], Scabiosa triniifolia [VU], Sideritis scardica subsp. scardica [VU], Taraxacum gracilens [VU], Vicia sativa subsp. incisa var. incisa [EN]

Threatened habitats (Bern Convention Resolution No. 4 1996): 34.311 Helleno-Balcanic Savory Steppes 34.532 Helleno-Balkanic Short Grass and Therophyte Communities 38.252 Moeso-Thracian Mesophile Hay Meadows 41.1E121 Stranja Bearbery tree-Oriental Beech Forests 41.2C South-Eastern European Oak-Hornbeam Forests 41.76A42 Stranja Fagus orientalis-Quercus petraea subsp. iberica Forests 41.H1111 Stranja Beech-Hornbeam-Lime Forests 41.H1112 Stranja Beech- Quercus petraea subsp. iberica Forests 44.432 Balkan Ash-Oak-Alder Forests

SUMMARY Mahya Mountain (1,031 m) is the highest peak in the Yıldız Mountains. Beech forests occupy the higher altitudes and the lower zones support oak, beech or hornbeam/beech mixed forests. Rhododendron (Rhododendron ponticum) can be found in the understorey. Small shrubberies and pastures appear in forest clearings. In total, 367 taxa have been identified in this area. Among these, 28 taxa are identified as nationally threatened and seven taxa as threatened at a European scale. Four rare taxa are listed in Bern Convention Appendix I (Cyclamen coum var. coum, Vaccinium arctostaphylos, Verbascum purpureum, Veronica turrilliana). There are also four orchid taxa (Anacamptis pyramidalis, Dactylorhiza saccifera, Ophyrs oestrifera subsp. oestrifera, Orchis purpurea) for which international trade is regulated under CITES, all members of the Orchidaceae being listed under Appendix II of this Convention. Some taxa, such as Veronica turrilliana, Onosma thracica and Sideritis scardica subsp scardica, are rare in Turkey because their distribution barely extends beyond the Bulgarian border. Various Euxine (Black Sea) floral elements are present, particularly South European euxine species in the south of this hotspot. Nine habitats are listed as threatened under under Resolution No. 4 (1996) of the Bern Convention,

particularly with respect to Rhododendron in a very small part of Yıldız Mountains Oriental beech forests. This hotspot extends over a large area and comprises three core areas of outstanding floral and habitat significance and diversity: Dupnisa Cave, neighbouring Sarpdere and Mahya Peak. Additionally, the Taxus baccata Forest and Balaban (Velika) River are important components of this hotspot. With the exception of Dupnisa Cave, itself, and the Taxa baccata Forest, none of the site is protected and, in particular, the rare Sideritis scardica subsp scardica is exposed to extensive collecting activities. Other threats include inappropriate reforestation and grazing activities. SITE DESCRIPTION Mahya Mountain lies within Important Plant Area 4-Istranca Mountains (i.e. Yıldız Mountains). These NW-SE aligned mountains are formed from two different geological units. One of these is metamorphic massif which forms the core of the mountain and is composed of granite, gneiss and schist. Gneiss has rather different qualities in color and structure. The arenas (a special kind of sand) are the result of the decomposition of granite and gneiss, and they are common chemical weathering products. The other geological formation cover this massif. The peak is Mahya Mountain (1,031 m), which is located between Demirköy and Kırklareli. Mahya Mountain is surrounded by lower hills such as Fatmakaya Hill to the north and Kaletepe (846 m) to the south. Mahya Mountain and its surroundings annually receive 1500 mm precipitation, reflecting altitudal and humid Black Sea influences. Thus,, the natural vegetation is humid forests whose dominant species is beech (Fagus orientalis and F. sylvatica). Prevailing winds, altitude, geology and soils all influence forest structure composition at a more local level, resulting in some zonation. Brown forest soils are widespread in the surveyed area. Three core areas have been identified as being of particular conservation importance within this hotspot: Dupnisa Cave, Sarpdere and Mahya Peak. Dupnisa Cave and Sarpdere are described above in a separate account. Mahya Peak is an open rocky area, rich in a number of nationally threatened species: Achillea crithmifolia Waldst. & Kit., Anemone nemorosa L., Asphodeline lutea (L.) Reichb. subsp. Lutea, Campanula patula L. subsp. patula and Digitalis viridiflora Lindley. Anthoxanthum gracile Biv. is a new record for Turkey and Cyclamen coum Miller var. coum is of European concern.Three habitats are listed as threatened under under Resolution No. 4 (1996) of the Bern Convention: 41.76A42 Stranja Fagus orientalis-Quercus petraea subsp. iberica Forests, 41.H1111 Stranja Beech-Hornbeam-Lime Forests and 41.H1112 Stranja Beech- Quercus petraea subsp. iberica Forests. In addition, Taxus baccata Forest and Balaban (Velika) River are important components of Mahya Mountain hotspot. They are each described above in separate accounts. FLORA AND VEGETATION The region is predominantly oak forest, with oriental beech (Fagus orientalis) dominating the higher altitudes in association with Quercus petraea subsp. iberica (sessile Oak), Q. cerris, Carpinus betulus (hornbeam). Rhododendron ponticum (rhodenrdon) rarely appears at lower levels. In the southern parts, oak species (Quercus. cerris, Q frainetto, Q. infectoria) and linden (Tilia argentea) are more common than the dominant species, alder (Alnus glutinosa) and ash (Fraxinus excelsior subsp. excelsior). Pedunculate Oak (Quercus robur) and maples (Acer sp.) generally grow beside streams but not as forest. Also present are trees, such as Q. frainetto, Q. hartwissiana, hazelnut (Corylus avellana), wild service tree (Sorbus torminalis), and shrubs, such as elder (Sambucus nigra) Medlar (Mespilus germanica), wild pears (Pyrus eleagnifolia subsp.eleagnifolia and P. communis), hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna subsp. monogyna), cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) and sloe (Prunus spinosa). Mahya Mountain constitutes the south-eastern geographical limit for numerous European species, such as Campanula patula subsp. Patula, Lychnis viscaria and Arabis turrita. The most interesting species is Acer pseudoplatanus, which is nationally very rare and generally grows with ash in humid valley forests of beech or beech-hornbeam. Within Turkey, this species is only found in the higher altitudes of the Yıldız Mountains.Cyclamen coum var. coum (siklamen) is common within such forests. THREATS and OTHER CONSERVATION ISSUES The most important threats, particularly in southern parts, are inappropriate reafforestation, grazing and extensive collection of rare species, such as Sideritis scardica subsp scardica.

List of flowering plants and ferns

Acer campestre L. subsp. campestre Acer platanoides L. Acer pseudoplatanus L. Acer trautvetteri Medw. Achillea clypeolata Sm. (Photo 1) Achillea crithmifolia Waldst. & Kit. (Photo 2) Achillea grandifolia Friv. Achillea millefolium L. subsp. pannonica (Scheele) Hayek

Photo 1 Achillea clypeolata (Civan perçemi)

E. Akalın

Acinos rotundifolius Pers. Aegopodium podagraria L. Agrimonia eupatoria L. Ajuga chamaepitys (L.) Schreber subsp. chia var. chia Ajuga laxmannii (L.) Bentham Ajuga reptans L. Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande Allium flavum L. subsp. flavum

Photo 2 Achillea crithmifolia (Civan perçemi)

Y. Yeşil

Allium guttatum Steven subsp. guttatum Allium moschatum L. (Photo 3) Allium paniculatum L. subsp. paniculatum Allium saxatile Hohen. ex Boiss. (Photo 4) Allium scorodoprasum L. subsp. rotundum (L.) Stearn Allium rumelicum (sp.nova) Allium sphaerocephalon L. Anacamptis pyramidalis (L.) L.C.M. Richard

Photo 3 Allium moschatum

Y. Yeşil

(Photo 5) Anchusa officinalis L. Anemone nemorosa L. Anthemis cotula L. Anthemis cretica L. subsp. tenuiloba (DC.) Grierson Anthemis tinctoria L. var. tinctoria Anthoxanthum gracile Biv. (Photo 6) Anthriscus cerefolium (L.) Hoffm. Anthriscus nemorosa (Bieb.) Sprengel

Photo 4 Allium saxatile

Y. Yeşil

Anthyllis vulneraria L. subsp. praepropera (Kerner) Bornm. Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynbold Arabis sayittata (Bertol.) DC. Arabis turrita L. Armeria cariensisBoiss. var. cariensis (Photo 7) arundanum (Boiss.) Nyman Asperula rumelica Boiss.

Photo 5 Anacamptis pyramidalis (Peynir çiçeği)

E. Akalın

Photo 6 Anthoxanthum gracile

Y. Yeşil

Asphodeline lutea (L.) Reichb. subsp. lutea Asyneuma limonifolium (L.) Jachen subsp. limonifolium Atropa belladonna L. Bellardia trixago (L.) All. Bellis perennis L. Berteroa obliqua (SM.) DC. (Photo 8) Beta trigyna Waldst et Kit. Briza maxima L. Bupleurum praealtum L. (Photo 9) Calamintha grandiflora (L.) Moench. Meth Calamintha sylvatica Bromf. subsp. ascendens (Jordan) P.W.Ball Calendula arvensis L. Calepina irregularis (Asso) Thel. Calystegia sylvatica (Kit.) Griseb. Campanula lingulata Waldst. & Kit. Campanula patula L. subsp. Patula (Photo 10) Campanula persicifolia L. (Photo 41) Campanula rapunculus L. var. lambertiana (A. DC). Boiss. Campanula trachelium L. subsp. athoa (Boiss et Heldr.) Hayek Cardamine bulbifera (L.) Crantz. Cardamine hirsuta L. Carduus acanthoides subsp. acanthoides Carduus candicans Waldst. et Kit. subsp. candicans Carduus nutans L. (Photo 11)

Photo 7 Armeria cariensis var. cariensis

E. Akalın

Carduus tmoleus Boiss. Carex pallescens L. var. pallescens Carpinus betulus L. Caucalis platycarpos L. Centaurea cuneifolia Sm. Centaurea salonitana Vis. Centaurea triumfettii All. (Photo 12) Centaurium erythraea Rafn. subsp. erythraea Centaurium erythraea Rafn. subsp. rumeliacum (Velen.) Melderis Cerasteum holostea (Bieb.) Rupr. Cerastium illyricum Ard. subsp. comatum (Desv.) P.D.Sell et Whitehead Chaerophyllum byzantinum Boiss. (Photo 13)

Photo 8 Berteroa obliqua

Y. Yeşil

Chamaecytisus austriacus(L.) Link Chelidonium majus L. Cirsium arvense (L.) Soop. subsp. vestitum (Wimmer & Grab.) Petrak Cirsium creticum (Lam.) d'Urv. Cirsium vulgare (Savi.) Ten. Cistus creticus L. (Photo 14) Clinopodium vulgare L. subsp. Cnicus benedictus L. var. kotschyi Boiss. Conium maculatum L. Convolvulus persica Cornus mas L. Coronilla varia L. subsp. varia Corydalis solida (L.) Swartz subsp.

Photo 9 Bupleurum praealtum

Y. Yeşil

brachyloba (Boiss.) Cullen et Davis Coryllus avellana L. var. avellana Crataegus monogyna Jacq. subsp. azarella Crataegus monogyna Jacq. subsp. monogyna Crataegus pentagyna Waldst. & Kit. ex Willd. Crocus pulchellus Herbert (Photo 15) Crupina vulgaris Cass. Cyclamen coum Miller var. coum Dactylis glomerata L. subsp. hispanica (Roth) Nyman

Photo 10 Campanula patula ssp. patula (Çançiçeği) E.Akalın

Dactylorhiza laxmanii Dactylorhiza saccifera (Brongn.) Soo Daphne pontica L. Delphinium fissum Waldst. & Kit. subsp. fissum Dianthus armeria L. subsp. armeria Dianthus barbatus L. Dianthus calocephalus Boiss. Dianthus carthasianum L. Dianthus giganteus d’Urv. (Photo 16)

Photo 11 Carduus nutans (Devedikeni)

Y. Yeşil

Photo 12.Centaurea triumfettii (?)

Y. Yeşil

Dianthus roseoluteus Vel. Digitalis ferruginea L. subsp. ferruginea (Photo 17) Digitalis lanata Ehrh. Digitalis viridiflora Lindley Diplotaxis viminea (L.) DC. Doronicum orientale Hoffm. Dorycnium graecum (L.) Ser. Dorycnium pentaphyllum Scop. subsp. herbaceum (Vill.) Rouy. Dropteris filix-mas Echinops sphaerocephalus L. subsp. sphaerocephalus Echium vulgare L. Epilobium angustifolium L. Epilobium montanum L. (Photo 18) Equisetum ramosissimum Erica arborea L. Erigeron acer L. subsp. acer

Photo 13 Chaerophyllum byzantinum (Frenk maydanosu)

Erodium cicutarium (L.) L’Herit subsp.

Yeşil

cicutarium (Photo 19) Eryngium campestre L. var. virens Link. Euonymus latifolius (L.) Miller subsp. latifolius Euonymus verrucosus Scop. Euphorbia amygdaloides L. var. amygdaloides Euphorbia amygdoloides L. var. robbiae (Turril.) Radcliffe-Smith (Photo 20)

Photo 14 Cistus creticus (Laden)

E. Akalın

Y.

Euphorbia seguieriana subsp. seguieriana Euphorbia stricta L. Fagus orientalis Lipsky Fagus sylvatica L. Ferulago confusa Velen. (Photo 21) Filipendula vulgaris Moench Fragaria vesca L. Fraxinus excelsior L. subsp. excelsior Fraxinus ornus L. subsp. ornus Fritillaria pontica Wahlenb.

Photo 15 Crocus pulchellus (Çiğdem)

Y. Yeşil

Fumana procumbens (Dun.) Gren. et Godr. Fumaria officinalis L. Galinsoga parviflora Cav. Galium aparine L. Galium paschale Forsskal Galium rotundifolium L. Galium subuliferum Somm. et Lev. Galium verum L. subsp. verum Genista carinalis Gris.

Photo 16. Dianthus giganteus (Yabani Karanfil)

Y. Yeşil

Genista lydia Boiss. var. lydia Genista tinctoria L. Geranium asphodeloides Burm. fil. subsp. asphodeloides Geranium lucidum L. Geranium pyrenaicum Burm. fil. Geranium robertianum L. Geranium tuberosum L. subsp. tuberosum Geum urbanum L.

Photo 17. Digitalis ferruginea ssp. ferruginea (Yüksükotu)

Hedera helix L.

Y. Yeşil

Helianthemum racemosum (L.) Pau Heracleum sphondylium L. subsp. ternatum (Velen.) Brummitt Herniaria glabra L. Hesperis macedonica Adamovıc (Photo 22) Hesperis matronalis L. var. matronalis Hesperis pycnotricha Borbas et Degen Hieracium piloselloides subsp. piloselloides Hypericum androsaemum L. (Photo 23) Hypericum aucheri Jaub. & Spach

Photo 18. Epilobium montanum

E. Akalın

Hypericum bithynicum Boiss. Hypericum montbretii Spach Hypericum perfoliatum L. Hypericum perforatum L. Ilex colchica Poj. Inula germanica L. Inula oculus-christi L. Inula salicina L. Inula vulgaris (Lam.) Trevisan Iris sintenisii Janca.

Photo 19. Erodium cicutarium ssp. cicutarium E. Akalın

Jasione heldreichii Boiss. & Orph. subsp. heldreichii Jurinea consanguinea DC. Jurinea mollis (L.) Reichb. Knautia degeni Borbas ex Formanek Knautia drymeia Heuffel Lamium album L. Lamium garganicum L. subsp. laevigatum Arcangeli (Photo 24) Lamium purpureum L. var. purpureum Lapsana communis L. subsp. intermedia (Bieb.) Hayek Laser trilobum (L.) Borkh. Lathyrus laxiflorus (Desf.) O.Kuntze subsp. laxiflorus Lathyrus sphaericus Retz. Lavatera thuringiaca L. Leontodon crispus Vill. var.asper (Waldst. Et Kit.) Rohl.

Photo 20 Euphorbia amygdoloides var. robbiae (Sütleğen) Y. Yeşil

Linaria genistifolia (L.) Miller subsp. genistifolia Linaria pelisseriana (L.) Miller Linum hirsutum L. subsp. byzantinum Azn. Lithospermum purpurocaeruleum L. Luzula campestris (L.) DC. Luzula forsteri (Sm.) DC. Luzula sylvatica (Hudson) Gaudin Lychnis coronaria (L.) Desr. Lychnis viscaria L.

Photo 21. Ferulago confusa (Sarı Çiçek)

Y. Yeşil

Lysimachia nummularia L. Lysimachia punctata L. Lythrum salicaria L. Malus sylvestris Miller subsp. orientalis (A.Uglitzkich) Browicz var. orientalis (Photo 25) Medicago orbicularis (L.) Bart. Melica uniflora Retz. (Photo 41) Melilotus neopolitana Ten.

Photo 22 Hesperis macedonica (Gece menekşesi) Y. Yeşil

Mentha pulegium L. Mercurialis pernennis L. Mespilus germanica L. Milium effusum L. Moehringia trinervia (L.) Clairv. Moenchia mantica (L.) Bertl. subsp. mantica Muscari armeniacum Leichtlin ex Baker (Photo 26) Mycelis muralis (L.) Dum.

Photo 23. Hypericum androsaemum

E. Akalın

Myosotis arvensis (L.) Hill. subsp. arvensis Myosotis ramosissima Rochel ex Schultes subsp. ramosissima Myosotis stricta Link ex Roemer et Schultes Onopordum tauricum Willd. Onosma thracicum Velen. (Photo 27) Ophyrs oestrifera Bieb. subsp. oestrifera Orchis purpurea Hudson Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare Orlaya daucoides (L.) Greuter Ornithogalum orthophyllum

Photo 24 Lamium garganicum ssp. laevigatum (Ballıbaba) Y. Yeşil

Ornithopus compresus L. Orobanche minor Paeonia peregrina Miller Parentucellia latifolia (L.) Caruel subsp. latifolia Pastinaca sativa L. subsp. urens (Req.ex Godron) Celak Petasites hybridus (L.) Gaertner Petrorhagia prolifera (L.) Ball. et Heywood Petrorhagia velutina (Guss.) Ball. &

Photo 25 Malus sylvestris ssp. orientalis var. orientalis (Yabani elma, Ekşi elma, Domuz elması)

Y. Yeşil

Heywood Phyllitis scolopendrium (L.) Newm. (Photo 28) Phytolacca americana L. Pilosella hoppeana (Schultes) C.H. & F.W. Schultz subsp. lydia (Bornm. & Zahn) Sell & West Pilosella hoppeana (Schultes) C.H. & F.W. Schultz. subsp. pilisquama (NP.) Sell & West (Photo 29) Pimpinella tragium Vill. subsp. lithophila

Photo 26 Muscari armeniacum (Arapotu)

Y. Yeşil

Photo 27 Onosma thracicum

Y. Yeşil

(Schinschkin) Tutin Plantago major L. subsp. intermedia (Gilib.) Lange Poa bulbosa L. Polygonatum multiflorum (L.) All. Polygonum bistorta L. Populus tremula L. Potentilla argentea L. Potentilla calabra Ten. Potentilla recta L. Primula vulgaris subsp. sibthorpii (Photo 30) Prunella vulgaris L. Prunus divaricata Ledeb. subsp. divaricata Prunus x domestica L. Pulicaria dysenterica (L.) Bernh. Pyrus bulgarica Kuthath. & Sachok. Pyrus communis L. subsp. communis Quercus cerris L. var. cerris Quercus hartwisiana Steven Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl. subsp.

Photo 28 Phyllitis scolopendrium

Y. Yeşil

iberica (Steven ex Bieb.) Krassiln. Ranunculus brutius Ten. Ranunculus constantinopolitanus (DC.) d’Urv. Ranunculus ficaria L. subsp. ficariiformis Rauy. & Fouc. Ranunculus gracilis Clarke Ranunculus illyricus L.

Photo 29 Pilosella hoppeana ssp. pilisquama

Y. Yeşil

Ranunculus repens L. Rhododendron ponticum L. subsp. ponticum Rhus coriaria L. Rorippa thracica (Gris.) Fritsch (Photo 31) Rosa agrestis Savi Rosa canina L. Rosa gallica L. Rubus canescens DC. var. canescens Borkh. Rubus canescens DC. var. glabratus (Gordon) Davis & Meikle

Photo 30 Primula vulgaris ssp. sibthorpii (Çuha çiçeği, Mart çiçeği)

Y. Yeşil

Rubus sanctus Schreber Rumex acetosella L. Rumex tuberosus L. subsp. tuberosus Ruscus aculeatus L.subsp. angustifolius Boiss. Ruscus hypoglossum L. (Photo 44) salix caprea L. Salvia forskahlei L. Salvia verticillata L. subsp. verticillata

Photo 31 Rorippa thracica

E. Akalın

Scilla autumnalis L. (Photo 32)

Photo 32 Scilla autumnalis

Y.

Scilla bifolia L.

Yeşil

Salvia virgata Jacq. Sambucus ebulus L. Sambucus nigra L. Sanguisorba minor Scop. subsp. muricata (Spach) Briq. Sanicula europaea L. (Davis) Satureja coerulea Janka Scabiosa triniifolia Friv. Scariola viminea (L.) F. W. Schmidt

Scorzonera cretica Willd. Scrophularia scapolii (Hoppe ex) Pers., var. scapolii Scutellaria albida L. subsp. albida Sedum acre L. Sedum caespitosum (Cav.) DC. Sedum hispanicum L. var. hispanicum (Photo 43) Sedum sartorianum Boiss.subsp. sartorianum

Senecio lividus L.

Photo 33 Senecio nemorensis ssp. nemorensis

Y. Yeşil

Photo 34 Stachys sylvatica

Y.Yeşil

Senecio nemorensis L. subsp. nemorensis (Photo 33) Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana Sideritis scardica Griseb. subsp. scardica Silene compacta Fischer Silene gallica L. Silene italica (L.) Pers. Silene vulgaris (Moench.) Garcker var. vulgaris Sison amanum Smyrnium perfoliatum L. Solanum dulcamara L. Solanum nigrum L. Sorbus domestica L. Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz. var. torminalis Stachys germanica L. subsp. bithynica (Boiss.) Bhattacharjee Stachys sylvatica L. (Photo 34) Stachys thirkei C.Koch. Stellaria holostea L. Symphytum bulbosum Schimper Symphytum tuberosum L. subsp. nodosum (Schur) Soó Tanacetum balsamita L. subsp. balsamitoides (Schultz Bip.) Grierson Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz. Bip. Taraxacum gracilens Dahlst. Taraxacum scaturiginosum G. Hagl. Teesdalia coronopifolia (Berg.) Thellung Teucrium chamaedrys L. subsp. chamaedrys Teucrium polium L. Thlaspi alliaceum L. Thymus longicaulis C. Presl var. subisophyllus (Borbas) Jalas Thymus praecox Opiz.subsp. scorpilli var. scorpilli (Velen.) Jalas Tilia argentea Desf. ex. DC. Tilia cordata Miller

Photo 35 Trifolium balansae (Dırfıl)

Y. Yeşil

Torilis nodosa (L.) Gaertner

Photo 36 Trifolium incarnatum (Dırfıl) var. molinierii Y. Yeşil

Trachystemon orientalis (L.) G. Don. Tragopogon dubius Scop. Trifolium angustifolium L. var. angustifolium Trifolium arvense L. var. arvense Trifolium balansae Boiss. (Photo 35) Trifolium incarnatum L. var. molinierii (Balb.) DC. (Photo 36) Trifolium nigrescens Viv. subsp. petrisavii (Clem.) Holmboe Trifolium ochroleucum Huds.

Photo 37 Tulipa sylvestris (Sarı lale)

Y. Yeşil

Photo 38 Verbascum densiflorum (Sığırkuyruğu)

Y. Yeşil

Trifolium pratense L. var. pratense Trinia glauca (L.) Dum. Tripleurospermum tenuifolium (Kit.) Freyn Tulipa sylvestris L. (Photo 37) Tussilago farfara L. Umbilicus rupestris (Salisb.) Dandy Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. Verbascum blattaria L. Verbascum densiflorum Bertol. (Photo 38) Verbascum lagurus Fisch. et Mey. Verbascum purpureum (Janka) Hub.-Mor. (Photo 39) Verbascum xanthophoniceum Griseb. Verbena officinalis L. Veronica beccabunga L. Veronica chamaedrys L. Veronica filiformis J. E. Smith Veronica officinalis L. Veronica serpyllifolia L. Veronica turrilliana Stoj. et Stef. (Photo 42) Veronica verna L. Vicia barbazitae Ten. & Guss. Vicia cracca L. subsp. stenophylla Vicia grandiflora Scop. var. grandiflora Vicia lutea L. var. hirta (Balbis) Lois. Vicia pannonica Crantz Vicia sativa L. subsp. incisa (Bieb.) Arc. var. incisa (L.) Fourr.

Vicia sativa L. subsp. nigra (L.) Ehrh. var.

Photo 39 Verbascum purpureum (Sığırkuyruğu)

H. Ersoy

segetalis(Thuill.) Ser. ex DC. Vicia villosa Roth subsp. dasycarpa (Ten.) Cav.

Vicia villosa Roth subsp. villosa Vincetoxicum hirundinaria Medicus Viola arvensis Murray Viola canina L. Viola odorata L. Viola sieheana Becker

Photo 40 Vincetoxicum hirundinaria

Y. Yeşil

Viola tricolor L.

Photo 41 Melica uniflora

Y. Yeşil

Photo 42 Veronica turilliana

Y. Yeşil

Photo 43 Ruscus hypoglossum

H. Ersoy

Başak, N. and Kıyıcı, S. (2004). Davıs, P. H. (ed.) (1965-1988). Dönmez, Y. (1968). Ekim, T., Koyuncu, M., Vural, M., Aytaç, Z. Adıgüzel, N. (2000). Güner, A., Özhatay N., Ekim T. Et Başer H.S. (eds.) (2000). Ketin, İ. (1983). Kurter, A. (1983).

Photo 44 Sedum hispanicum var. hispanicum Y. Yeşil Kültür, Ş. (2007). Özhatay, N., Byfield, A., Atay, S. (2003). Standards and Petitions Working Group. (2006). Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Turoğlu, H. (1997). Webb, D. A. (1966). Yarcı, C. (1997). Yılmaz, G. and Dane, F. (2007).

E. AKALIN & Y. YEŞİL & S. DEMİRCİ

8. KASATURA GULF A1 (E) Kırklareli / Vize (Kıyıköy)

Coordinates: 41 46 30N 28 00 55E 41 45 56N 28 01 22E

CRITICAL

Present Conservation status: Nature Reserve Area Important Plant Area (ÖBA 6)

Size: 0,1 ha / 13000 m2 Altitude: s.l. – c.150 m Characteristic vegetation and habitat: Floodplain forests, pseudomacchie, pine and oak trees, Quercus coppice forest, sand duness

Taxa number: 365 Endemic taxa: 4

Sites meet hot spot criteria : Global Conservation concern species: Centaurea kilaea, Centaurea hermannii, Peucedanum obtusifolium, Silene sangaria European Conservation concern taxa: Aurinia uechtritziana, Cyclamen coum var. coum, Veronica turrilliana Nationally Rare and endangered taxa: Acer pseudoplatanus, Anemone blanda, Crocus olivieri ssp. olivieri, Crocus chrysanthus, Helianthemum aegyptiacum, Jurinea kilaea, Leucojum aestivum, Lilium martagon, Pancratium maritimum, Peucedanum obtusifolium, Silene sangaria, Tilia cordata, Verbascum banaticum, Verbascum bugulifolium, Veronica turrilliana Endangered natural habitats: 16.2113, 16.2124, 16.22B11, 31.22C, 41.1E122, 41.7371, 41.76A11 41.76A12, ,41.76A4, 41.76A5, 41.H21, 42.66, 44.432

SUMMARY Kasatura Gulf HotSpot (HS) is located on the Black Sea coast, to the south of Kıyıköy (Vize). In the area, there are forests composed of various trees such as longos, sand dunes, macchies (maki), black pine and oak. The area became a Nature Reserve Area in 1987 since it is one of the rare regions where black pine spread throughout the seaside. There are rich habitats in the field constituting prosperous plant variations in the field. These habitats are forest ecosystems (coppice forests) consisted of Anatolian Black Pine, Black Pine-Oak mixed and Oak species, macchies communities, sand dunes ecosystems and reforestation areas of Black Pine. The field is important since there are various habitats and prosperous plant diversity in the field, alongside the plant species which are under protection of international conventions. For instance, there are 5 species in the area which is listed in the Bern Convention Appendix I: Aurinia uechtritziana, Centaurea hermannii, Cyclamem coum, Silene sangaria, Veronica turrilliana. The large part of the gulf is located within the borders of Tekirdağ province and organised as picnic and recreational areas. There are some tourist facilities and accommodation units in the area. Tourists can easily pass to the Nature Reserve Area since Bahçıvan Stream separates from the sea from time to time. Therefore, the gulf is under influence of human impact in both borders of provinces and this constitutes the greatest threat to vegetation. The fires of 1972 and 2009 are the most important indicators of the human impact. Furthermore, the Sultanbahçe Dam constructed above the Bahçıvan stream has caused a change in the longos forest area over time. The area is also threatened by the construction of summer houses and grazing. SITE DESCRIPTION Kasatura Gulf Hotspot is by the Black Sea coast, to the south of Kıyıköy, between the rivers of Kazandere and Bahçıvan. On the seaside, there are sand dunes and longos forests, and subsequent to these there are black pine, oak, black pine-oak mixed, and other leafy trees-oak mixed forests. The macchies scrubland also appears in some places near the Black Sea coast.

The SAND DUNES AREA inside the borders of Kırklareli province is not big. Phragmites australis communities appear near the Bahçıvan stream and Typha laxmannii communities appear in the inner parts. There are rare plants which are endemic to north-west Turkey and Bulgaria, in the sand dunes. For instance, Centaurea kilaea, Jurinea kilaea, Peucedanum obtusifolium are some of these species. LONGOS FOREST FLORA is generally placed within the borders of Tekirdağ province. Sometimes, the streamside of Kırklareli province also shows longos characteristics. In STREAMSIDE, there are oak mixed, oak-lime, oak-black pine-ash tree, oak-corpinus, and oakcorpinus-lime mixed forests. In some places, Kızılağaç also participate to this mixed forests. The place where Black Pine spreads through seaside is in the Nature Reserve Area. After the fire of 1972, the area was reforested with Black Pine. According to the report entitled “Kasatura Körfezi TKA’da Yapılması Đstenen Silvikültürel Đşlemler Hakkında” (written by Odabaşı & Aksoy & Kantarcı, 1990), the Black Pine reforestation was done with saplings lacking definite origins and it is identified that the groups and clusters of natural Black Pine that stand have been left in the area. The natural black pine groups, which were left in the area during the preservation, should be conserved in the area since they are the only group for continuance of the local origin. On the other hand, protection of the field without cutting also causes the closeness/frequency of trees because of growth and increases the threat of fire. Also, according to the research conducted by Velioğlu (2004), it is found that the genetic pollution of natural population is 80.4 %.

Kazan Dere

Kazan Dere Barajı

Bahçıvan Dere Sultanbahçe Barajı

FLORA and VEGETATION There are various rare plants, endemic to north-western Turkey and Bulgaria, in sand dunes vegetation of the Kasatura Gulf Hotspot. For instance, Aurinia uechtritziana, Matthiola fruticulosa, Centaurea kilaea, Jurinea kilaea, Pancratium matirimum, Peucedanum obtusifolium, Silene sangaria are some of these endemics. Leymus racemosus, Eryngium maritimum, Otanthus maritimus, Silene sangaria, Lolium rigidum appear with other species inside some parts of the sand dunes that are close to the sea. Plant composition composed of species belonging to the meadow vegetation, appear at a distance from the sea. Periploca graeca, Vitis sylvestris, Ligustrum vulgare, Clematis vitalba appear in the very narrow field between the sand dunes area and the forest, and subsequently the forest begins. Here indigenous black pines are mingled with black pines of unknown origins planted in 1972, in response to damage cause by a major forest fire.

In the Black Sea border of the area, Black Pine rarely appears in the seaside, but generally macchies such as Phillyrea latifolia, Arbutus unedo, Erica arborea is found. Sometimes, dwarf Juniperus oxycedrus, Cotinus coggygria, Paliurus spina-christii stay with these species. Alongside macchies, there are oak forests mixed with carpinus (Carpinus betulus, C. orientalis) and other leafy trees (Fraxinus ornus, Sorbus torminalis), mixed oak forests, oak-black pine mixed forests, pure black pine forests in the northern parts of the area. In general, the species of oaks are Q. petraea ssp. iberica, Q.frainetto and Q.cerris, and rarely are, Q.pubescens, Q.virgiliana, Q.hartwissiana and Q. infectoria found in the area. The area also inhabits prosperous grass and bush species as well as tree species. In particular, there is dense bush and shrub layer composed of Fındık (Corylus avellana), kızılcık türleri (Cornus mas, C. sanguinea), gül (Rosa canina, R.sempervirens), geyik dikeni (Crataegus monogyna) ve Böğürtlen (Rubus sp.) in forest openings. In addition to these plants, muşmula (Mespilus germanica), üvez (Sorbus torminalis), dişbudak (Fraxinus ornus, F. angustifolia), kocayemiş (Arbutus unedo), funda (Erica arborea) from bushes; and orman sarmaşığı(Hedera helix), Similax excelsa from scrambling are found in places under the forest, particularly in the layer of bushes located in places dominated by oaks.

KasaturaGulf, Nature Reserve Area

Sand Dunes in Kırklareli

Bahçıvan Dere

Black Sea Coast

Black Sea Coast Sirke Çatağı koyu

Sand Dunes and Forestral areas

Rare Species GLOBAL CONSERVATĐON CONCERN SPP. [TAXA] Centaurea kilaea [END, EN], Centaurea hermannii [END, EN], Peucedanum obtusifolium [END, VU], Silene sangaria [END, EN] EUROPEAN CONSERVATĐON CONCERN SPP. [TAXA] Aurinia uechtritziana [VU], Cyclamen coum var coum [VU], Veronica turrilliana [ED] OTHER NATĐONALLY RARE SPP. [TAXA] Acer pseudoplatanus [VU], Jurinea kilaea [VU], Leucojum aestivum [VU], Lilium martagon [VU], Pancratium maritimum [EN], Verbascum banaticum [VU], Verbascum bugulifolium [NT], Tilia cordata [is rare according the author] CONSERVATION • Some parts of the Kasatura Gulf Hotspot are Nature Reserve Area and Important Plant Area (IPA-6). The most important habitats are not under protection. Fully enforced protection cannot be achieved in the area where black pine spreads through seaside. •There are 5 species in the area listed in Bern Convention Appendix I: Aurinia uechtritziana, Centaurea hermannii, Cyclamem coum, Silene sangaria, Veronica turrilliana. • Bern Covention Resolition No: 4, 1996) Threatened Habitats: 16.2113 Pontic Embryonic Dunes; 16.2124 Pontic White Dunes; 16.22B11 South-Western Pontic Fixed Dunes; 31.22C Pontic Ling Heaths 41.1E122 Stranja Rhodendron-Oriental Beech Forests; 41.7371 Thracian White oak-Oriental Hornbeam Woods 41.76A1 Euxino-Thracian Quercus frainetto-Quercus cerris Forests; 41.76A12 Sub-Euxinian Quercus frainetto-Quercus cerris Forests; 41.76A4 Stranja Quercus petrae subsp. iberica Forests; 41.76A5 South-Eastern Thracian Thermophilous Oak Forests; 41.H21 Thracian Oak-Hornbeam Forests; 41.H21 Thracian Oak-Hornbeam Forests; 42.66 Banat and Pallas’ Pine Forests; 44.432 Balkan Ash-Oak-Alder Forests; THREATS and OTHER CONSERVATION ISSUES • The summer houses constructed in the north of the area threaten the HS. • Seaside and other natural habitats in HS are endangered because of recreational activities. • The other threat for the HS is grazing, that takes place in the north of the area. • The Sultanbahçe Dam, constructed Bahçıvan stream, changes the area and the flow of the stream. This situation will also cause a change in the longos forest area over time.

The list of the flowering plants and ferns of Kasatura Gulf Acer campestre L. ssp. campestre (Photo 1) Acer pseudoplatanus L. Acer trautvetteri Medw. Achillea millefolium L. Adonis microcarpa DC. Agrostis stolonifera L. Aira elegantissima Schur ssp. elegantissima Ajuga laxmanii Benth. Alcea lavaterifolia (DC) Boiss. Allium ampeloprasum L.

Photo 1. Acer campestre ssp. campestre (Ova Akçaağacı)

Allium dentiferum Webb & Berthel. Allium guttatum Steven ssp. guttatum Allium paniculatum L. ssp. paniculatum Allium scorodoprasum L.ssp. rotundum (Photo 2) Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertner ssp. glutinosa (Photo 3) Alopecurus rendlei Eig. Amaranthus retroflexus L. Anacamptis pyramidalis (L.) L.C.M. Richard Anagallis arvensis L. ssp arvensis (Photo 4) Anagallis foemina Miller

Photo 2. Allium scorodoprasum ssp. rotundum.

Anchusa Anemona blanda Schott & Kotschy (Photo 5) Anemone pavonina Lam. (Photo 6) Anthemis tinctoria L. ssp. euxinum Anthemis tinctoria L. var. tinctoria Anthoxanthum odoratum L. ssp. odoratum Arbutus unedo L. Aristolochia clematitis L. Asparagus acutifolius L. Asparagus aphyllus L. ssp. orientalis (Baker) P.H.Davis

Photo 3. Alnus glutinosa ssp. glutinosa (Kızılağaç)

Asperula littoralis Sibth. & Sm. Asperula tenella Hauffel ex Degen Asplenium adiantum nigrum L. Asplenium onopteris L. Asyneuma limoniifolium (L.) Bornm. Aurinia uechtritziana (Bornm.) Cullen & T.R.Dudley Avena barbata Pott ex Link ssp. barbata Bellis perennis L.

Photo 4. Anagallis arvensis ssp arvensis

Bellis sylvestris Cyr. Blacstonia perfoliata (L.) Huds. Brachypodium pinnatum (L.) P. Beauv. Briza humulis Bieb. Briza maxima L. (Photo 7) Briza media L. Bromus tectorum L. Cakile maritima Scop. Calamagrostis epigejos (L.) Roth.

Photo 5. Anemone blanda

Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull. Calystegia silvatica (Kit.) Griseb. Campanula lingulata Waldst. & Kit (Photo 8) Campanula macrostachya Waldst. & Kit Campanula persicifolia L. Carlina vulgaris L. Carpinus betulus L. (Photo 9) Carpinus orientalis Miller ssp. orientalis (Photo 10) Castanea sativa Miller (Photo 11) Centaurea cuneifolia Sibth. & Sm. Centaurea hermannii F.Hermann Centaurea kilaea Boiss. Centaurea solstitialis L. ssp. solstitialis Centaurium erythraea Rafn. ssp. turcicum (Velen) Melderis (Photo 12) Centaurium maritimum Fritsch

Photo 6. Anemone pavonina

Cephalanthera longifolia (L.) Fritsch. (Photo 13) Chamaecytisus hirsutus (L.) Link. (Photo 14) Chrysopogon gryllus (L.) Trin. ssp. gryllus Cichorium intybus L. Cichorium pumilum Jacq. (Photo 15) Cionura erecta Griseb. Cistus creticus L. (Photo 16) Cistus parviflorus Lam.

Photo 7. Briza maxima

Cistus salviifolius L. (Photo 17) Clematis vitalba L. (Photo 18) Clinopodium vulgare L. ssp. vulgare Colchicum bivonae Guss. Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist Cornus mas L. (Photo 19) Corydalis solida (L.) Swatz. ssp. solida (Photo 20) Corylus avellana L. var. avellana

Photo 8. Campanula lingulata

Cotinus coggyria Scop. (Photo 21) Crocus chrysanthus (Herbert) Herbert Crocus olivieri Gay. ssp. olivieri (Photo 22) Crocus pulchellus Herb. Cruciata pedemontana (Bellardi) Ehrend. Cyclamen coum Miller var. coum (Photo 23) Cynosurus echinatus L. (Photo 24) Cyperus capitatus Vandelli Cytinus hypocistis L. ssp. kerrmesinus (Guss.) Wettst. (Photo 25) Cytinus hypocistis L. ssp. orientalis Wettst. (Photo 26) Dactylis glomerata L. ssp. glomerata Dactylis glomerata L. ssp. hispanica (Roth.) Nyman Dactylis glomerata L. ssp. lobata (Drej.) Lindlb. Dactylorhiza romana (Seb.) Soo ssp. romana

Photo 9. Carpinus betulus (Gürgen)

Daphne pontica L. (Photo 27) Deschampsia caespitosa (L.) P.Beauv. Dianthus calocephalus Boiss. Digitalis lanata Ehrh. (Photo 29) Dipsacus laciniatus L. (Photo 28) Doronicum orientale Hoffm. Dorycnium pentaphyllum Scop. Echinops ritro L. (Photo 30) Epimedium pubigerum (DC.) Maren & Decaisne (Photo 31) Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz.

Photo 10. Carpinus orientalis ssp. orientalis (Doğu gürgeni)

Erica arborea L. Eryngium maritimum L. Euphorbia oblongata K.Koch Euphorbia amygdaloides L. Euphorbia seguieriana Neck. ssp. seguieriana Fagus orientalis Lipsky. (Photo 32) Ferulago thirkeana Boiss. Festuca drymeja Mertens & Koch.

Photo 11. Castanea sativa (Kestane)

Festuca heterophylla Lam. Festuca valesiaca Schleicher ex Gaudin Ficus carica L. ssp. carica Frangula alnus Miller Fritillaria pontica Wahlenb. (Photo 33) Gagea chrysantha (Jan) Schultes & Schultes Genista carinalis Griseb. Genista tinctoria L. Geranium robertianum L. Globularia aphyllanthes Crantz. Globularia trichomanes Fisch. & Mey. (Photo 34) Hedera helix L. Helianthemum aegyptiacum (L.) Miller Helloborus orientalis Lam. (Photo 35)

Photo 12. Centaurium erythraea ssp. turcicum

Holcus lanatus L. Hordeum murinum L. ssp. leoporinum (Link.) Arc. var. leoporinum Hordeum murinum L. ssp. glaucum (Steudel) Tzvelev Hylotelephium telephium (L.) H.Ohba Hypericum perforatum L. Ilex colchica Poj. Inula salicina L. Iris pseudacorus L. Iris sintenisii Janka (Photo 36) Jasione heldreichii Boiss. & Orph. subsp. heldreichii Juglans regia L. Juniperus oxycedrus L. ssp. Oxycedrus (Photo 37) Jurinea kilaea Azn. Lapsana communis L. ssp. intermedia (Bieb.) Hayek Lathyrus undulatus Boiss.

Photo 13. Cephalanthera longifolia

Leontodon tuberosus L. Leucojum aestivum L. Leymus racemosus (Lam.) Tzvelev ssp. sabulosus (Bieb.) Tzvelev Ligustrum vulgare L. Lilium martagon L. (Photo 40) Linaria genistifolia (L.) Miller ssp. genistifolia Linaria odora (bieb.) Fischer

Photo 14. Chamaecytisus hirsutus

Linaria pelisseriana (L.) Miller Linum bienne Miller Linum tenuifolium L. Linum trigynum L. Lolium perenne L. Lolium rigidum Gaudin var. rigidum Lonicera etrusca Santi var. hispidula Boiss. Lupinus spp. Lysimachia punctata L.

Photo 15. Cichorium pumilum

Lythrum salicaria L. Malva sylvestris L. Matthiola fruticulosa (L.) Maire Melica ciliata L. ssp. ciliata Melica uniflora Retz. Mentha longifolia Huds. Mespilus germanica L. Muscari armeniacum Leitchtlin ex Baker Photo 16. Cistus creticus (Tüylü laden) Muscari neglectum Guss. Najas marina L. subsp. marina Nectarroscordum siculum (Ucria) Lindl. ssp bulgaricum Ophrys mamosa Desf. Ophrys oestrifera Bieb. ssp. oestrifera Orchis coriophora L. Orchis morio L. ssp. morio Orchis purpurea Hudson (Photo 38) Orchis simia Lam. (Photo 39)

Photo 17. Cistus salviifolius (Adaçayı yapraklı laden)

Orchis tridentata Scop. Origanum vulgare L. Orlaya daucoides (L.) Greuter Ornithogalum pyrenaicum L. Ornithogalum sigmoideum Freyn. & Sint. Orobanchae alba Stephan Orobanchae caryophyllacea Smith. Orobanchae cernua Loefl. Orobanchae mutelii F.Schultz Orobanchae purpurea Jacq. Osyris alba L. Otanthus maritimus (L.) Hoffmanns. & Link Oxalis corniculata L. Paliurus spina-christii Miller Pancratium maritimum L. (Photo 41)

Photo 18. Clematis vitalba (Duman asması)

Papaver rhoeas L. Parentucellia latifolia (L.) Caruel ssp. latifolia Periploca graeca L. var. graeca (Photo 42) Petrorhagia velutina (Guss.) P.W.Ball & Heywood Peucedanum obtusifolium Sm. Phillyrea latifolia L. (Photo 43) Phleum pratense L. Phleum subulatum (Savi) Asch. & Graebn. ssp. subulatum Phragmites australis (Cav.) Steud.

Photo 19. Cornus mas (Sarı çiçekli kızılcık)

Phytolacca americana L. (Photo 48) Pinus nigra L. Pistacia terebinthus L. ssp. palaestina (Boiss.) Engler Pistacia terebinthus ssp. terebinthus Plantago lagopus L. Plantago lanceolata L. Plantago scabra Moench

Photo 20. Corydalis solida ssp. solida

Platanthera bifolia (L.) Rich. Platanthera chlorantha Cust. ex Rchb. Poa annua L. Poa bulbosa L. Poa nemoralis L. Poa pratensis L. Poa trivialis L. Polygala anatolica Boiss. & Heldr. Polygala pruinosa Boiss. ssp. pruinosa Polygala vulgaris L. Polygonum mesembricum Chrtek Polypodium vulgare L. ssp. prionodes (Aschers.) Rothm. Polystichum aculeatum (L.) Roth Populus nigra L. ssp. nigra Populus tremula L. Primula vulgaris Hudson

Photo 21. Cotinus coggyria (Peruka çalısı)

ssp. sibthorpii (Hoffmanns.) W.W.Sm. & Forrest Prunella vulgaris L. Prunus laurocerasus L. Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn. Quercus cerris L. var. austriaca (Willd.) Loudon Quercus cerris L. var. cerris Quercus frainetto Ten. Quercus infectoria Olivier ssp. infectoria Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl. ssp. iberica (Steven ex Bieb.) Krassiln Quercus pubescens Willd.

Photo 22. Crocus olivieri ssp. olivieri

Quercus virgiliana Ten. Ranunculus constantinopolitanus (DC.) Urv. Ranunculus cuneatus Boiss. Ranunculus ficaria L. ssp. calthifolius (Reichb.) Arc. Ranunculus neopolitanus Ten. Ranunculus velutinus Ten. Rhododendron ponticum L. ssp. ponticum Rhus coriaria L.

Photo 23. Cyclamen coum var. coum

Romulea columnae Seb.& Mauri ssp. columnae Rosa canina L. Rosa sempervirens L. Rubia peregrina L. Ruscus aculeatus L. var. angustifolius Boiss. (Photo 44) Ruscus hypoglossum L. Salix alba L. Salix caprea L. Salix cinerea L. Salix triandra L. ssp. triandra Salsola ruthenica Iljin Salvia forskahlei L. Sambucus ebulus L.

Photo 24. Cynosurus echinatus

Sambucus nigra L. Scabiosa atropurpurea L. ssp. maritima (L.) Arc. Scabiosa columbaria L. ssp. columbaria var. columbaria Scilla autumnalis L. Scilla bifolia L. Scirpoides holoschoenus (L.) Soják Scleranthus perennis L. ssp. marginatus (Guss.) Arc. Scrophularia canina L. ssp. bicolor (Sm.) Vis Sedum pallidum Bieb. var. bithynicum (Boiss.) Chamberlain Sedum pallidum Bieb. var. pallidum

Photo 25. Cytinus hypocistis ssp. kerrmesinus

Silene dichtoma Ehrh. ssp. euxina (Rupr.) Coode & Cullen Silene otites Sm. Silene sangaria Coode & Cullen Smilax excelsa L. Solanum dulcamara L. Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz. (Photo 455) Stachys cretica L. ssp. bulgarica Rech. fil. Stachys maritima L.

Photo 26. Cytinus hypocistis ssp. orientalis

Stachys montana Stellaria holostea L. Symphytum tuberosum L. Tamus communis L. ssp. communis Tamus communis L. ssp. cretica (L.) Kit Tan Tanacetum corybosum Schulz Photo 27. Daphne pontica Tanacetum parthenium Sch.Bip. Tilia argentea Desf. ex DC. Tilia cordata Miller Tussilago farfara L. Typha laxmannii Lepechin Ulmus leavis Palas (Photo 46) Ulmus minor Miller ssp canescens (Melville) Browicz & Zielinski

Ulmus minor Miller ssp. minor

Photo 28. Dipsacus laciniatus

Urtica dioica L. Verbascum banaticum Schrader Verbascum blattaria L. Verbascum bugulifolium Lam. (Photo 49) Verbascum densiflorum Bertol Verbascum sinuatum L. var. sinuatum Verbascum xanthophoeniceum Griseb. (Photo 47) Verbena officinalis L. Veronica anagallis-aquatica L. Veronica chamaedrys L. Veronica cymbalaria Bodard. Veronica persica Poiret Veronica polita Fries Veronica serpyllifolia L. Veronica turrillana Stoj. et Stef.

Photo 29. Digitalis lanata

Viola arvensis Murray Viola canina L. Viola odorata L. Viola siehana Becker Vitis sylvestris Gmelin

Photo 30. Echinops ritro

Photo 31. Epimedium pubigerum

Photo 32. Fagus orientalis (Doğu kayını)

Photo 33. Fritillaria pontica

Photo 34. Globularia trichomanes

Photo 35. Helloborus orientalis

Photo 36. Iris sintenisii

Photo 37. Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus Küçük kozalaklı katran ardıcı

Photo 38. Orchis purpurea

Photo 39. Orchis simia

Photo 40. Lilium martagon

Photo 41. Pancratium maritimum

Photo 42. Periploca graeca var. graeca

Photo 43. Phillyrea latifolia (Akçakesme)

Photo 44. Ruscus aculeatus var. Angustifolius (Tavşan memesi)

Photo 45. Sorbus torminalis (Akçaağaç yapraklı üvez)

Photo 46. Ulmus minor ssp canescens (Ova karaağacı)

Photo 47. Verbascum xanthophoeniceum Griseb.

Photo 48. Phytolacca americana

Photo 49. Verbascum bugulifolium

Bern Convention (1996). Davıs, P. H. (ed.) (1965-1988). Demiriz. H. (1988). Dönmez, Y. (1968). Ekim, T., Koyuncu, M., Vural, M., Aytaç, Z. Adıgüzel, N. (2000). Güner, A., Özhatay N., Ekim T. Et Başer H.S. (eds.) (2000). Kültür, Ş. (2007). Özhatay, N., Byfield, A., Atay, S. (2003). Standards and Petitions Working Group. (2006). Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Webb, D. A. (1966). Yarcı, C. (1997).

N. ÖZHATAY

9. PANAYIR DERE A1 (E) Kırklareli / Vize-Demirköy

URGENT

Coordinates: : 41°36’N 28°36’E

Present Conservation status:

Size: app. 2000 ha (only 0,1 ha sandy share) Altitude:

No conservation status

Characteristic vegetation and habitat: Sand Dunes, Cliffs near Sea, Fresh Water habitat. Taxa number: app. 100 Endemic taxa: 4

Sites meet hot spot criteria : Global Conservation concern species: Centaurea kilaea, Peucedanum obtusifolium, Silene sangaria European Conservation concern taxa: Polygonum mesembricum Nationally Rare and endangered taxa: Jurinea kilaea, Mathiola fruticulosa, Orchis papilionacea var. papilionacea Endangered natural habitats: 16.2113, 16.2124, 16.22B11

Rare Species GLOBAL CONSERVATİON CONCERN SPP. [TAXA] Centaurea kilaea [END, EN], Peucedanum obtusifolium [END, VU], Silene sangaria [END, EN] EUROPEAN CONSERVATİON CONCERN SPP. [TAXA] Polygonum mesembricum [ED] OTHER NATİONALLY RARE SPP. [TAXA] Jurinea kilaea [VU], Mathiola fruticulosa [VU], Orchis papilionacea var. papilionacea [LC] CONSERVATION Bern Convention Threatened Habitats Resolution No. 4 (1996): 16.2113 Pontic Embryonic Dunes; 16.2124 Pontic White Dunes; 16.22B11 South-Western Pontic Fixed Dunes;

The list of the flowering plants and ferns of Panayır Dere

Agropyron Allium amethystinum Tausch Photo 1 Allium paniculatum L. subsp. fuscum (Waldst. & Kit.) Arc. Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. -Alder Anchusa Anthemis tinctoria L. var. euxina (Boiss.) Grierson -Yellow chamomile Bromus tectorum L. subsp. lucidus Sales Bulboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla var. cymosus (Reichb.) Kit & Oteng-Yeboah. Photo 1. Calystegia soldenalla.- Sea bindweed Calystegia soldenalla (L.) R. Br.- Sea bindweed Photo 1 Centaurea kilaea Boiss. Centaurium erythraea Rafn. subsp. erythraea-Common centaury Cionura erecta (L.) Griseb. Photo 2 Dianthus calocephalus Boiss. Digitalis lanata Ehrh. Dorycnium Eryngium maritimum L. – Sea-holly Euphorbia paralias L.- Sea spurge Euphorbia peplis L.- Purple spurge Photo 2. Cionura erecta Ferulago confusa Velen. Glaucium flavum Crantz- Yellow Hornedpoppy Photo 3 Hypericum Hypericum perforatum L. – Perforate St John’s-wort Jurinea kilaea Azn. Leymus racemosus (Lam.) Tzvelev subsp. sabulosus (Bieb.) Tzvelev Linum aroanium Boiss. et Orph. Mathiola fruticulosa (L.) Maire

Medicago marina L. Photo 4 Olea europaea L. Orchis papilionacea L. var. papilionacea

Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare Marjoram Orobanche nana Noe ex G. Beck Otanthus maritimus (L.) Hoffmans. & LinkCottonweed Pancratium maritimum L. Peucedanum obtusifolium Sm. Physalis alkekengi L.

Photo 3. Glaucium flavum - Yellow Hornedpoppy

Polygonum mesembricum Chrtek Reseda Schoenoplectus lacustris (L.) Palla subsp. tabernaemontanii (C.C. Gmelin) A.& D Löve Silene conica L. –Sand Catchfly Silene dichotoma Ehrh. subsp. dichotoma – Forked Catchfly Photo 5 Silene italica (L.) Pers. –Italian Catchfly Silene otites (L.) Wibel –Spanish Catchfly Silene sangaria Coode & Cullen Silene vulgaris (Moench.) Garcker var. vulgaris –Bladder Campion Smilax excelsa L.

Stachys maritima Gouan Verbascum blattaria L. –Moth Mullein

Photo 4. Medicago marina

Photo 5. Silene dichotoma subsp. dichotoma Forked Catchfly Bern Convention (1996). Davıs, P. H. (ed.) (1965-1988). Demiriz. H. (1988). Dönmez, Y. (1968). Ekim, T., Koyuncu, M., Vural, M., Aytaç, Z. Adıgüzel, N. (2000). Güner, A., Özhatay N., Ekim T. Et Başer H.S. (eds.) (2000). Kültür, Ş. (2007). Özhatay, N., Byfield, A., Atay, S. (2003). Standards and Petitions Working Group. (2006). Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Webb, D. A. (1966). Yarcı, C. (1997).

N. ÖZHATAY

ANNEX 5: FAUNA INVENTORY Inventory of fauna species recorded from the proposed Yiliz Mountains Biosphere Family  ARACHNIDS   ‐ Spiders etc  Araneidae  Araneidae  Dysderidae  Dysderidae  Dysderidae  Dysderidae  Gagrellidae  Linyphiidae  Linyphiidae  Linyphiidae  Nemastomatidae  Nemastomatidae  Nemastomatidae  Neobisiidae  Nesticidae  Phalangiidae  Phalangiidae  Pholcidae  Pholcidae  Tetragnathidae  Tetragnathidae  Tetragnathidae  CHILOPODA   ‐ Centipedes  Scolopendridae  Scutigeridae  Scutigeridae  CLITELLATA   ‐ Annelid worms  Lumbricidae  DIPLOPODA   ‐ Millipedes  Anthroleucosomatidae  Anthroleucosomatidae  Julidae  Trachysphaera  GASTROPODA   ‐ Slugs, snails  Clausiliidae  Clausiliidae  Oxychilidae  INSECTA   ‐ Beetles  Carabidae  Staphylinidae  Staphylinidae  INSECTA   ‐ Butterflies  ARGYNNIDAE  ARGYNNIDAE  ARGYNNIDAE  ARGYNNIDAE  ARGYNNIDAE  ARGYNNIDAE  ARGYNNIDAE  ARGYNNIDAE 

Genus 

Species 

English name 

Turkish name 

 

 

 

  

Araneus  Larinioides  Dasumia  Harpactea  Harpactea  Harpactea  Nelima  Centromerus  Centromerus  Porrhomma  Mitostoma  Paranemastoma  Paranemastoma  Neobisium   Nesticus  Opilio  Phalangium  Pholcus  Pholcus  Meta  Meta  Metellina 

sturmi  cornutus  amoena  babori  coramani sp. nova  deltshevi  pontica  milleri  bumadi sp. nova  convexum  gracile  radewi  aurigerum  hazalae sp. nova  cellulanus  dinaricus  opilio  opilionoides  phalangioides  bourneti  menardi  merianae 

                                           

                                                                 

 

 

 

  

Scolopendra  Scutigera  Scutigera  

sp.  coleoptrata  sp. 

     

        

 

 

 

  

Lumbricus 

sp. 

 

  

 

 

 

  

Anamastigona  Anamastigona  Mesoiulus  Trachysphaera 

bilselii  halophila  kosswigi  rotundata 

       

           

 

 

 

  

Euxina  Laciniaria  Oxychilus 

pontica  plicata  sp. 

     

        

 

 

 

  

Laemostenus  Bryaxis  Paederus 

cimmerius  sp.  sp. 

     

        

 

 

 

  

Araschnia  Argynnis  Argynnis  Argynnis  Boloria  Brenthis  Cynthia  Inachis 

levana  adippe  pandora  paphia  euphrosyne  daphne  cardui  io 

Map Butterfly  High Brown Fritillary  Cardinal, Great Fritillary  Silver‐washed Fritillary  Pearl‐bordered Fritillary  Marbled Fritillary  Painted Lady  Peacock Butterfly 

 Isırgan Kelebeği   Büyük İnci   Bahadır   Cengaver   Beyaz İnci   Böğürtlen Brentisi   Diken Kelebeği   Tavuskelebeği 

Family 

Genus 

Species 

English name 

Turkish name 

ARGYNNIDAE 

Issoria 

lathonia 

Limenitis 

reducta 

ARGYNNIDAE  ARGYNNIDAE  ARGYNNIDAE  ARGYNNIDAE  ARGYNNIDAE  ARGYNNIDAE  HESPERIIDAE  HESPERIIDAE  HESPERIIDAE  HESPERIIDAE  HESPERIIDAE  HESPERIIDAE  HESPERIIDAE  LYCAENIDAE  LYCAENIDAE  LYCAENIDAE  LYCAENIDAE 

Melitaea  Melitaea  Melitaea  Melitaea  Polygonia  Vanessa  Carcharodus  Carcharodus  Erynnis  Ochlodes  Pyrgus  Spialia  Thymelicus  Callophrys  Celastrina  Glaucopsyche  Heodes 

cinxia  didyma  fascelis  phoebe  c‐album  atalanta  orientalis  alceae  tages  venatus  malvae  orbifer  sylvestris  rubi  argiolus  alexis  alciphron 

LYCAENIDAE 

Heodes 

tityrus 

LYCAENIDAE 

Leptotes 

pirithous 

LYCAENIDAE  LYCAENIDAE  LYCAENIDAE  LYCAENIDAE  LYCAENIDAE  LYCAENIDAE  LYCAENIDAE  LYCAENIDAE  LYCAENIDAE  LYCAENIDAE  LYCAENIDAE  LYCAENIDAE  LYCAENIDAE  LYCAENIDAE  LYCAENIDAE  LYCAENIDAE  LYCAENIDAE 

Lycaena  Lycaena  Lycaena  Plebejus  Plebejus  Polyommatus  Polyommatus  Polyommatus  Polyommatus  Polyommatus  Polyommatus  Polyommatus  Pseudophilotes  Quercusia  Satyrium  Tarucus  Thecla 

phlaeas  dispar  thersamon  idas  argus  semiargus  bellis  anteros  agestis  coridon  thersites  icarus  vicrama  quercus  ilicis  balkanicus  betulae 

PAPILIONIDAE 

Iphiclides 

podalirius 

Queen of Spain Fritillary  Southern White Admiral,  Eastern White Admiral  Glanville Fritillary  Spotted Fritillary  Lesser Spotted Fritillary  Knapweed Fritillary  Comma Butterfly  Red Admiral  Oriental Skipper  Mallow Skipper  Dingy Skipper  Large Skipper  Grizzled Skipper  Red Underwing Skipper  Small Skipper  Green Hairstreak  Holly Blue  Green‐underside Blue  Purple‐shot Copper  Sooty Copper, Blackish  Copper  Lang's Short‐tailed Blue,  Zebra Blue  Small Copper  Large Copper  Lesser Fiery Copper  Idas Blue  Silver‐studded Blue  Mazarine Blue  Eastern Mazarine Blue  Blue Argus, Freyer's Blue  Brown Argus  Chalk‐hill Blue  Chapman's Blue  Common Blue  Lesser Chequered Blue  Purple Hairstreak  Ilex Hairstreak  Little Tiger Blue  Brown Hairstreak  Scarce Swallowtail, Pear‐tree  Swallowtail  Swallowtail, Common Yellow  Swallowtail  Black‐veined White  Dark Clouded Yellow  Wood White  Mountain Green‐veined  White  Kruper's Small White  False Cabbage White  Small White  Large White  New Bath White  Duke of Burgundy Fritillary  Ringlet  False Grayling  Great Banded Grayling, Great  Black Grayling  Hermit  Pearly Heath 

 İspanyol Kraliçesi 

ARGYNNIDAE 

PAPILIONIDAE 

Papilio 

machaon 

PIERIDAE  PIERIDAE  PIERIDAE 

Aporia  Colias  Leptidea 

crataegi  crocea  sinapis 

PIERIDAE 

Pieris 

bryoniae 

PIERIDAE  PIERIDAE  PIERIDAE  PIERIDAE  PIERIDAE  RIODINIDAE  SATYRIDAE  SATYRIDAE 

Pieris  Pieris  Pieris  Pieris  Pontia  Hamearis  Aphantopus  Arethusana 

krueperi  pseudorapae  rapae  brassicae  edusa  lucina  hyperantus  arethusa 

SATYRIDAE 

Brintesia 

circe 

SATYRIDAE  SATYRIDAE 

Chazara  Coenonympha 

briseis  arcania 

 Akdeniz Hanımeli Kelebeği   İparhan   Benekli İparhan   Güzel İparhan   Benekli Büyük İparhan   Yırtık Pırtık   Atalanta   Oriental Zıpzıp   Ebegümeci Zıpzıpı   Paslı Zıpzıp   Orman Zıpzıpı   Ebegümeci Zıpzığı   Kızıl Zıpzıp   Sarı Antenli Zıpzıp   Zümrüt   Kutsal Mavi   Karagözlü Mavi Kelebek   Büyük Mor Bakır Kelebeği   İsli Bakır Kelebeği   Mavi Zebra   Benekli Bakır Kelebeği   Büyükbakırgüzeli   Küçük Ateş Kelebeği   Esmergöz   Gümüş Lekeli Esmergöz   Çokgözlü Güzel Mavi    Çokgözlü Güzel Mavi   Çokgözlü Balkan Mavisi   Çokgözlü Esmer   Çilli Çokgözlü   Çokgözlü Menekşe Mavisi   Çokgözlü Mavi   Himalaya Mavi Kelebeği   Mor Meşe Kelebeği   Büyük Sevbeni   Balkan Kaplanı   Huş Kelebeği   Erik Kırlangıçkuyruğu   Kırlangıçkuyruk   Alıçkelebeği   Sarı Azamet   Narin Orman Beyazı   Dağ Beyaz Meleği   Krüper'in Beyaz Meleği   Yalancı Beyaz Melek   Küçük Beyaz Melek   Büyük Beyaz Melek   Yeni Benekli Melek   İncili Kelebek   Halkacık   Seyit   Kara Murat   Cadı   Funda Zıpzıp Perisi 

Family 

Genus 

Species 

English name 

Turkish name 

SATYRIDAE  SATYRIDAE  SATYRIDAE 

Coenonympha  Hipparchia  Hipparchia 

pamphilus  fatua  statilinus 

 Küçük Zıpzıp Perisi   Anadolu Karameleği   Ağaç Karameleği 

SATYRIDAE 

Hipparchia 

syriaca 

SATYRIDAE  SATYRIDAE  SATYRIDAE  SATYRIDAE  SATYRIDAE  SATYRIDAE  SATYRIDAE  SATYRIDAE  INSECTA   ‐ Moths  ADELIDAE  ADELIDAE  ARCTIIDAE  GEOMETRIDAE  GEOMETRIDAE  GEOMETRIDAE  GEOMETRIDAE  GEOMETRIDAE  GEOMETRIDAE  GEOMETRIDAE  GEOMETRIDAE  GEOMETRIDAE  GEOMETRIDAE  GEOMETRIDAE  GEOMETRIDAE  GEOMETRIDAE  GEOMETRIDAE  GEOMETRIDAE  GEOMETRIDAE  GEOMETRIDAE  GEOMETRIDAE  GEOMETRIDAE  GEOMETRIDAE  GEOMETRIDAE  GEOMETRIDAE  GEOMETRIDAE  GEOMETRIDAE  GEOMETRIDAE  GEOMETRIDAE  GEOMETRIDAE  GEOMETRIDAE  GEOMETRIDAE  GEOMETRIDAE  GEOMETRIDAE  GEOMETRIDAE  GEOMETRIDAE  GEOMETRIDAE  NOCTUIDAE  NOTODONTIDAE  NOTODONTIDAE  SPHINGIDAE  ZYGAENIDAE  CALOPTERYGIDAE  CALOPTERYGIDAE  COENAGRIONIDAE  COENAGRIONIDAE 

Hyponephele  Kirinia  Lasiommata  Maniola  Melanargia  Minois  Pararge  Pyronia 

lupina  roxelana  megera  jurtina  galathea  dryas  aegeria  tithonus 

Small Heath  Freyer's Grayling  Tree Grayling  Syrian Rock Grayling, Syrian  Tree, Grayling  Oriental Steppe Brown  Lattice Brown  Wall Butterfly  Meadow Brown  Marbled White  Dryad  Speckled Wood  Gatekeeper 

 

 

 

  

Adela  Nematopogon  Lithosia  Amoebe  Aplocera  Asthena  Cabera  Campaea  Camtogramma  Catarhoe  Cleta  Cosmorhoe  Cosmorhoe  Cyclophora  Cyclophora  Ennomos  Epirrhoe  Eupithecia  Hydriomena  Idaea  Idaea  Idaea  Idaea  Idaea  Idaea  Idaea  Idaea  Lomospilis  Lyhtria  Melanthia  Minoa  Operoptera  Rhodostrophia  Scopula  Scopula  Scopula  Serraca  Emmelia  Furcula  Spatalia  Macroglossum  Zygaena  Calopteryx  Calopteryx  Coenagrion  Coenagrion 

reamurella  panzerella  quadra  pectinaria  plagiata  candidata  pusaria  margaritata  bilineata  rubidata  perpusillaria  obliterata  unidentaria  linearia  ruficilaria  quercinaria  rivata  signata  impluviata  aversata  determinata  deversaria  dilutaria  dimidiata  ochrata  politata  remutata  marginata  purpuraria  procellata  murinata  brumata  calabra  nigropunctata  ornata  rubiginata  punctinalis  trabealis  furcula  argentina  stellatarum  purpuralis  splendens  virgo  puella  scitulum 

Common a longhorn moth    Four‐spotted Footman                                                                      Spotted Sulphur  Sallow Kitten  Small Chocolate‐tip  Hummingbird Hawkmoth  Transparent Burnet  Banded Demoiselle  Beautiful Demoiselle  Azure Damselfly  Dainty Damselfly 

 Reamür Adelası      Dörtbenekli Likengüvesi                                                                                                         Çizgili Emel   Solgun kedicik Güvesi   ‐   Güvercinkuyruklu Atmaca Güvesi   Erguvani Zigena        Atnalı desenli Yusufcuk  Çatal desenli Yusufcuk 

 Büyük Karamelek   Esmer Peri   Ağaç Esmeri   Küçük Esmer Boncuk   Çayır Esmeri   Melike   Kara Hayalet   Karanlık Orman Esmeri   Pironiya 

Family 

Genus 

Species 

English name 

Turkish name 

COENAGRIONIDAE  COENAGRIONIDAE  COENAGRIONIDAE  EUPHAEIDAE 

Erythromma  Erythromma  Ischnura  Epallage 

lindenii  viridulum  elegans  fatime 

Blue‐Eye  Small Red‐eyed damselfly  Blue‐tailed Damselfly   

LESTIDAE 

Lestes 

barbarus 

Southern Emerald Damselfly 

LESTIDAE  LESTIDAE  PLATYCNEMIDIDAE  AESHNIDAE  AESHNIDAE  AESHNIDAE  AESHNIDAE  AESHNIDAE  AESHNIDAE  AESHNIDAE  AESHNIDAE  CORDULEGASTRIDAE  CORDULEGASTRIDAE  CORDULIIDAE  CORDULIIDAE  GOMPHIDAE  LIBELLULIDAE 

Lestes  Sympecma  Platycnemis  Aeshna  Aeshna  Aeshna  Aeshna  Anax  Anax  Brachytron  Caliaeschna  Cordulegaster  Cordulegaster  Somatochlora  Somatochlora  Onychogomphus  Crocothemis 

parvidens  fusca  pennipes  affinis  cyanea  isosceles  mixta  imperator  parthenope  pratense  microstigma  insignis  picta  borisi  meridionalis  forcipatus  erythraea 

Eastern Willow Spreadwing  Winter Damselfly  White‐legged Damselfly  Southern Migrant Hawker  Southern Hawker  Norfolk Hawker  Migrant Hawker  Emperor Dragonfly  Lesser Emperor  Hairy Dragonfly  Eastern Spectre  Blue‐eyed Goldenring  Turkish Goldenring  Bulgarian Emerald  Balkan Emerald  Small Pincertail  Common Scarlet‐darter 

LIBELLULIDAE 

Libellula 

depressa 

Broad‐bodied Libellula 

LIBELLULIDAE 

Libellula 

fulva 

Scarce Libellula 

LIBELLULIDAE 

Orthetrum 

brunneum 

Blue Skimmer 

LIBELLULIDAE  LIBELLULIDAE  LIBELLULIDAE 

Orthetrum  Sympetrum  Sympetrum 

cancellatum  fonscolombii  meridionale 

Black‐lined Orthetrum  Red‐veined Sympetrum  Southern Darter 

LIBELLULIDAE 

Sympetrum 

sanguineum 

Ruddy Sympetrum 

LIBELLULIDAE  Gryllidae  MALACOSTRACA   ‐ Woodlice  Ligiidae  Ligiidae  Trichoniscidae  Trichoniscidae  Marine fish  ACIPENSERIDAE  ACIPENSERIDAE  ACIPENSERIDAE  ACIPENSERIDAE  AMMODYTIDAE  ANGUILLIDAE  ATHERINIDAE  ATHERINIDAE  BALISTIDAE  BELONIDAE  BLENNIIDAE  BLENNIIDAE  BLENNIIDAE  BLENNIIDAE  BLENNIIDAE  BLENNIIDAE  BLENNIIDAE  BLENNIIDAE  BOTHIDAE  CALLIONYMIDAE 

Sympetrum  Trigonidium  

striolatum  sp. 

Common Darter   

Kupa desenli Yusufcuk  Nargözlü Kızböceği, Yeşil Kızböceği  Mavikuyruklu Kızböceği     Saz Yusufcuğu, Güney Zümrütrengi  Kızböceği  Büyük saz Yusufcuğu  Kahverengi Kızböceği  Telekli Yusufcuk  Güney yırtıcı Yusufcuğu  Mavi yırtıcı Yusufcuk  Küçük yırtıcı Yusufcuk  Göçmen Avcı (Yusufçuk)  Büyük Kral Yusufcuk  Küçük Kral Yusufçuk  Mozaik Yusufcuğu  ‐  ‐  İki çizgili Yusufcuk  Bulgar Su Bakiresi  Balkan Su Bakiresi  Kıskaçlı Dere Yusufçuğu  Ateşrengi Yusufçuk  Gerçek Su Bakiresi, Genişgövdeli  Yusufçuk  Sivri lekeli Su Bakiresi  Güney Çalı Bakiresi, Kahverengi  Yusufçuk  Mavi Çalı Bakiresi  lkbahar Taş Bakiresi  Güney Taş Bakiresi  Siyahayaklı Taş Yusufcuğu, Kırmızı  Yusufçuk  Yusufçuk, Büyük Taş Bakiresi    

 

 

 

  

Ligidium  Ligidium  Haplophthalmus  Trichonethes    Acipenser  Acipenser  Acipenser  Huso  Gymnammodytes  Anguilla  Atherina  Atherina  Balistes  Belone  Aidablennius  Blennius  Coryphoblennius  Parablennius  Parablennius  Parablennius  Parablennius  Salaria  Arnoglossus  Callionymus 

hypnorum  sp.  stygivagus  Sp.    gueldenstaedtii  nudiventris  stellatus  huso  cicerellus  anguilla  boyeri  hepsetus  capriscus  belone  sphynx  ocellaris  galerita  incognitus  sanguinolentus  tentacularis  zvonimiri  pavo  kessleri  lyra 

                                                                     

                                                                          

Family 

Genus 

Species 

English name 

Turkish name 

CALLIONYMIDAE  CALLIONYMIDAE  CARANGIDAE  CARANGIDAE  CARANGIDAE  CENTRACANTHIDAE  CENTRACANTHIDAE  CENTRACANTHIDAE  CLUPEIDAE  CLUPEIDAE  CLUPEIDAE  CLUPEIDAE  CLUPEIDAE  CLUPEIDAE  CONGRIDAE  ENGRAULIDAE  GADIDAE  GOBIESOCIDAE  GOBIIDAE  GOBIIDAE  GOBIIDAE  GOBIIDAE  GOBIIDAE  GOBIIDAE  GOBIIDAE  GOBIIDAE  GOBIIDAE  GYMNURIDAE  HEXANCHIDAE  LABRIDAE  LABRIDAE  LABRIDAE  LABRIDAE  LABRIDAE  LABRIDAE  LABRIDAE  LABRIDAE  LOPHIIDAE  LOTIDAE  MORONIDAE  MUGILIDAE  MUGILIDAE  MUGILIDAE  MUGILIDAE  MUGILIDAE  MUGILIDAE  MULLIDAE  MULLIDAE  OPHIDIIDAE  PLEURONECTIDAE  POMACENTRIDAE  POMATOMIDAE  RAJIIDAE  RAJIIDAE  SCIAENIDAE  SCIAENIDAE  SCIAENIDAE  SCOMBRIDAE  SCOMBRIDAE  SCOMBRIDAE 

Callionymus  Callionymus  Lichia  Trachurus  Trachurus  Spicara  Spicara  Spicara  Alosa  Alosa  Alosa  Sardina  Sardinella  Sprattus  Conger  Engraulis  Merlangius  Lepadogaster  Aphia  Gobius  Gobius  Gobius  Gobius  Mesogobius  Neogobius  Pomatoschistus  Pomatoschistus  Gymnura  Hexanchus  Coris  Ctenolabrus  Labrus  Symphodus  Symphodus  Symphodus  Symphodus  Symphodus  Lophius  Gaidropsarus  Dicentrarchus  Chelon  Liza  Liza  Liza  Liza  Mugil  Mullus  Mullus  Ophidion  Platichthys  Chromis  Pomatomus  Dasyatis  Raja  Argyrosomus  Sciaena  Umbrina  Euthynnus  Sarda  Scomber 

pusillus  risso  amia  mediterraneus  trachurus  flexuosa  maena  smaris  caspia  fallax  immaculata  pilchardus  aurita  sprattus  conger  encrasicolus  merlangus  candolii  minuta  bucchichi  cobitis  niger  paganellus  batrachocephalus  melanostomus  marmoratus  minutus  altavela  griseus  julis  rupestris  viridisLinnaeus,  cinereus  ocellaris  roissali  rostratus  tinca  piscatorius  mediterraneus  labrax  labrosus  aurata  haematocheila  ramada  saliens  cephalus  barbatus  surmuletus  rochei  flesus  chromis  saltatrix  pastinaca  clavata  regius  umbra  cirrosa  alleteratus  sarda  colias 

                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Family 

Genus 

Species 

English name 

Turkish name 

SCOMBRIDAE  SCOMBRIDAE  SCOPHTHALMIDAE  SCOPHTHALMIDAE  SCORPAENIDAE  SCORPAENIDAE  SERRANIDAE  SERRANIDAE  SOLEIDAE  SOLEIDAE  SPARIDAE  SPARIDAE  SPARIDAE  SPARIDAE  SPARIDAE  SPARIDAE  SPARIDAE  SPARIDAE  SPARIDAE  SPARIDAE  SPHYRAENIDAE  SQUALIDAE  SQUALIDAE  SQUATINIDAE  SYNGNATHIDAE  SYNGNATHIDAE  SYNGNATHIDAE  SYNGNATHIDAE  SYNGNATHIDAE  SYNGNATHIDAE  SYNGNATHIDAE  SYNGNATHIDAE  SYNGNATHIDAE  TRACHINIDAE  TRIGLIDAE  TRIGLIDAE  TRIGLIDAE  TRIPTERYGIIDAE  URANOSCOPIDAE  XIPHIIDAE  ZEIDAE  Freshwater fish  ATHERINIDAE  CENTRARCHIDAE  CLUPEIDAE  COBITIDAE  CYPRINIDAE  CYPRINIDAE  CYPRINIDAE  CYPRINIDAE  CYPRINIDAE  CYPRINIDAE  CYPRINIDAE  CYPRINIDAE  CYPRINIDAE  CYPRINIDAE  CYPRINIDAE  CYPRINIDAE  CYPRINIDAE  GASTEROSTEIDAE 

Scomber  Thunnus  Psetta  Scophthalmus  Scorpaena  Scorpaena  Serranus  Serranus  Buglossidium  Pegusa  Boops  Dentex  Diplodus  Diplodus  Diplodus  Oblada  Pagellus  Sarpa  Sparus  Spondyliosoma  Sphyraena  Squalus  Squalus  Squatina  Hippocampus  Hippocampus  Nerophis  Syngnathus  Syngnathus  Syngnathus  Syngnathus  Syngnathus  Syngnathus  Trachinus  Aspitrigla  Chelidonichthys  Eutrigla  Tripterygion  Uranoscopus  Xiphias  Zeus    Atherina  Lepomis  Alosa  Cobitis  Alburnoides  Alburnus  Barbus  Carassius  Cyprinus  Gobio  Petroleuciscus  Phoxinus  Rhodeus  Rutilus  Scardinius  Squalius  Vimba  Gasterosteus 

scombrus  thynnus  maeotica  rhombus  notata  porcus  cabrilla  scriba  luteum  lascaris  boops  dentex  annularis  puntazzo  sargus  melanura  erythrinus  salpa  aurata  cantharus  sphyraena  acanthias  blainville  squatina  guttulatus  hippocampus  ophidion  abaster  acus  schmidti  tenuirostris  typhle  variegatus  draco  cuculus  lucernus  gurnardus  tripteronotus  scaber  gladius  faber    boyeri  gibbosus  caspia  taenia  bipunctatus  chalcoides  tauricus  gibelio  carpio  gobio  borysthenicus  phoxinus  amarus  rutilus  erythrophthalmus  cephalus  vimba  aculeatus 

                                                                                                                              Big‐scale sand smelt  Pumkinseed  Caspian shad  Vardar spined loach  Chup  Danube bleak  Krimean barbel  Prussian carp  Common carp  Gudgeon  Dnjepr chub  Eurasian minnow  European bitterling  Roach  Rudd  European chub  Baltic vimba  Three‐spined stickleback 

                                                                                                                              Gümüş balığı  Güneş balığı  Tirsi balığı  Taşyiyen  Noktalı inci balığı  Tatlısu kolyoz balığı  Bıyıklı balık  Gümüşi havuz balığı  Sazan  Dere kayası  Tatlısu kefali  Golyan balığı  Acıbalık  Kızılgöz  Kızılkanat  Tatlısu kefali  Eğrez  Dikence balığı 

Family 

Genus 

Species 

English name 

Turkish name 

GOBIIDAE  GOBIIDAE  GOBIIDAE  GOBIIDAE  GOBIIDAE  MUGILIDAE  MUGILIDAE  POECILIIDAE  SALMONIDAE  SALMONIDAE  AMPHIBIA   ‐ Frogs etc  Bufonidae   Hylidae  Pelobatidae  Pelobatidae  Ranidae  Ranidae  Ranidae  Salamandriade   Salamandriade   REPTILIA  –Turtles, lizards,snakes  Emydidae  Emydidae  Testudinidae  Testudinidae  Anguidae  Anguidae  Gekkonidae  Gekkonidae  Lacertidae  Lacertidae  Lacertidae 

Knipowitschia  Neogobius  Neogobius  Neogobius  Proterorhinus  Liza  Mugil  Gambusia  Oncorhynchus  Salmo 

caucasica  eurycephalus  fluviatilis  melanostomus  marmoratus  aurata  cephalus  affinis  mykiss  trutta 

Caucasian goby  Mushroom goby  Monkey goby  Round goby  Tubenose goby  Golden grey mullet  Flathead mullet  Eastern mosquitofish  Rainbow trout  Brown trout 

Küçük kayabalığı  Kayabalığı  Tatlısu kayabalığı  Benekli kayabalığı  Tatlısu kayabalığı  Altınbaş kefal  Topan kefal  Sivrisinek balığı  Gökkuşağı alabalığı  Alabalık 

 

 

 

  

Bufo  Hyla  Pelobates  Pelobates  Bufo  Rana  Rana  Triturus  Triturus 

bufo  arborea  syriacus  fuscus  viridis  ridibunda  dalmatina  karelini  vulgaris 

True Toads  Common Tree Frog  Eastern Spadefoot  Common Spadefoot  European Green Toad  Marsh Frog  Agile frog  crested newts  Smooth Newt 

Siğilli Kurbağa  Ağaç Kurbağası  Toprak Kurbağası  Trakya Toprak Kurbağası  Gece Kurbağası  Ova Kurbağası  Çevik Kurbağa  Pürtüklü semender  Küçük Semender 

 

 

 

 

Emys  Mauremys  Testudo  Testudo  Anguis  Pseudopus  Crytopodion  Hemidactylus  Darevskia  Lacerta  Lacerta 

orbicularis  caspica  greaca  hermanni  fragilis  apodus  kotschyi  tursicus  praticola  viridis  trilineata 

Benekli kaplumbağa  Çizgili Kaplumbağa  Büyük Tosbağa  Trakya tosbağası  Yılan Kertenkele  Oluklu Kertenkele  İnceparmaklı Keler  Genişparmaklı Keler  Çayır Kertenkelesi  Yeşil Kertenkele  İriyeşil Kertenkele 

Lacertidae 

Ophisops 

elegans 

Lacertidae  Lacertidae  Scincidae  Colubridae  Colubridae  Colubridae  Colubridae  Colubridae  Colubridae  Colubridae  Colubridae  Colubridae  Typhlopidae  Viperidae   Viperidae   BIRDS  Accipitridae  Accipitridae  Accipitridae  Accipitridae  Accipitridae  Accipitridae  Accipitridae  Accipitridae  Accipitridae 

Podarcis  Podarcis  Ablepharus  Coluber  Coluber  Coronella  Eirenis  Elaphe  Natrix  Natrix  Zamenis  Zamenis  Thyphlops  Montivipera  Vipera    Accipiter  Accipiter  Accipiter  Aquila  Aquila  Aquila  Buteo  Buteo  Circaetus 

muralis  tauricus  kitaibelii  caspius  najadum  austriaca  modestus  quatuorlineata  natrix  tessellata  situla  longissima  vermicularis  xanthina  ammodytes    brevipes  gentilis  nisus  clanga  heliaca  pomarina  buteo  rufinus  gallicus 

European Pond Terrapin  Striped‐necked Terrapin  Spur‐thighed Tortoise  Herman's Tortoise  Slow Worm  European Legless Lizard  European Bent‐toed Gecko  Turkish Gecko, Mischaro  Meadow Lizard  Green Lizard  Balkan Green Lizard  Snake‐eyed Lizard, Field  Lizard  Common Wall Lizard  Crimean Wall Lizard  Slim Lizard  Caspian whip snake  Dahls Wipe Snake  Smooth Snake  Dwarf Snake  Four‐lined Snake  Grass snake  Dice Snake  Leopard Snake  Aesculapian Snake   Worm Snake  Rock viper  Horned viper    Levant Sparrowhawk  Northern Goshawk  Eurasian Sparrowhawk  Greater Spotted Eagle  Eastern Imperial Eagle  Lesser Spotted Eagle  Common Buzzard  Long‐legged Buzzard  Short‐toed Snake Eagle 

Tarla Kertenkelesi  Duvar Kertenkelesi  Trakya Kertenkelesi  İnce Kertenkele  Hazer Yılanı  İnce Yılan  Avusturya Yılanı  Uysal Yılan  Sarı Yılan  Yarısucul Yılan  Sucul Yılan  Ev Yılanı  Eskülap Yılanı  Kör Yılan  Şeritli Engerek  Boynuzlu Engerek     Yaz Atmacası  Çakır  Atmaca  Büyük Orman Kartalı  Şah Kartal  Küçük Orman Kartalı  Şahin  Kızıl Şahin  Yılan Kartalı 

Family 

Genus 

Species 

English name 

Turkish name 

Accipitridae  Accipitridae  Accipitridae  Accipitridae  Accipitridae  Accipitridae  Accipitridae  Accipitridae  Accipitridae  Aegithalidae  Alaudidae  Alaudidae  Alaudidae  Alaudidae  Alaudidae  Alcedinidae  Anatidae  Anatidae  Anatidae  Anatidae  Anatidae  Anatidae  Anatidae  Anatidae  Anatidae  Anatidae  Anatidae  Anatidae  Anatidae  Anatidae  Anatidae  Anatidae  Anatidae  Anatidae  Anatidae  Anatidae  Anatidae  Anatidae  Anatidae  Anatidae  Apodidae  Apodidae  Ardeidae  Ardeidae  Ardeidae  Ardeidae  Ardeidae  Ardeidae  Ardeidae  Ardeidae  Burhinidae  Caprimulgidae  Certhiidae  Certhiidae  Charadriidae  Charadriidae  Charadriidae  Charadriidae  Charadriidae  Charadriidae 

Circus  Circus  Circus  Circus  Haliaeetus  Hieraaetus  Milvus  Neophron  Pernis  Aegithalos  Alauda  Calandrella  Galerida  Lullula  Melanocorypha  Alcedo  Anas  Anas  Anas  Anas  Anas  Anas  Anas  Anser  Anser  Aythya  Aythya  Aythya  Aythya  Bucephala  Clangula  Cygnus  Cygnus  Cygnus  Melanitta  Mergellus  Mergus  Netta  Tadorna  Tadorna  Apus  Apus  Ardea  Ardea  Ardeola  Botaurus  Casmerodius  Egretta  Ixobrychus  Nycticorax  Burhinus  Caprimulgus  Certhia  Certhia  Charadrius  Charadrius  Charadrius  Pluvialis  Pluvialis  Vanellus 

aeruginosus  cyaneus  macrourus  pygargus  albicilla  pennatus  migrans  percnopterus  apivorus  caudatus  arvensis  brachydactyla  cristata  arborea  calandra  atthis  acuta  clypeata  crecca  penelope  platyrhynchos  querquedula  strepera  albifrons  anser  ferina  fuligula  marila  nyroca  clangula  hyemalis  columbianus  cygnus  olor  nigra  albellus  serrator  rufina  ferruginea  tadorna  apus  melba  cinerea  purpurea  ralloides  stellaris  albus  garzetta  minutus  nycticorax  oedicnemus  europaeus  brachydactyla  familiaris  alexandrinus  dubius  hiaticula  apricaria  squatarola  vanellus 

Western Marsh Harrier  Hen Harrier  Pallid Harrier  Montagu's Harrier  White‐tailed Eagle  Booted Eagle  Black Kite  Egyptian Vulture  European Honey Buzzard  Long‐tailed Tit  Eurasian Skylark  Greater Short‐toed Lark  Crested Lark  Woodlark  Calandra Lark  Common Kingfisher  Northern Pintail  Northern Shoveler  Eurasian (Common) Teal  Eurasian Wigeon  Mallard  Garganey  Gadwall  Greater White‐fronted Goose  Greylag Goose  Common Pochard  Tufted Duck  Greater Scaup  Ferruginous Duck  Common Goldeneye  Long‐tailed Duck  Bewick's Swan  Whooper Swan  Mute Swan  Common Scoter  Smew  Red‐breasted Merganser  Red‐crested Pochard  Ruddy Shelduck  Common Shelduck  Common Swift  Alpine Swift  Grey Heron  Purple Heron  Squacco Heron  Great Bittern  Great White Egret  Little Egret  Little Bittern  Black‐crowned Night Heron  Stone‐curlew  European Nightjar  Short‐toed Treecreeper  Eurasian Treecreeper  Kentish Plover  Little Ringed Plover  Common Ringed Plover  European Golden Plover  Grey Plover  Northern Lapwing 

Saz Delicesi  Gökçe Delice  Bozkır Delicesi  Çayır Delicesi  Ak Kuyruklu Kartal  Küçük Kartal  Kara Çaylak  Küçük Akbaba  Arı Şahini  Uzun Kuyruklu Baştankara  Tarlakuşu  Bozkır Toygarı  Tepeli Toygar  Orman Toygarı  Boğmaklı Toygar  Yalıçapkını  Kılkuyruk  Kaşıkgaga  Çamurcun  Fiyu  Yeşilbaş  Çıkrıkçın  Boz Ördek  Sakarca  Boz Kaz  Elmabaş Patka  Tepeli Patka  Karabaş Patka  Pasbaş Patka  Altıngöz  Telkuyruk  Küçük Kuğu  Ötücü Kuğu  Sessiz Kuğu  Kara Ördek  Sütlabi  Tarakdiş  Macar Ördeği  Angıt  Suna  Ebabil  Ak Karınlı Ebabil  Gri Balıkçıl  Erguvani Balıkçıl  Alaca Balıkçıl  Balaban  Büyük Ak Balıkçıl  Küçük Ak Balıkçıl  Küçük Balaban  Gece Balıkçılı  Kocagöz  Çobanaldatan  Bahçe Tırmaşıkkuşu  Orman Tırmaşıkkuşu  Akça Cılıbıt  Halkalı Küçük Cılıbıt  Halkalı Cılıbıt  Altın Yağmurcun  Gümüş Yağmurcun  Kızkuşu 

Family 

Genus 

Species 

English name 

Turkish name 

Ciconiidae  Ciconiidae  Cinclidae  Columbidae  Columbidae  Columbidae  Columbidae  Columbidae  Coraciidae  Corvidae  Corvidae  Corvidae  Corvidae  Corvidae  Corvidae  Cuculidae  Emberizidae  Emberizidae  Emberizidae  Emberizidae  Emberizidae  Emberizidae  Emberizidae  Emberizidae  Falconidae  Falconidae  Falconidae  Falconidae  Family  Family  Family  Family  Fringillidae  Fringillidae  Fringillidae  Fringillidae  Fringillidae  Fringillidae  Fringillidae  Fringillidae  Fringillidae  Fringillidae  Gaviidae  Gaviidae  Glareolidae  Gruidae  Haematopodidae  Hirundinidae  Hirundinidae  Hirundinidae  Hirundinidae  Laniidae  Laniidae  Laniidae  Laridae  Laridae  Laridae  Laridae  Laridae  Laridae 

Ciconia  Ciconia  Cinclus  Columba  Columba  Columba  Streptopelia  Streptopelia  Coracias  Corvus  Corvus  Corvus  Corvus  Garrulus  Pica  Cuculus  Emberiza  Emberiza  Emberiza  Emberiza  Emberiza  Emberiza  Miliaria  Plectrophenax  Falco  Falco  Falco  Falco  Genus  Genus  Genus  Genus  Carduelis  Carduelis  Carduelis  Carduelis  Carpodacus  Coccothraustes  Fringilla  Fringilla  Pyrrhula  Serinus  Gavia  Gavia  Glareola  Grus  Haematopus  Cecropis  Delichon  Hirundo  Riparia  Lanius  Lanius  Lanius  Larus  Larus  Larus  Larus  Larus  Larus 

ciconia  nigra  cinclus  livia (domest.)  oenas  palumbus  decaocto  turtur  garrulus  corax  cornix  frugilegus  monedula  glandarius  pica  canorus  cia  cirlus  citrinella  hortulana  melanocephala  schoeniclus  calandra  nivalis  columbarius  peregrinus  subbuteo  tinnunculus  Species  Species  Species  Species  cannabina  carduelis  chloris  spinus  erythrinus  coccothraustes  coelebs  montifringilla  pyrrhula  serinus  arctica  stellata  pratincola  grus  ostralegus  daurica  urbicum  rustica  riparia  collurio  minor  senator  cachinnans  canus  genei  melanocephalus  michahellis  minutus 

White Stork  Black Stork  White‐throated Dipper  Feral Pigeon  Stock Dove  Common Wood Pigeon  Eurasian Collared Dove  European Turtle Dove  European Roller  Common Raven  Hooded Crow  Rook  Western Jackdaw  Eurasian Jay  Common Magpie  Common Cuckoo  Rock Bunting  Cirl Bunting  Yellowhammer  Ortolan Bunting  Black‐headed Bunting  Common Reed Bunting  Corn Bunting  Snow Bunting  Merlin  Peregrine Falcon  Eurasian Hobby  Common Kestrel  English  English  English  English  Common Linnet  Eurasian Goldfinch  Eurasian Greenfinch  Eurasian Siskin  Common Rosefinch  Hawfinch  Common Chaffinch  Brambling  Eurasian Bullfinch  Eurasian Serin  Black‐throated Loon  Red‐throated Loon  Collared Pranticole  Common Crane  Eurasian Oystercatcher  Red‐rumped Swallow  Common House Martin  Barn Swallow  Sand Martin  Red‐backed Shrike  Lesser Grey Shrike  Woodchat Shrike  Caspian Gull  Mew (Common) Gull  Slender‐billed Gull  Mediterranean Gull  Yellow‐legged Gull  Little Gull 

Leylek  Kara Leylek  Derekuşu  Şehir Güvercini  Gökçe Güvercin  Tahtalı  Kumru  Üveyik  Gökkuzgun  Kuzgun  Leş Kargası  Ekin Kargası  Küçük Karga  Alakarga  Saksağan  Guguk  Kaya Çintesi  Bahçe Çintesi  Sarı Çinte  Kirazkuşu  Kara Başlı Çinte  Bataklık Çintesi  Tarla Çintesi  Alaca Çinte  Boz Doğan  Gök Doğan  Delice Doğan  Kerkenez  Turkish  Turkish  Turkish  Turkish  Ketenkuşu  Saka  Florya  Kara Başlı İskete  Çütre  Kocabaş  İspinoz  Dağ İspinozu  Şakrak  Küçük İskete  Kara Gerdanlı Dalgıç  Kızıl Gerdanlı Dalgıç  Bataklıkkırlangıcı  Turna  Poyrazkuşu  Kızıl Kırlangıç  Ev Kırlangıcı  Kır Kırlangıcı  Kum Kırlangıcı  Kızıl Sırtlı Örümcekkuşu  Kara Alınlı Örümcekkuşu  Kızıl Başlı Örümcekkuşu  Hazar Martısı  Küçük Gümüş Martı  İnce Gagalı Martı  Akdeniz Martısı  Gümüş Martı  Küçük Martı 

Family 

Genus 

Species 

English name 

Turkish name 

Laridae  Laridae  Meropidae  Motacillidae  Motacillidae  Motacillidae  Motacillidae  Motacillidae  Motacillidae  Motacillidae  Motacillidae  Muscicapidae  Muscicapidae  Muscicapidae  Muscicapidae  Muscicapidae  Oriolidae  Pandionidae  Paridae  Paridae  Paridae  Paridae  Paridae  Passeridae  Passeridae  Passeridae  Pelecanidae  Phalacrocoracidae  Phalacrocoracidae  Phalacrocoracidae  Phasianidae  Phasianidae  Phoenicopteridae  Picidae  Picidae  Picidae  Picidae  Picidae  Picidae  Picidae  Picidae  Picidae  Podicipedidae  Podicipedidae  Podicipedidae  Podicipedidae  Procellariidae  Prunellidae  Rallidae  Rallidae  Rallidae  Rallidae  Rallidae  Recurvirostridae  Recurvirostridae  Scolopacidae  Scolopacidae  Scolopacidae  Scolopacidae  Scolopacidae 

Larus  Larus  Merops  Anthus  Anthus  Anthus  Anthus  Anthus  Motacilla  Motacilla  Motacilla  Ficedula  Ficedula  Ficedula  Ficedula  Muscicapa  Oriolus  Pandion  Cyanistes  Parus  Parus  Parus  Periparus  Passer  Passer  Passer  Pelecanus  Phalacrocorax  Phalacrocorax  Phalacrocorax  Coturnix  Phasianus  Phoenicopterus  Dendrocopos  Dendrocopos  Dendrocopos  Dendrocopos  Dendrocopos  Dryocopus  Jynx  Picus  Picus  Podiceps  Podiceps  Podiceps  Tachybaptus  Puffinus  Prunella  Fulica  Gallinula  Porzana  Porzana  Rallus  Himantopus  Recurvirostra  Actitis  Arenaria  Calidris  Calidris  Calidris 

ridibundus  tridactylus  apiaster  campestris  cervinus  pratensis  spinoletta  trivialis  alba  cinerea  flava  albicollis  hypoleuca  parva  semitorquata  striata  oriolus  haliaetus  caeruleus  lugubris  major  palustris  ater  domesticus  hispaniolensis  montanus  onocrotalus  aristotelis  carbo  pygmeus  coturnix  colchicus  ruber  leucotos  major  medius  minor  syriacus  martius  torquilla  canus  viridis  cristatus  grisegena  nigricollis  ruficollis  yelkouan  modularis  atra  chloropus  parva  pusilla  aquaticus  himantopus  avosetta  hypoleucos  interpres  alba  alpina  ferruginea 

Black‐headed Gull  Black‐legged Kittiwake  European Bee‐eater  Tawny Pipit  Red‐thorated Pipit  Meadow Pipit  Water Pipit  Tree Pipit  White Wagtail  Grey Wagtail  (Western) Yellow Wagtail  Collared Flycatcher  European Pied Flycatcher  Red‐breasted Flycatcher  Semi‐collared Flycatcher  Spotted Flycatcher  Eurasian Golden Oriole  Osprey  Blue Tit  Sombre Tit  Great Tit  Marsh Tit  Coal Tit  House Sparrow  Spanish Sparrow  Eurasian Tree Sparrow  Great White Pelican  European Shag  Great Cormorant  Pygmy Cormorant  Common Quail  Common Pheasant  Greater Flamingo  White‐backed Woodpecker  Great Spotted Woodpecker  Middle Spotted Woodpecker  Lesser Spotted Woodpecker  Syrian Woodpecker  Black Woodpecker  Eurasian Wryneck  Grey‐headed Woodpecker  European Green Woodpecker  Great Crested Grebe  Red‐necked Grebe  Black‐necked (eared) Grebe  Little Grebe  Mediterranean Shearwater  Dunnock  Eurasian Coot  Common Moorhen  Little Crake  Baillon's Crake  Water Rail  Black‐winged Stilt  Pied Avocet  Common Sandpiper  Ruddy Turnstone  Sanderling  Dunlin  Curlew Sandpiper 

Karabaş Martı  Kara Ayaklı Martı  Arıkuşu  Kır İncirkuşu  Kızıl Gerdanlı İncirkuşu  Çayır İncirkuşu  Dağ İncirkuşu  Ağaç İncirkuşu  Ak Kuyruksallayan  Dağ Kuyruksallayanı  Sarı Kuyruksallayan  Halkalı Sinekkapan  Kara Sinekkapan  Küçük Sinekkapan  Alaca Sinekkapan  Benekli Sinekkapan  Sarıasma  Balık Kartalı  Mavi Baştankara  Ak Yanaklı Baştankara  Büyük Baştankara  Kayın Baştankarası  Çam Baştankarası  Serçe  Söğüt Serçesi  Ağaç Serçesi  Ak Pelikan  Tepeli Karabatak  Karabatak  Küçük Karabatak  Bıldırcın  Sülün  Flamingo  Ak Sırtlı Ağaçkakan  Orman Ağaçkakanı  Ortanca Ağaçkakan  Küçük Ağaçkakan  Alaca Ağaçkakan  Kara Ağaçkakan  Boyunçeviren  Küçük Yeşil Ağaçkakan  Yeşil Ağaçkakan  Bahri  Kızıl Boyunlu Batağan  Kara Boyunlu Batağan  Küçük Batağan  Yelkovan  Dağbülbülü  Sakarmeke  Sutavuğu  Bataklık Suyelvesi  Küçük Suyelvesi  Sukılavuzu  Uzunbacak  Kılıçgaga  Dere Düdükçünü  Taşçeviren  Ak Kumkuşu  Kara Karınlı Kumkuşu  Kızıl Kumkuşu 

Family 

Genus 

Species 

English name 

Turkish name 

Scolopacidae  Scolopacidae  Scolopacidae  Scolopacidae  Scolopacidae  Scolopacidae  Scolopacidae  Scolopacidae  Scolopacidae  Scolopacidae  Scolopacidae  Scolopacidae  Scolopacidae  Scolopacidae  Scolopacidae  Sittidae  Stercorariidae  Sternidae  Sternidae  Sternidae  Sternidae  Sternidae  Sternidae  Sternidae  Sternidae  Strigidae  Strigidae  Strigidae  Strigidae  Strigidae  Sturnidae  Sturnidae  Sylviidae  Sylviidae  Sylviidae  Sylviidae  Sylviidae  Sylviidae  Sylviidae  Sylviidae  Sylviidae  Sylviidae  Sylviidae  Sylviidae  Sylviidae  Sylviidae  Sylviidae  Sylviidae  Sylviidae  Sylviidae  Sylviidae  Threskiornithidae  Threskiornithidae  Timaliidae  Troglodytidae  Turdidae  Turdidae  Turdidae  Turdidae  Turdidae 

Calidris  Calidris  Gallinago  Limosa  Numenius  Numenius  Philomachus  Scolopax  Tringa  Tringa  Tringa  Tringa  Tringa  Tringa  Xenus  Sitta  Stercorarius  Chlidonias  Chlidonias  Chlidonias  Gelochelidon  Hydroprogne  Sterna  Sterna  Sternula  Asio  Athene  Bubo  Otus  Strix  Sturnus  Sturnus  Acrocephalus  Acrocephalus  Acrocephalus  Acrocephalus  Cettia  Hippolais  Hippolais  Phylloscopus  Phylloscopus  Phylloscopus  Phylloscopus  Regulus  Regulus  Sylvia  Sylvia  Sylvia  Sylvia  Sylvia  Sylvia  Platalea  Plegadis  Panurus  Troglodytes  Erithacus  Luscinia  Luscinia  Oenanthe  Oenanthe 

minuta  temminckii  gallinago  limosa  arquata  phaeopus  pugnax  rusticola  erythropus  glareola  nebularia  ochropus  stagnatilis  totanus  cinereus  europaea  parasiticus  hybrida  leucopterus  niger  nilotica  caspia  hirundo  sandvicensis  albifrons  otus  noctua  bubo  scops  aluco  roseus  vulgaris  arundinaceus  melanopogon  schoenobaenus  scirpaceus  cetti  icterina  pallida  collybita  orientalis  sibilatrix  trochilus  ignicapilla  regulus  atricapilla  borin  communis  curruca  melanocephala  nisoria  leucorodia  falcinellus  biarmicus  troglodytes  rubecula  luscinia  megarhynchos  isabellina  melanoleuca 

Little Stint  Temminck's Stint  Common Snipe  Black‐tailed Godwit  Eurasian Curlew  Whimbrel  Ruff  Eurasian Woodcock  Spotted Redshank  Wood Sandpiper  Common Greenshank  Green Sandpiper  Marsh Sandpiper  Common Redshank  Terek Sandpiper  Eurasian Nuthatch  Parasitic Jaeger  Whiskered Tern  White‐winged Tern  Black Tern  Gull‐billed Tern  Caspian Tern  Common Tern  Sandwich Tern  Little Tern  Long‐eared Owl  Little Owl  Eurasian Eagle Owl  European Scops Owl  Tawny Owl  Rose‐coloured Starling  Common Starling  Great Reed Warbler  Moustached Warbler  Sedge Warbler  European Reed Warbler  Cetti's Warbler  Icterine Warbler  Eastern Olivaceous Warbler  Common Chiffchaff  Eastern Bonelli's Warbler  Wood Warbler  Willow Warbler  Firecrest  Goldcrest  Blackcap  Garden Warbler  Common Whitethroat  Lesser Whitethroat  Sardinian Warbler  Barred Warbler  Eurasian Spoonbill  Glossy Ibis  Bearded Reedling  Winter Wren  European Robin  Thrush Nightingale  Common Nightingale  Isabelline Wheatear  Eastern Blacked‐eared  

Küçük Kumkuşu  Sarı Bacaklı Kumkuşu  Suçulluğu  Çamurçulluğu  Kervançulluğu  Sürmeli Kervançulluğu  Döğüşkenkuş  Çulluk  Kara Kızılbacak  Orman Düdükçünü  Yeşilbacak  Yeşil Düdükçün  Bataklık Düdükçünü  Kızılbacak  Terek Düdükçünü  Sıvacıkuşu  Korsanmartı  Bıyıklı Sumru  Ak Kanatlı Sumru  Kara Sumru  Gülen Sumru  Hazar Sumrusu  Sumru  Kara Gagalı Sumru  Küçük Sumru  Kulaklı Orman Baykuşu  Kukumav  Puhu  İshakkuşu  Alaca Baykuş  Pembe Sığırcık  Sığırcık  Büyük Kamışçın  Bıyıklı Kamışçın  Kındıra Kamışçını  Saz Kamışçını  Kamışbülbülü  Sarı Mukallit  Ak Mukallit  Çıvgın  Boz Çıvgın  Orman Çıvgını  Söğütbülbülü  Sürmeli Çalıkuşu  Çalıkuşu  Kara Başlı Ötleğen  Boz Ötleğen  Ak Gerdanlı Ötleğen  Küçük Ak Gerdanlı Ötleğen  Maskeli Ötleğen  Çizgili Ötleğen  Kaşıkçı  Çeltikçi  Bıyıklı Baştankara  Çıtkuşu  Kızılgerdan  Benekli Bülbül  Bülbül  Boz Kuyrukkakan  Karakulaklı Kuyrukkakan 

Family 

Genus 

Species 

English name 

Turkish name 

Wheatear Turdidae  Turdidae  Turdidae  Turdidae  Turdidae  Turdidae  Turdidae  Turdidae  Turdidae  Turdidae  Turdidae  Turdidae  Upupidae  MAMMALIA ‐  Mammals  Leporidae   Gliridae   Gliridae  Cricetidae  Cricetidae  Cricetidae  Muridae   Muridae   Muridae   Muridae   Muridae   Muridae   Muridae   Muridae   Muridae   Sciuridae   Erinaceidae  Soricidae 

Oenanthe  Phoenicurus  Phoenicurus  Saxicola  Saxicola  Saxicola  Turdus  Turdus  Turdus  Turdus  Turdus  Turdus  Upupa 

oenanthe  ochruros  phoenicurus  armenicus  rubetra  rubicola  iliacus  merula  philomelos  pilaris  toquatus  viscivorus  epops 

Northern Wheatear  Black Redstart  Common Redstart  Eastern (Siberian) Stonechat  Whinchat  European Stonechat  Redwing  Common Blackbird  Song Thrush  Fieldfare  Ring Ouzel  Mistle Thrush  Eurasian Hoopoe 

Kuyrukkakan  Kara Kızılkuyruk  Kızılkuyruk  Sibirya Taşkuşu  Çayır Taşkuşu  Taşkuşu  Kızıl Ardıç  Karatavuk  Öter Ardıç  Tarla Ardıcı  Boğmaklı Ardıç  Ökse Ardıcı  İbibik 

 

 

 

  

Lepus  Dryomys  Glis  Arvicola  Microtus  Microtus  Apodemus  Apodemus  Dryomys  Glis  Micromys  Mus  Mus  Rattus  Rattus  Sciurus  Erinaceus  Crocidura 

europaeus  nitedula  glis  terrestris  subterraneus  rossiaemeridionalis  flavicollis  agrarius  nitedula  glis  minutus  macedonicus  domesticus  rattus  norvegicus  vulgaris  concolor  suaveolens 

Yabani Tavşan  Ağaç Faresi, Cevizkıran  Yediuyur, Kataliks  Su Sıçanı  Küçük Oyucufare  Uzun kuyruklu çayır faresi  Orman Faresi  Çizgili Orman Faresi  Ağaç Faresi, Cevizkıran  Yediuyur, Kataliks  Hasat Faresi  Makedonya Ev Faresi   Ev faresi  Ev Sıçanı  Göçmen Sıçan  Avrupa Sincabı  Kirpi  Küçük Sivriburunlu Bahçefaresi 

Soricidae 

Crocidura 

leucodon 

Soricidae  Soricidae  Soricidae  Talpidae  Talpidae  Delphinidae  Delphinidae  Felidae   Felidae   Felidae   Canidae  Canidae  Canidae  Felidae   Mustelidae  Mustelidae  Mustelidae  Mustelidae  Mustelidae  Mustelidae  Mustelidae  Rhinolophidae  Rhinolophidae  Rhinolophidae  Rhinolophidae 

Neomys  Sorex  Sorex  Talpa  Talpa  Delphinus  Tursiops  Capreolus  Cervus  Sus  Canis  Canis  Vulpes  Felis  Lutra  Martes  Martes  Meles  Mustela  Mustela  Vormela  Rhinolophus  Rhinolophus  Rhinolophus  Rhinolophus 

anomalus  minutus  araneus  europaea  ceaca  delphis  truncatus  capreolus  elaphus  scrofa  lupus  aureus  vulpes  silvestris  lutra  foina  martes  meles  nivalis  putorius  peregusna  blasii  euryale  ferrumequinum  hipposideros 

Brown hare  Forest dormouse   Edible dormouse   Water vole  Common pine vole  Sibling vole  Yellow‐necked mouse  Striped field Mouse  Forest dormouse   Edible dormouse   Harvest Mouse  Balkan short‐tailed Mouse    Western house mouse   Black rat, Ship rat  Brown rat  Red squirrel  Eastern hedgehog  Lesser white‐toothed shrew  Bi‐colored white‐toothed  shrew   Miller’s water shrew  Pigmy shrew  Common shrew  Common mole  Blind mole  Common dolphin   Bottlenose dolphin  Roe deer  Red deer   Wild boar  Wolf  Golden jackal  Red fox  Wildcat  Otter  Beach marten, Stone marten  Pine marten  Badger  Weasel  Western polecat  Marbled polecat  Blasiu’s horseshoe bat  Mediterranean horshoe bat     Greater horseshoe bat    Lesser horseshoe bat 

Sivriburunlu Bahçefaresi  Sivriburunlu Bataklıkfaresi  Sivriburunlu Cücefare  Orman Sivriburunfaresi  Köstebek  Akdeniz Köstebeği  Yunus  Afalina  Karaca  Kızıl Geyik  Yaban Domuzu  Kurt  Çakal  Tilki  Yaban Kedisi  Su Samuru  Kaya Sansarı  Ağaç sansarı  Porsuk  Gelincik  Kokarca  Alaca Kokarca  Nalburunlu Yarasa  Akdeniz Nalburunluyarasası  Nalburunlu Büyükyarasa  Nalburunlu Küçükyarasa 

Family 

Genus 

Species 

English name 

Turkish name 

Rhinolophidae  Vespertilionidae  Vespertilionidae  Vespertilionidae  Vespertilionidae  Vespertilionidae  Vespertilionidae  Vespertilionidae  Vespertilionidae  Vespertilionidae  Vespertilionidae  Vespertilionidae  Vespertilionidae  Vespertilionidae  Vespertilionidae  Vespertilionidae  Vespertilionidae  Vespertilionidae  Vespertilionidae  Vespertilionidae  Vespertilionidae 

Rhinolophus  Barbastella  Eptesicus  Miniopterus  Myotis  Myotis  Myotis  Myotis  Myotis  Myotis  Myotis  Myotis  Myotis  Nyctalus  Nyctalus  Pipistrellus  Pipistrellus  Pipistrellus  Pipistrellus  Plecotus  Plecotus 

mehelyi  barbastellus  serotinus  schreibersii  alcathoe  bechsteini  blythi  capaccinii  daubentoni  emarginatus  myotis  mystacinus  nattereri  leisleri  noctula  kuhlii  nathusii  pipistrellus  pygmaeus  auritus  austriacus 

Mehaly’s horseshoe bat  Barbastelle  Serotine  Schribers’ bat  Whiskered bat  Bechstein’s bat  Lesser Mouse‐eared bat  Long‐fingered bat  Daubenton’s bat  Geoffroy’s bat  Greater Mouse‐eared bat  Whiskered bat  Natterer’s bat  Leisler’s bat    Noctule  Kuhl’s pipistrelle  Nathusius’ pipistrelle  Common pipistrelle  Pigmy bat  Brown long‐eared bat  Grey lon‐eared bat 

Mehely yarasası  Sakallı Yarasa  Genişkanatlı Yarasa  Uzunkanatlı Yarasa  Bıyıklı Küçük yarasa  Büyükkulaklı Yarasa  Farekulaklı küçük yarasa  Uzunayaklı Yarasa  Su Yarasası  Kirpikli Yarasa  Farekulaklı Büyük Yarasa  Bıyıklı Yarasa  Saçaklı Yarasa  Küçük Akşamcı Yarasa      Akşamcı Yarasa  Beyazyakalı Yarasa  Pürtüklü Yarasa  Cüce Yarasa  Cüce yarasa  Kahverengi Uzunkulaklı Yarasa  Gri Uzunkulaklı Yarasa 

ANNEX 6: KÖY PROFILI /VILLAGE PROFILE General

Kaynak/ Source

Genel

Name of the settlement Name of the muhtar/mayor - tel no. Distance to the nearest town center

Yerleşim yerinin adı Muhtar/Belediye Bşk. Telefon no En yakın merkeze uzaklığı

HAMDİBEY Turan ÜSTÜNDAĞ DEMİRKÖY

Age of the village and origin Population

Köyün yaşı ve halkın kökeni Nüfus

1922 Muhtardan alınan/From muhtar

Total (Summer) Total (Winter)

Toplam (Yaz) Toplam (Kış)

Male Female Children (0-16) Young (17-25) Middle (26-40) Elder (41-...) Number of households Level of education Illeterate Litterate Gratuated from primary school Gratuated from secondary school Gratuated from high school Gratuated from university Cooperatives and other NGOs Name of the cooperative Chairman and tel no.

Erkek Kadın Çocuk (0-16) Genç (16-25) Orta yaş (26-40) Yaşlı (40-...) Hane sayısı Eğitim durumu Okuma-yazma bilmeyenler Sadece okur-yazar İlkokul mezunu

Number of members Other NGOs and contact details Number of members Economy (% of livelihood)

Üye sayısı Diğer STK ların adı ve iletişim bilgisi Üye sayısı Ekonomi (geçim kaynağı %'si)

4

1

Boşnak Resmi/Official

1

371 371 188 183 50 100 150 71 90

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 15 240

1 1 1

Ortaokul mezunu

60

1

Lise mezunu Yüksek öğrenim mezunu Kooperatif ve diğer STKlar Kooperatifin adı Başkan ve Telefon No.

54 0

1 1

1 1

0 0

0 0 Kadın/Women 0 0

0

0

1

Erkek/Men

Forestry Tourism Agriculture Livestock Beekeeping Other Retired people

0 545 8040155

1 1

Ormancılık Turizm Tarım Hayvancılık Arıcılık Diğer Emekli

Orman işçiliği/forest worker 60 0 5 15 0 0 20

1 1

kereste/odun satışı/timberNTFP 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

General Income level of households (%) 0-1.000,- TL/y 1.000,-TL/y-2.500,-TL/y 2.500,-TL/y-5.000,-TL/y 5.000,-TL/y-7.500,-TL/y 7.500,-TL/y-10.000,-TL/y 10.000,- TL üzeri Land Use

Hanehalkı gelir düzeyi (%)

Total land size of the settlement (da) Total agricultural land (da) cultivated (da) poplar plantation (da) crops (da)

fodder (da) nursery (da) other (da) irrigated (da) Forest land (da) Meadows (da) state land (da) private land (da)

Yerleşim yerinin toplam yüzölçümü (da) Tarım alanı (da) ekilen (da) Kavak yetiştiriciliği (da) Tahıl ve baklagiller üretimi (da) Meyve ve sebze üretimi (da) Yem bitkileri (da) Fidancılık (da) Diğer (da) sulanan (da) Ormanlık alan (da) Mera (da) hazineye ait arazi (da) özel arazi (da)

Sources

Kaynaklar

1. Muhtar 2. Village meeting notes 3. Demirköy County Directorate of Agriculture (2008 data) 3. Vize County Directorate of Agriculture (2008 and 2009 data) 5. Orman Köylerinin Demografik Bilgileri, İstanbul Orman Bölge Müdürlüğü, İstanbul, 2005. 6. Provincial Directorateof Culture and Tourism 7. Estimations of Demirköy Sub-governorship

1. Muhtar 2. Köy toplantı notları 3. Demirköy İlçe Tarım Müdürlüğü (2008 verileri)

8. TÜİK, 2008 9. Kırklareli Provincial Directorate of Agriculture

8. TÜİK, 2008 9. Kırklareli Tarım il müdürlüğü

fruits and vegetables (da)

Kaynak/ Source

Genel

0-1.000,- TL/yıl 1.000,-TL/yıl-2.500,-TL/yıl 2.500,-TL/yıl-5.000,-TL/yıl 5.000,-TL/yıl-7.500,-TL/yıl 7.500,-TL/yıl-10.000,-TL/yıl above 10.000,- TL Arazi Kullanımı

4. Vize İlçe Tarım Müdürlüğü (2008 ve 2009 verileri) 5. Orman Köylerinin Demografik Bilgileri, İstanbul Orman Bölge Müdürlüğü, İstanbul, 2005. 6. İl Kültür ve Turizm Müdürlüğü verileri 7. Demirköy Kaymakamlığı tahminleri

2% 50% 43% 5% 0 0 Muhtardan alınan/From muhtar

1 1 1 1 1 1 Resmi/Official 45519

3

5328 556 150 50

3 3 1 1

0

1

150 0 0 150 35840

1 1 1 1 5

406 227

3 3

* 3 yıllık temel eğitim dahil

Agriculture and Forestry Forestry

Ormancılık

Related Forest Enterprise unit Forest land per person (da)

Köyün bağlı olduğu Orman İşletme Şefliği Ormandan kişi başına düşen alan (da) Ormandan kişi başına servet olarak düşen m3 miktarı Hayvancılık küçük baş (koyun/keçi) sayısı Büyükbaş

Assets per capita from forest (m3) Livestock # of ovines (sheep and goats) # of bovines # of cows # of water buffaloes Beekeeping # of hives honey production (kg/year) Agriculture Products

Kaynak/ Source Demirköy İşletme Müdürlüğü

Sığır sayısı Manda sayısı

holstein ırkı 8 0

kovan sayısı bal üretimi kg/yıl

10 900

yerli ırk (yoz) 216 0

90

5

3125

5

3200

1

melez ırk 100 0

3 3

Arıcılık 1 1

Tarım Yetiştirilen ürünler

Non-timber forest products

Ormandan alınan odun dışı tali ürünler

Firewood Mushroom

Yakacak odun Mantar

Game

Av hayvanları

Medicinal plants

Tıbbi bitkiler

Fish from rivers Wild fruits

Derelerden balık Yabani meyveler

Herbs

Otlar

Others

Diğer

Kaynak/ Source 1350 Ster Bolet , kuzugöbeği, çayır mantarı, geyik mantarı, kuzugöbeği, cincila, kaz ayağı, borazan, sığır dili, sütlü mantar, karnabahar, kanlıca, dedeman, civciv bacağı, duvaklı mantar Domuz, karaca, geyik papatya, kantaron otu, ada çayı

1 1

1 1

0 Ahlat, yabani erik,kuşburnu, kızılçık, ıhlamur, yabani çilek,böğürtlen kuzukulağı, ısırgan otu, kantoron otu, nane, kekik, cıvan perçemi, tavşan dikeni, çivan perçemi, labada

1 1 1

0

1

Services Education

Eğitim

Pre-school Primary school (1-5) Primary school (6-8) High school Communication Post office Telephone Internet Infrastructure Water supply Sewerage Waste collection Facilities Health service hospital clinic ambulance Veterinary service Fire-fighter Library Guest house Hotel Pension Bank Market Weekly market Grocery store Community hall Tea-house Transportation # of days when road unaccessible Bus service Minibus service Taxi

Anasınıfı İlköğretim (1-5) İlköğretim (6-8) Lise İletişim Postane Telefon İnternet Altyapı Su şebekesi Kanalizasyon şebekesi Katı atık Hizmetler Sağlık hastane sağlık ocağı ambulans Veterinerlik hizmeti İtfaiye Kütüphane Konukevi Otel Pansiyon Banka Market Pazar Bakkal Toplantı salonu Kahvehane Ulaşım Yolların kapandığı gün sayısı Otobüs seferi Dolmuş Taksi

* Sometimes private cars provide taxi service

0=yok, 1=var

Sayı/Number 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 3 0 0 1 0

1 0

Issues and Needs Sorunlar/Issues Köyde orman üretim miktarı az olması Çiftçilik imkansızlıktan yapılamıyor, yem çok pahalı süt çok ucuz . Tarım aletleri yok, dışarıdan kiralanıyor. Gençlere iş yok. Orman köylüsü devlet için üvey evlat olması

İhtiyaçlar/Needs Kadınlara eğitim verilirse dokumacılık yapabiliriz Yıldız dağlarının öncelikli bir alan olması Bir takım projelerin bu alana önceliklendirilmesi Alanın reklamının yapılması Maddi ve manevi açıdan zengin bölge olması için bölgenin desteklenmesi Doğal güzelliği ile anılan bir alan olması Or-köy kredilerinin artırılması, daha fazla bireye ulaşması Organik tarım için gerekli alt yapının oluşturulup tabana (halka) yaygınlaştırılması Gelirlerin il bazında değil de, ilçe ilçe hatta köylere göre saptanması Organik arıcılık, meyvecilik v.s konularda yörenin desteklenmesi Orman köylüsünün en azından üretim süresince SSK’lı yapılması Köyümüzdeki tarihi binaların restarasyonu için gerekli desteğin sağlanması Üretilen ürünlerin markalanması için gerekli desteğin sağlanması

Cultural and Historical İlkbaharda kuzuların sürüye salınması tam bir şenlik havasında gerçekleşirdi(silahlar atılır, şarkılar söylenir, dualar okunurdu) Köyde imece usulüardımlaşma yapılırdı. Tarlada ekilen mısır toplandıktan sonra bütün komşular toplanır mısır soyarlarken taze mısır pişirilip çalışanlara ikram edilirdi. Kış mevsimine girerken herkes gücüne göre kışlık yiyecek: turşu, kuru meyva, kavurma, konserve hazırlar, et kurutulurdu. Diğer bilgiler ve notlar/Other info and notes Köyde yapılan toplantılarda kadınlar ve erkekler ile bir arada toplantı yapılmıştır. Kadınlar kendilerini erkeklerin yanında çekinmeden ifade etmişlerdir.Köyde hayvancılık yapıldığı, köyün hayvancılık için uygun olduğu belirtilmiştir. Toplantılarda projenin somut olarak ne sağlayacağı üzerinde sorular sorulmuş, proje ile ilgili açıklamaların net ve anlaşılır olması istenmiştir. Özellikle alanda bugüne kadar yapılan çalışmalarda birtakım sözler verildiği ve verilen bu sözlerin yerine getirilmediği vurgulanmıştır. Alanın gelecekte nasıl görülmek istendiği, alanın değerleri, engeller ve çözümler konusunda grup çalışması yapılmış, her grup yaptığı çalışmayı grup sözcüsü seçerek sunmuştur.

Plan Information Köy halkına göre alanın gelecekte olması istenen durumu/Vision of the community Vizyon: 1 grup Doğal değerleri bozmadan ileriye dönük projelerle gelişmiş bir turizm bölgesi olarak görmeyi istiyoruz. Köyümüzde gelen misafirleri ağarlamak için köyümüzde bulunan tarihi evlerin restore edilip burada misafir edilmeleri ve kendi kültürel değerlerimizin tanıtılması Vizyon: 2 grup Buraya gelen kişilerin köyümüze zarar vermeden doğal güzelliklerinin bulunması Yaptığımız işlerin pazarının bulunması Maddi açıdan kalkınmak Konaklama için yeni yerlerin açılmış olması Vizyon: 3 grup Üretilen ürünlere Pazar bulunması ile bölgenin ekonomik olarak kalkınması Bölgenin kültürel özelliklerinin tanıtımı, bir çok alanın olması, turist çekmesi Her türlü çalışmada bölgenin doğal güzelliğinin aynı olması Alanın ilgi ve odak noktasında olması Köy halkına göre Yıldız Dağlarının değerleri/ Values of the Yildiz Mountains Görsel turizm değeri Kış turizm değerleri Hayvan ve bitki çeşitliliği Rumlardan kalan evler Doğal kaynak suları Boşnak börek ve tatlıları Toprağın çeşitli bitkilerin üretimine olanak tanıması Belli dönemlerde çıkan çeşitli mantarlar Daha önceki dönemlerde çeşitli kültürlerin yaşamış olması Yöredeki değerler ve vizyonun gerçekleşmesinin önündeki engeller/tehditler /Threats Devletin desteklerinin yetersizliği ve sürekli olmaması Projelerde yöre halkını ikna etmede yetersizlik Engellerin ve tehditlerin kaldırılması/azaltılması için yapılması gerekenler/ Removal and or mitigation/reduction measures Devlet ve yöre insanı işbirliği içerisinde çalışmaya yönelik güven ve inançın oluşması

ANNEXE 7: WELL-BEING INDEX Villages classified by a well-being index, based on the function (α +∞ + β + µ + γ) Villages

Aksicim Armagan Armutveren Avcilar Balaban Begendik Beypinar Boztas çukurpinar Demirköy Dereköy Evciler Gökyaka Hamdibey Hamidiye Igneada Incesirt Karacadag Karadere Kislacik Kiyiköy Kizilagaç Kurudere Limanköy Sarpdere Sislioba Sivriler Sükrüpasa Yenice Yesilce Yigitbasi

Population

425 574 116 157 389 290 177 376 383 3 992 535 282 60 371 110 2 215 43 29 97 1 050 2 496 657 492 474 79 217 466 107 1 260 87 36

% high school + Agricultural Agricultural Population Modal Income Education university grads land per land category category category in population inhabitant (ha) category α ∞ β µ 3 2 6,12 2 0,12 1 3 4 8,89 2 1,33 3 2 2.5 8,62 2 4,96 4 2 2 0 1 0,34 1 2 4 0 1 0,51 2 2 3 17,24 4 1,19 3 2 4 5,65 1 0,39 1 2 2 6,12 2 1,05 3 2 4 11,75 3 10,96 5 5 4 20,04 4 0,26 1 3 5 4,3 1 0,28 1 2 4 6,03 2 1,77 3 1 2 13,33 3 2,82 3 2 2 14,56 3 1,44 3 2 2 4,55 1 0,86 2 5 3 12,19 3 0,32 1 1 3 0 1 8,6 4 1 4 0 1 6,41 4 1 2 0 1 1,55 3 4 2 6,86 2 0,42 1 5 3 42,87 5 0,14 1 3 2.5 1,52 1 0,29 1 3 3 10,16 2 1,83 3 3 3 14,14 3 0,57 2 1 2 17,72 4 2,48 3 2 2 4,15 1 0,98 2 3 2.5 7,73 2 0,52 2 2 2 11,21 3 0,56 1 4 4 10,71 2 0,48 1 1 3 22,99 4 3,02 4 1 2 5,56 1 8,21 4

% people aged 26-40 years 23,53 8,71 25,86 9,55 10,00 20,69

Working age category γ 3 1 3 1 2 2

20,48 13,69 0 20,37

2 2 2

8,33 40,43 36,36 14,45 16,28 27,59 30,93 40,00 22,04 19,03 68,50 13,92 31,65 16,13 25,75 7,48 11,11 29,89 16,67

1 4 4 2 2 3 3 4 3 2 5 2 4 2 3 1 2 3 2

Well-being INDEX 11 13 13,5 7 11 14 8 11 16 14 12 11 10 14 11 14 11 13 10 13 17 9,5 16 13 14 9 12,5 9 13 15 10

Class* 2 2 2 1 2 3 1 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 1 3 2 3 1 2 1 2 3 2

*Villages grouped into three classes (1-3), based on the total Index value (Class 1 = 7-9; Class 2 = 10-13; Class 3 = 14-17). Higher function and class values indicate higher well-being.

ANNEX 8: PARIS ACCORD – BIOSPHERE GOVERNANCE

Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project Biosphere Governance Introduction If the Yildiz Mountain Biosphere is to be successful, it must have a management and operational structure that reflects its objectives, incorporates the views and ensures the participation of the local stakeholders, and meets the needs of the Province and of the State. The governance structure that is identified in this report is based on detailed discussions with the relevant authorities in Turkey, and has been agreed following a study tour in France in October, 2009. Those involved in the discussion, and who have agreed the proposals contained in this section of the report, are: Deputy Undersecretary, Ministry of Environment and Forestry Deputy General Director, Nature Conservation and National Parks

Mustafa Eldemir Osman Ozturk

Head of Department, General Directorate of Forestry, Forestry Administration and Planning Department

Mustafa Yurdaer

Director, General Directorate of Forestry, Directorate of Mapping and Photogrammetry

Cemil Un

Branch Manager, General Directorate of Nature Conservation and National Parks

Harun Basara

Director, Directorate of Central Anatolian Forestry Research Landscape Architect, General Directorate of Nature Conservation and National Parks Director, Kirklareli Provincial Directorate of Environment and Forestry Regional Director, Istanbul Regional Directorate of Forestry

Metin Karadag Nihan Yenilmaz Arpa Fikri Erbas Ismail Uzmez

Manager, Kirklareli Directorate of Forestry Enterprise

Sahin Aybal

Manager, Demirkoy Directorate of Forestry Enterprise

Enver Kara

Manager, Vize Directorate of Forestry Enterprise

Huseyin Dogan

Deputy Governor, Kirklareli Governorship

Ismail Gultekin 1

Deputy General Secretary, Kirklareli Provincial Special Administration 1

Erol Akyuz

Because he is new to post, Ismail Gultekin was not able to give formal support to the proposed governance structure. However, he contributed fully to the development of the proposals and is content that they should be put forward as an agreed basis on which to work

Guiding principles It is important that any biosphere governance structure should operate according to an agreed set of principles and a code of conduct. It is agreed that the guiding principles for the management of the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere will be: -

Openness: all stakeholders to have confidence in the decision process Inclusivity: all stakeholders to have access and appropriate involvement Integrity: all officials to be honest and trustworthy Accountability: all committee members to be held responsible for their actions and decisions

Stakeholders A stakeholder is a person or an organisation that can affect or be affected by the operation and outcomes of the Biosphere. It is a fundamental principle of a biosphere that all stakeholders should have the opportunity to participate in its planning and management, and to have their voices heard. During the implementation of the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Project, a Stakeholder Working Group was established representing governmental and local interests in the project area. As well as local members of central, regional and provincial government, the Stakeholder Working Group included representatives of municipalities, nongovernmental organisations, and agricultural and hunting organisations. Perhaps most importantly, the Stakeholder Working Group included village muhtars, representing the villagers who live and work in the project area. To ensure that all local people had an opportunity to participate in the project, additional members of the Stakeholder Working Group were appointed to represent women and young people. A full list of the membership of the Stakeholder Working Group is given in Appendix A. In total well over 20 categories of stakeholders are involved in the Biosphere. Many of these include multiple representatives: for example, there are four municipalities and more than 30 villages in the Biosphere area. To involve all of these groups in the running of the Biosphere would be administratively impossible. Yet to exclude stakeholders from the planning and implementation of the management plan would result in a loss of commitment and ownership and the eventual failure of the Biosphere. It has therefore been agreed that the management of the Biosphere should be carried out by two committees: a Management Committee, responsible for overseeing the planning and implementation of the management plan, including its initial development from a preliminary plan to a full management plan; and an Advisory Committee, in which a wider range of stakeholders will be able to contribute to the decision-making process. The membership and roles of these committees is discussed in the following sections. Management Committee Responsibility for overseeing the planning and management of the Yildiz Mountain Biosphere will be with a Management Committee. This will consist of representatives of the main government departments, supported by representatives of the municipalities and by the Chairperson of the Advisory Committee to ensure that all stakeholders are able to influence the decision-making process. While it may be appropriate for the membership of the Management Committee to change over time, it will be established initially with a membership of 15, representing the following stakeholders: Kirklareli Governorship (Chair)

Regional Directorate of Forestry Provincial Directorate of Environment and Forestry Directorates of Forestry Enterprise (x three 2 ) Kirklareli Province Special Administration General Directorate of Nature Conservation and Natural Parks General Directorate of Forestry Provincial Directorate of Agriculture Provincial Directorate of Tourism and Culture Representative of municipality mayors Independent representatives (maximum of two) Chairperson of Advisory Committee In agreeing this membership of the Management Committee, the following points have been taken in to account: -

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

The role of Chairperson of the Management Committee is to ensure that decisions are made and implemented in a fair and professional manner, by involving all members of the Committee in the discussion and decision-making. The Chairperson is expected to coordinate and facilitate discussion leading to joint decisions. The Management Committee will appoint a Deputy Chairperson, who should represent the forestry sector that is the largest economic activity in the Biosphere. The appointment of the Chairperson and Deputy Chairperson will initially be for a period of two years. After two years, the Committee will elect the Chairperson and Deputy Chairperson from among its members. If the Chairperson is unable to attend a meeting, it will be chaired by the Deputy Chairperson. Decisions will be made on the basis of a vote, with each member having one vote. The Management Committee will need to decide how many persons need to be present for any decisions to be valid: it is recommended that a minimum of eight persons in favour is necessary for a decision to be valid. The majority control of resources will continue to rest with the provincial forestry operations, and their representatives will therefore have, in practice, a power of veto over the operations of the Management Committee. The Management Committee will not have the power to operate in a way that is contrary to the policies and guidelines of the Provincial Directorate of Forestry Enterprise. The municipalities within the Biosphere will be responsible for selecting one of their number to sit on the Management Committee. It is expected that this role will be rotated among the municipalities. It is important that independent representatives are appointed to the Management Committee, as this will broaden its membership and raise its credibility within the region. The Management Committee will need to decide the method of appointment of the independent representatives: either by the selection of one representative from a university and one from an NGO; or by open application and selection. The Chairperson of the Advisory Committee will represent the views of the Advisory Committee on matters discussed and decisions made by the Management Committee. If decisions are made contrary to the views of the Advisory Committee, the reasons must be clearly set out and communicated back to the Advisory Committee. The Management Committee will have the right to invite technical specialists to attend or address its meetings, or to appoint technical groups to study specific areas of policy.

Demirkoy, Kirklareli, Vize

Terms of reference for the Management Committee are attached as Appendix B. The procedure for the supervision of the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere, and similar or related biospheres, is to be developed by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry Advisory Committee Although the Management Committee will make decisions and is responsible for the operations of the Biosphere, it is the effectiveness of the Advisory Committee that will decide its success or failure. The purpose of the Biosphere is to conserve the important ecology of the Yildiz Mountains and to encourage the sustainable development of the area. The central and provincial government will have an important role in providing logistical support, but the contributors to and beneficiaries of the Biosphere will be the people who live and work in the area. The Advisory Committee is the forum for their voices to be heard and their contribution to policy and management to be made. The Advisory Committee will meet before the Management Committee and will have a similar agenda. The Chairperson of the Advisory Committee, therefore, will attend the Management Committee with a clear idea of the views of the people of the area on the items under discussion, and will be responsible for presenting those views to the Management Committee. It is expected that the Management Committee will reflect the views of the Advisory Committee in its decisions. If this is not the case, then the Chairperson of the Advisory Committee must be given clear reasons as to why the views of the Advisory Committee have been ignored or over-ruled. There are therefore two main requirements for the success of the Advisory Committee: - It must include representatives of local stakeholders in the Biosphere who are able and willing to express their views clearly to the Advisory Committee. - The Chairperson must have the skills to manage the discussion in the Advisory Committee so that all members have the opportunity to express their views, and to present these views clearly and fairly to the Management Committee. Provided these two requirements are met, the precise composition and procedures of the Advisory Committee are less important. The Advisory Committee should initially build on the existing Stakeholder Working Group (Appendix A), with representatives of villages, cooperatives and unions, municipalities, non-governmental and private sector organisations, hunters, the military, young people and women. The Chairperson and Deputy Chairperson will be elected by the members of the Advisory Committee for an initial term of two years. Terms of reference for the Advisory Committee are attached as Appendix C. Legislative framework There has been some concern about the legislative basis needed for the establishment of the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere. However, the advice from UNESCO is that, wherever possible, biospheres should be established within the existing legislative structure. It has been agreed that existing legislation in Turkey already provides a basis for the protection of the core zones, and that no further legislation is needed for the buffer and transitional zones. The establishment of the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere, therefore, can proceed without additional legislative intervention. Biosphere Support Unit It is intended that that the Biosphere should utilise existing resources to conserve ecologically important areas and to encourage and support sustainable development. The benefits will be obtained by improving the liaison and cooperation between the activities of different agencies and the local population, by establishing partnerships with shared aims

and, if appropriate, seeking additional funding for identified projects. It will be the responsibility of the Management Committee to obtain these benefits. To support this, a Biosphere Support Unit will be established within the Provincial Directorate of Environment and Forestry. The purpose of this Unit is to initiate activities in support of the Management Committee’s responsibility to achieve the objectives of the management plan. This Unit need be no larger than three persons initially, and will be staffed by the attachment of personnel from different agencies already working in the area. Policy development It is the expectation in Turkey that protected areas should operate according to a management plan. Moreover, a management plan is a requirement for any biosphere nominated for inclusion in the world network of biosphere reserves that is coordinated by the UNESCO Man and Biosphere Programme. The process of preparing a plan has been begun by the consultants. To be completed, this Feasibility Study for a Management Plan needs to be developed into a comprehensive management plan with a full set of activities that addresses local priorities and needs, in accordance with the visions and objectives agreed to date.

Appendix A Membership of the Stakeholder Working Group Ministry of Environment and Forestry Ministry of Environment and Forestry Provincial Directorate of Environment and Forestry. Provincial Directorate of Environment and Forestry. Governor General Secretariat of Special Provincial Administration Rectorate of Kırklareli University Subgovernorship of Demirköy (public training centre) Subgovernorship of Pınarhisar (agriculture directorate) Subgovernorship of Vize Provincial Directorate of Agriculture Provincial Directorate of Culture and Tourism (Museum) District Directorate of Agriculture in Demirköy Directorate of Kırklareli Forest Enterprise Directorate of Forest Enterprise in Demirköy Kırklareli Municipality Demirköy Municipality İğneada Municipality Kıyıköy Municipality NGOs NGOs

Representatives of Hunting Association Beekeeping Association Representatives of Agricultural Representatives of Agricultural Representatives of Agricultural Water Product Cooperatives Representatives of Agricultural Representatives of Agricultural Representatives of Agricultural Representatives of Villages - Muhtars Representatives of Villages - Muhtars Representatives of Villages - Muhtars Representatives of Villages - Muhtars Representatives of Villages - Muhtars Representatives of Villages - Muhtars Representatives of Villages - Muhtars Representatives of Villages - Muhtars Representatives of Villages - Muhtars Representatives of Villages - women Representatives of Villages - women Representatives of Villages - women Representatives of Villages - women Representatives of Villages - women Representatives of Villages - young people Representatives of Villages - young people

Appendix B Terms of Reference of the Management Committee 1.

2. 3.

4. 5.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

The general duty of the Management Committee is to manage the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere with respect to: conservation sustainable development logistical support This duty is to be achieved by the preparation and implementation of a Management Plan for the Biosphere. In making and implementing decisions, the Management Committee is to take full notice of advice received from the Advisory Committee. If any decision is made contrary to such advice, the Advisory Committee is to be told the reasons for this decision. For the first two years, the composition of the Management Committee will be as laid out in this report. Thereafter, the membership of the Committee may be varied as agreed. For the first two years, the Chairperson of the Committee will be the representative of Kirklareli Governorship, and the Deputy Chairperson will be the representative of the forestry sector. After two years, the members of the Committee will elect the Chairperson and Deputy Chairperson. At its first meeting, the Management Committee will decide the frequency and location of meetings. Meetings shall be chaired by the Chairperson. If the Chairperson is unable to attend, meetings shall be chaired by the Deputy Chairperson. All decisions will be taken by vote, with one vote for each member of the Committee. At its first meeting, the Committee will decide how many persons must be present for a vote to be legitimate (quorate). The Committee will be subject to supervision by the Department of Environment and Forestry. The Committee shall have the power to invite independent experts to advise it on specific issues as necessary. The members of the Management Committee shall operate according to the guiding principles of the Biosphere: openness, inclusivity, integrity and accountability.

Appendix C Terms of Reference of the Advisory Committee 1. To act as a reference group to offer advice and comment on the Biosphere’s management aims and objectives. This will include, but not be limited to, the preparation and implementation of the Management Plan, including policy development and zonation. 2. To provide a consultative forum to facilitate two-way communication between the Management Committee and the local stakeholders in the Biosphere. 3. To provide a forum for discussion on conservation, sustainable development and logistical support within the Biosphere. 4. To promote closer liaison and understanding between the various stakeholders who have an interest in the Biosphere. 5. In providing advice and comment, the Advisory Committee will have regard to the three objectives of the Biosphere, namely conservation, sustainable use and development, and logistics. 6. Through its Chairperson, the Advisory Committee will make its views known to the Management Committee, will contribute to discussions by the Management Committee, and will receive feedback on decisions made by the Management Committee.

ANNEX 9: STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF VİLLAGE IDENTIFIED BY STAKEHOLDERS AT VARİOUS WORKSHOPS

COOPERATIVES

Outputs of the Muhtars and Cooperatives Workshop 20 May 2009, İğneada Strong points of Cooperatives: • It is an employer • Trustable • Organized, common work • Represent the majority of the community • The strongest NGO of the villagers • Can easily and quickly access to inhabitants • Eliminates the dealers and traders • Has the priority to take the job from the forestry enterprise • Dominates in its field of competence • Good management of accounting • Brings villagers together • Our voices can be heard by means of the cooperatives • Can help financially villagers who needs it • It is democratic • Equal to all its members • Has knowledge on forestry, honeybee keeping, livestock farming, milking • Has internal inspection • Is legally suitable for a multipurpose development Weak points of Cooperatives: • The cooperatives are used for single purpose due to their limited capital • The forestry enterprise doesn’t return the 25% share they should normally return to the cooperatives, result: the capital of the cooperatives can’t increase • No competitive power • Problems for marketing • Board members work on voluntary basis • Lack of information/knowledge • Lack of permanent staff • There is no union of forestry cooperatives • Forestry enterprise is using cooperatives for inexpensive labour, and sells the standing plantations at a high price • Financially weak • Can’t benefit from loans because conditions are too heavy for the cooperative • Must go back to clear felling • There isn’t a cooperative in each villages • Cooperatives do not have processing plants for forest products • The forest product is sold to a dealer if there isn’t a cooperative • No capacity and power to increase the budget of the cooperative or Muhtarship • System inside the system for forest management • No social security paid by the Forestry Enterprise • There is state support for agricultural production but not for forestry activities • Forestry Enterprise is making money but not the villagers (they are employing us without social security) • There is no negotiation between Forestry Enterprise and the cooperatives and muhtars while taking decisions • Lack of knowledge in the management of natural resources (example: hunting)

Suggestions to strengthen the weak points: • The number of members could be increased but it won’t be sufficient. State should support the cooperatives at a certain level • The areas that have been excluded from by the Article 2b of the forestry legislation, should be granted to the cooperatives or to the legal entity muhtarship • The legislation should be amended so that the evaluation of the profit of the Forest Enterprise should be changed from the existing “regional level pool system” to the “Directorate level evaluation system” • The Forestry Enterprise could collect the money from the cooperatives after selling the timber to the dealer and not before selling it. • The Provincial Directorate of Agriculture could inform us on the legislation concerning cooperatives • The cooperatives and the muhtarships should inform the relevant provincial/subprovincial agencies (Provincial Directorate of Agriculture, Public Training Centre, etc.) for their training needs. • Training sessions should be organised by the relevant agencies in order to meet these needs • The negotiation mechanisms should be established for building the dialogue between the Forestry Enterprise and the cooperatives and forest villagers • The Forestry Enterprise should turn back to clear felling • The working field of cooperatives should be enlarged; the villages who do not have a cooperative should be demanding it. • State should financially support cooperatives (25% would be helping) • The cooperatives should be empowered • Project conditions should be made easier for forest villages • The conditions of negotiation should be determined together with the Forestry Enterprise Outputs of the Women’s Workshop 22 May 2009, Hamdibey Village Strengths of Cooperatives: • Brings people together • Protects the rights of shareholders • People are able to cooperate • Is an intermediate for the marketing of products • Is a tool to meet the needs of the people • Has the priority for getting forestry works • Provides an improved quality in the work done • Is a structure that represents the community • It supports solidarity • Allows the benefits to be shared equally by its members • Allows to have the priority to benefit from the state’s financial supports Weak points of Cooperatives: • The board of cooperatives takes decisions without thinking of the priorities and needs of the community • Unclear sanctions to the board or to the members in case they don’t respect the initial principal agreement • Careless expenditures are paid by the members • Women do not have the opportunity to express themselves in the Cooperative • Cooperatives have problems in marketing • The cooperatives are not entrepreneur enough

What are the obstacles to the establishment of a women’s cooperative? • Lack of experienced and educated people • Lack of persons that have a relation with institutions • Lack of confidence and trust among institutions and inhabitants Other outputs of the workshop: Creating a regional women’s cooperative • Mrs Ayfer Kayhan (Provincial Directorate of Agriculture), will check legislation if there is any problem for the establishment of a women cooperative and inform us about it. • Women from 9 villages have exchanged their phone numbers to be able to keep in touch and create a network • Women who are willing to establish a cooperative gave their phone numbers to the cooperative expert (Ayfer Kayhan) • 3 women have been identified to represent the women of the project area Sivriler Village (Fatma KÖYBASI 6844064), Çukurpinar Village (Tülay Özkan 234 4025) and Beypinar Village (Nazire YILDIZ 234 4134)] • Positive discrimination is seen as an opportunity for the establishment of women cooperative Outputs of the Youngsters Workshop 26 May 2009, Vize Strengths of Cooperatives: • Cooperatives are democratically managed • Offers job opportunities to villagers • Offers marketing opportunities to villagers • Makes credit loans more easily accessable • Priority on getting forestry work • Has a negotiation power • Can meet the needs of the villagers (e.g. by supply of fuel, fodder, fertilizer etc.) • The members are part of the management (a member who doesn’t participate in 3 general meetings consecutively can be excluded from the cooperative) • Makes access to financing easier • Supplying information can empower villagers • Has priority in benefiting from state supports • Can invest with its own budget • Has priority in benefiting from state project • Has priority in benefiting from state credits • Fare distribution of the benefits to its members • Can support its members in case of difficulty (compensation of hospital cost or damages in case of fire in a house, accident in the forest during logging, etc.) Weak points of Cooperatives: • It is very difficult to change an unsuccessful president or a board • Cooperatives are single service oriented, and that’s the reason why everybody cannot benefit from them. • Lack of information/knowledge on Cooperatives • Some cooperatives have been created not because of need but because of some obligations (i.e. to get work from FE) • Can not develop new job opportunities • Not innovative • Not good communication with state agencies • Not open to new projects because members are old • Not easy for youngsters to enter in the cooperatives

• • •

No involvement to other fields of work than logging Managed by uneducated people The cooperatives are not aware from which institution they can benefit from (lack of information)

Suggestions to strengthen the weaknesses: • To inform members about the legislation on cooperatives, the rights and responsibilities of members in the cooperatives • The members could put pressure democratically on unsuccessful managers to demission • The creation of a supervisory board for cooperatives ?? • Technical support to the cooperatives in the form of machinary-equipment, information and financial aid to help them to be multifunctional • Youngsters must be unified • The cooperative should inform themselves on the financial resources from the institutions Outputs of the Provıncıal Agencıes Workshop 28 May 2009, Demirköy Strengths of the Cooperatives: • it’s a tool to organise the people • power comes from unity: power to negotiate and to influence the market while marketing the products • has priority to benefit from state support (credits, investments) • has power to develop strategies that are appropriate to the people’s needs • has power to supply the needs of the villagers at lower prices • are less affected by the market risks compared to individual entrepreneurs • creates jobs • has a democratic structure • protects the rights and interests of the members Weaknesses of the Cooperatives in natural resources management: • open to discrimination between members • weak in marketing • some of the managers has low capacity • no professional management • supervising board under capacity and not working well • feudal relations during votes and management • weak competitive power • financially weak • the ownership is not strong among members of the cooperatives Measures to strengthen the weak points: • financial support from state to the cooperatives • raises awareness of the members • creates mechanisms to compete with the private sector • channelling the EU funds

ANNEX 10: MANAGEMENT AGREEMENT WORKSHOP

Yildiz Mountains: Management Agreement Workshop (2 Days) 17th and 18th NOVEMBER 2009 Day One The first day of the workshop was designed to test the idea of management agreements to see if people felt they were, in principal. a good idea. The workshop would then go on to build agreement on what agreements should cover and finally, to agree on the basic ‘performance criteria’ for agreements. The work was done in three stages, with sub-groups considering key questions before reporting back their thoughts into plenary discussions whewre s oproducts were developed. Key Questions: Questions 1: What do we all think about the idea of Management Agreements? Qestions 2: What should we include in a good management agreement ? Questions 3 : How would we make good management agreement happen? Question 1: Plenary Discussion How do you feel about the agreements on the management of natural resources? • In general these types of agreement would be positive • They will be contributing to the products from natural resources. • Management agreements will be take a long process • Increasing the capacities of these communities by increasing awareness is necessary • The management agreements should be prepared with the interest groups • While preparing new projects a stakeholder commission should be developed • The model projects should be included in the management plan • The management agreements shouldn’t be an obstacle for other income generating activities • The weaknesses in the structure of existing cooperatives should be considered. • An shelter union of cooperatives should be created to strengthen the cooperatives • Conflict could arise to determine the area where these natural resources will be managed • Local communities should have priority in the use of these natural resources • Cooperatives should be (financially and technically) supported • Natural resources should generate more income than now • Agreements should prevent outside traders to use these resources • The parties of the agreements should be the state and community organizations (such as cooperatives, farmers’ organizations, village entities, etc). It should be noted that muhtarships have no trade status. But then can use their income through the subgovernorship. • The community should sell the mushrooms through the cooperative to get the best profit.

Question 2: Plenary Discussion What should be included in a good management agreement? • Should bring different and more advantages for the local communities. • The agreement should have provisions regarding training. • Identify the carrying capacity of the area (feasibility study) • Other income generating activities shouldn’t be constrained • Cooperatives should have authority in the development of natural resources in their area. • The agreement should be in line with the existing legislation • Should include provisions and articles on the sustainable use of natural resources • Equitability (no privilege for persons or institutions) • Should include boundaries and borders of properties • Define parties and responsibilities • Time schedule for activities should be identified • The agreement shouldn’t be specific to a few natural resources • The agreement should continue even if the managers change. • Should cover sanctions for those who do not respect the agreement • Determining the time length of the agreement Question 3: Plenary Discussion What do we need for the realization of these management agreements? • Majority in Willingness • Honesty • Support to the unions (cooperatives) which are going to make these agreements (capacity building and economic support) • Creating a Union (of cooperatives) • Respecting articles of the agreement • Should have support tools to facilitate the signature of these agreements (increasing the support level to rural development) • Informing communities on the benefits of these agreements • Informing state agencies on these agreements to allow their participation • Determining who will conduct the secretariat of the agreement text • Change in legislation if needed (if it isn’t included in the current/existing legislation) • The agreement should meet the needs of the dynamics of the communities • The agreement should fit the socio-economic structure of the communities • identification of the resources • Improving the infrastructures regarding to issues (exp: ecotourism) • Getting technical support and experience while doing the agreements • Insuring auto control through the advisory committee • Firstly, training the communities regarding the issues of the agreement (marketing, access to financing, handcrafting, rural tourism, organic agriculture, cooperatives, etc...) Other recommendations from Plenary: • Financial support to the cooperatives that are being created • To give the right to issue producers receipt to the individual producers? • The organic certification should be delivered by the ministry of agriculture and rural affairs • Having a state policy of supporting the successful agreements

Day Two Day two tested a genric framework for agreements which was built on the work the groups had done on day one. Again, the framework and the workshop was based on a number of key questions: Generic Management Agreement Framework Question 1: Which natural resources? - Their quantity? - Their particularity? - Their boundaries? - When are they available (for harvest)? Question 2: Objective of the agreement - Why is it done/ for which purpose? - What must it ensure? - With which matters must it deal with? Question 3: What must be the length of the agreement? Question 4 : Who must be the parties to the agreement? Question 5 : To whom must we give information? - Who else needs to know about it? Question 6: Who must pursue and support this process? - Who can enable or champion the process? Question 7: What must be the benefits expected by the different parties? Question 8 : How decisions should be taken? Question 9 : Who will be responsible for which activities? Question 10: How will the agreement and its implementation be done? - Who will monitor and evaluate progress? The group initially tested the draft framework using small groups initially and then decided to work together, in plenary, on Non- Wood Products.

OUTPUTS OF THE GROUP WORK: Non-Wood Forest Products Question 1: Which natural resources? Mushrooms: growth dependent on climatic conditions. Harvest in the project area is around 50 to 300 tons per year. Mushroom species (Boletus, Lactarius,…). The storage of mushroom requires investment in cold storage room. Mushrooms are harvested mostly in spring and autumn. Linden: 10-50 tons, harvested in June Walnut: 3-5 tons, harvested in September Mountain ash fruits (Sorbus): August and October. Rose hip: 25-50 tons, September-November Blackberry: August Cornelian Cherry: August-September Frangula alnus (Güvem): September-October Wild apple: September-December Medlar: 100 tons. November-December Wild pear: 100 tons November-December Kantaron grass: June-July Moos: all year Different decorative plants

Question 2: Objective of the agreement • • • • • • •

Determining the production techniques and timing (training) Beneficiary: who and how (determined in the legislation) Determining how to control/inspect To achieve (rural) development of local communities To prevent the degradation of natural resources To state sustainable natural resources use, marketing and capacity building of cooperatives in the agreements Benefit to communities should be the fundaments

Question 3: What must be the length of the agreement? •

The agreement should be valid for 3 years

Question 4 : Who must be the parties of the agreement? •

The agreement on NWFP must be between Kirklareli, Vize and Demirköy Forestry District Directorate and the cooperatives

Question 5 : To whom must we give the information? •

Law enforcement officers, neighboring villages, Provincial directorates, village heads, organic certification bodies, hunting associations, Special Provincial Administration.

Question 6: Who must pursue and support this process? •

Forest District Directorates

Question 7: What must be the benefits expected by the different parties? • • •

charges/fees taken by the Forest District Directorates, and the MoEF continuous income for the cooperatives, sustainable natural resources management between cooperatives and state agencies

Question 8 : How decisions should be taken? • •

Decisions must be taken in accordance with the agreed rules and the through usual decision making mechanisms stated in te relevant legislation Authority of Management Committee and Advisory Committee for important decisions to be taken in the biosphere area (controlling if the agreement text is in line with the vision and objectives of the Management plan)

Question 9 : Who will be responsible of which activities? • •

State agencies will be responsible for inspection and monitoring, cooperatives will be responsible for other activities. Cooperatives will be responsible for ensuring the relevant trainings for certificates are taken (on NWFP, Harvesting, hunting etc…)

Question 10: How will the agreement and activities be monitored and inspected? • • • • • • • •

Monitoring should be done by relevant agencies The Management and Advisory Committees of the biosphere can decide if needed to deal with independent units for monitoring Through inspection reports Through the annual production reports of the Forestry District Directorates (FDD) Field survey records and reports from FDD Cooperatives must establish their own monitoring system The biosphere monitoring system should be compensated from the Biosphere budget Provincial Directorate of Environment and Forestry should hold and be responsible of the secretariat of the Biosphere monitoring system

OUTPUTS OF THE GROUP WORK: HUNTING Question 1: Which natural resources? Resident species: wild boar, partridge, hare, wolf, jackal, wild cat, otter, red deer, roe deer, trout Migrating animals: woodcock, quail, ducks, goozes Hunted species: wild boar, hare and woodcock during migration Hunting: must be pursued by the unions and hunting association constituted within the village Agreement must be in line with the Central Hunting Commission (MAK) Question 2: Objective of the agreement • • • • • • • •

Insuring the sustainability of Game (hunting animals) The number of animals must be kept under control Ensuring the possibility of providing a service of hunting guide Should give the responsibility of organizing hunts to the village unions To give the opportunity to adopting measures to increase the number of the Game population To have guidance from village unions to identify hunting reserves and protected species. Should include determination and monitoring of populations (State, Village unions) Should include headings on lowering/forbidding the number of hunted game of threatened species

Question 3: What must be the length of the agreement? •

Should be long enough to allow sustainable hunting

OUTPUTS OF THE GROUP WORK: BEEKEEPING Question 1: Which natural resources? • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Taking records from provincial and district directorates of agriculture Field inventory on the number of traditional/conventional/organic beehives Obtaining the data on honey production from the beekeepers union Production of different aromatic honeys depending on local flora Other bee products (pollen, royal jelly, etc) Protection of the bee ecotype Protecting the flora Encouraging people to get organized Ensuring sustainability Giving more support to beekeepers Ensuring the marketing and certification of honey Financial support regarding bee diseases To include training To forbid the access of foreign bees to the area Boundaries: Bee-keeping should be all over the Biosphere; however boundaries can be drawn with constraints such as considering the agricultural lands and settlements; boundaries can be set according to the boundaries of flora Seasonality: honey production changes with the micro-climate of the different zones in the Biosphere. (e.g. April-September in Sivriler; February-September in Çukurpınar)

COMMON RECOMMENDATIONS (17-18 November) • • • • •

Negotiating on the timber production issue should be carried out separately by allocating more time and by ensuring the participation of all the relevant parties Determining the issues of the agreement The 37th article of the forestry law includes both natural persons and cooperatives. This Article should be amended so that only cooperatives could be addressed The current legislation addresses the management of products not the management of areas/space. There should be a cooperative in each village to have management agreements

PHASE II: MANAGEMENT AGREEMENTS FOR SUSTAINABLE HARVESTING OF TIMBER, CHARCOAL, MUSHROOMS, HONEY AND WILDLIFE (1 DAY) Provincial Directorates, Cooperatives, Associations, Resource Users– facilitated by supervised trainee facilitators Organization

No 1 2 3 4

Trained Facilitators

5 6 7 8 9 10

Association of Bee Keepers in Kırklareli Association of Bee Keepers in Pınarhisar Sivriler village

1

İğneada

4

Demirköy District Directorate of Agriculture Cooperative of Sivriler Demirköy Forestry District Directorate Kızılağaç village

5

Vize Forestry District Directorate Province Directorate of Environment and Forestry, Forest engineer Dereköy

9

2 3

6 7 8

Participant Name Hanife Kutlu ERDEMLİ 0-532-3879008 Hülya ÖZBEK 0-505-5966376 Ayfer KAYHAN 0-542-5347237 Şaziye TAŞ 0-554-3433596 Müberra AKKAYA 0-536-7436399 Sema GÖRE Zeliha İNGEÇ 0-535-9510849 Tülay CANDAN 0-534-9764620 Bülent ÖZKAYA 0-534-2231008 Salim DAĞDELEN 0-544-7865202 İsmail CÜGÜBER 0-537-3505141 Şaban UZUN 0-536-2912660 Fatma KÖYBAŞI 0-531-3247718 Orhan UYANIK 0-542-7790169 Mücahit EREN 0-536-9282059 Korcan KARAKOÇ Mustafa

Position Division of Nature Protection Head of Foreign Affairs Branch Strategy Determination and Monitoring Branch Manager: Province Directorate of Agriculture Agriculture Engineer Province Directorate of Agriculture Technician of Agricultural Economy Province Directorate of Special Administration Yeşilce/SWG Gökyaka/SWG

Role

Facilitation of management agreements

Sivriler/SWG Armağan/Head of Coop. Resource Person/Beypınar Member of Association of Bee Keepers Member of Association of Bee Keepers Bee Keeper NGO in İğneada/İDE Director of Demirköy District Directorate of Agriculture Member of Sivriler Cooperative Forest engineer

Mithat CAĞAN 0-537-8983629 Hüseyin DOĞAN

Head man of village

10

Önder PAKDEMİR 0-288-2125334

Division Director

11

Remzi KASAP 0-554-3782201 Mecnun TÜRKÜSEV 0-542-2280594 Mehmet AKSOY 0-538-5889755 Büşra SEVİM 0-532-3878263

Head of coop. and muhtar

15

Filiz İHTİYAR 0-288-2125334

Forest Engineer

16

Namık OVALI 0-537-3645074

Agricultural Engineer

Director stakeholders

Karadere

12

Aksicim

13

Province Directorate of Environment and Forestry Forest engineer Province Directorate of Environment and Forestry Forest engineer Çukurpınar

14

Head man of village Member of village management Division Director

PHASE II: MANAGEMENT AGREEMENTS FOR SUSTAINABLE HARVESTING OF TIMBER, CHARCOAL, MUSHROOMS, HONEY AND WILDLIFE (2nd DAY) Provincial Directorates, Cooperatives, Associations, Resource Users– facilitated by supervised trainee facilitators Organization

No 1

Trained Facilitators

Sivriler village Province Directorate of Agriculture Çukurpınar

Participant Name Hanife Kutlu ERDEMLİ

2

Hülya ÖZBEK

3

Şaziye TAŞ 0-554-3433596

4 5 6 1

Sema GÖRE Zeliha İNGEÇ Tülay CANDAN Fatma KÖYBAŞI 0-531-3247718 Ayfer KAYHAN 0-542-5347237 Namık OVALI 0-537-3645074 Bülent ÖZKAYA Müberra AKKAYA Mustafa

2 3 4 5

Demirköy Forestry District Directorate İğneada

6 7

Cooperative of Sivriler

8

Demirköy District Directorate of Agriculture Demirköy Forestry District Directorate Beypınar

9

Kızılağaç village

12

Dereköy

13

Vize Forestry District Directorate Aksicim

14

Demirköy Hunting Association Karadere

16

Demirköy

18

Hamdibey

19

Position Division of Nature Protection Head of Foreign Affairs Branch Strategy Determination and Monitoring Branch Manager: Provincial Directorate of Agriculture Technician of Agricultural Economy Yeşilce/SWG Gökyaka/SWG Sivriler/SWG Bee Keeper

Agricultural Engineer Bee Keeping Armağan/Head of Coop. Provincial Directorate of Special Administration Forest engineer NGO in İğneada/İDE

10

Enver KARA

Director

11

Salim DAĞDELEN Mithat CAĞAN 0-537-8983629 Remzi KASAP 0-554-3782201 Hüseyin DOĞAN

Resource Person/Beypınar

Mehmet AKSOY 0-538-5889755

Member of village management Board member

Mecnun TÜRKÜSEV 0-542-2280594 Hayrullah YALÇINSOY Zeki ÜREY

Head man of village

17

Facilitation of management agreements

Agricultural Engineer

Orhan UYANIK 0-542-7790169 Korcan KARAKOÇ Mücahit EREN 0-536-9282059

15

Role

Member of Sivriler Cooperative Director of Demirköy District Directorate of Agriculture Non-timber Forest Products

Head man of village Head of coop. and muhtar Director

Cooperative member Villager

Hunting

ANNEX 11: DRAFT MOU FOR COOPERATION DRAFT MEMORANDUM of UNDERSTANDING: YILDIZ MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE, TURKEY and STRANDJA NATURE PARK, BULGARIA For the Avoidance of Doubt This Memorandum of Understanding concerns the cooperation between authorities of Yildiz Mountains Biosphere (the Management Committee) and Strandja Nature Park (the .....). It is neither legally binding nor implies any territorial agreement between Turkey and Bulgaria. Rather it is a statement of purpose entered into in a spirit of cooperation and partnership between the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere (the Management Committee) and Strandja Nature Park (the . . . ) with the intention of furthering the common goals set out in this Memorandum. Part I: The Parties This Agreement is made between the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere (the Management Committee) and Strandja Nature Park (the . . . ). Part II: Definitions Conservation Area refers to the Strandja Nature Park (116,068 ha) and the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere (130,000 ha), a contiguous area between Turkey and Bulgaria totalling approximately 246,069 ha. The Parties refers to the Authorities of Yildiz Mountains Biosphere (the Management Committee) and Strandja Nature Park (the . . .). Conservation status refers to the indicators of the likelihood of a species remaining extant either in the present day or the near future. Many factors are taken into account when assessing the conservation status of a species, not simply the number but also the overall increase or decrease in the population over time, breeding success rates, known threats, etc. Other definitions to be completed as needed . . . Part III: Statement of Intent The area between north-western Turkey and south-western Bulgaria, abutting the Black Sea known as the Strandja Mountains (Bulgaria) and the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere (Turkey) is an area of global conservation significance. In Bulgaria much of this system is protected within Strandja Nature Park (116,068 ha), Bulgaria’s largest nature park. The establishment of the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere (130,000 ha) alongside the Strandja Mountains Nature Park will contribute to the formation of a contiguous, trans-border system of some 246,069 ha designated variously under respective national legislation for protection and sustainable use of biodiversity. The establishment of this cross-border conservation area will mark a significant milestone in the conservation and sustainable use of globally important biological and landscape resources.

It will make a significant contribution to the socio-economic prosperity of the inhabitants of the two conservation areas and it will safe guard local, regional and globally important ecosystems functions for the benefit of present and future generations. The creation of this large conservation area opens the door for developing important and enduring linkages between Turkey and Bulgaria, based on friendship and mutual understanding, that will strengthen the existing ties in the areas of biodiversity conservation and management, cultural heritage conservation, historical and archaeological conservation, scientific research, education and environmental awareness, tourism and recreation, and sustainable management of natural resources that is focused on promoting socio-economic prosperity amongst local communities. Part IV: Background concerning the Cooperation between Authorities of Yildiz Mountains Biosphere (the Management Committee) and Strandja Nature Park (the . . .). The Biosphere and Nature Park management authorities recognise the efforts that have already gone before, namely: ƒ Twinning Project - Capacity Building in the Field of Environment for Turkey, Component 3: Nature, TR02-EN-01. ƒ The signing of a memorandum of understanding between the Turkish Ministry of Environment and Forestry and the Bulgarian Ministry of Environment and Water. ƒ Cultural exchanges between the museums in Kırklareli and Brushlian. ƒ Co-operation agreements signed between Plovdiv (Filibe) University and Trakya University, as well as between the Bulgarian Centre for Agricultural Sciences and the Turkish Directorate General for Agricultural Research. ƒ Cooperation between the Ministry of Environment and Forestry in Ankara (responsible for biosphere reserves in Turkey) and the Ministry of Environment in Sofia (responsible for biosphere reserves in Bulgaria). ƒ The establishment of the Strandja Nature Park ƒ The ongoing process of establishing the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Furthermore, both Parties recognise and appreciate: ƒ The closeness and the historical, cultural and biogeographic connections between the two regions. ƒ Their important role in cooperating in the protection of migratory species of wild animals that live within or pass through their national jurisdictional boundaries. ƒ The crucial importance of future, long-term collaboration between the parties to effectively conserve and manage the natural and cultural values of the Strandja-Yildiz Mountains in a holistic and integrated manner. Part V: Cooperation between the Parties Cooperation is an important and necessary condition for the realization of the purpose and proper functioning of the conservation area. The Parties agree to the following mechanisms to facilitate cooperation: 1. Formation of a Turkey-Bulgaria panel to facilitate the decision-making process on all the issues concerning the frontier regions of the conservation area, including regular analysis of common activities. 2. The occasional invitation of respective representatives of the Parties as experts in the sessions of the Management Committee and (Strandja NP . . .). 3. Coordination and approval of common programmes. 4. Creation of common working groups for specific areas of common interest. 5. Regular contact between senior executives and managers of the Biosphere and Nature Park.

6. Creation of a “personnel exchange” programme (i.e. study and work experience, educational programmes, language courses and similar) More specifically, the respective Management Authorities of both Parties will focus their cooperation in the following areas of activity: Conservation ƒ Improvement of the conservation status of characteristic biodiversity, together with common coordinated management measures, projects and other activities including regulatory procedures (where possible), incentive actions, monitoring activities as well as exchange of information and dissemination of results. ƒ Issues that affect the trans-boundary movement of wildlife, particularly with respect to international conventions and agreements that relate to migratory species. ƒ Sharing of resources, both material and intellectual in the interests of biodiversity conservation. ƒ Others..... Education and Public Awareness ƒ Appropriate levels of access of the conservation area to the public to experience nature. This will involve a variety of activities, such as development of hiking trails and information centres, events to increase awareness of the purpose of conservation area, and provision of information in different languages and via various media. ƒ In the field of environmental education and awareness, emphasis will be placed on children and young people in whose hands lies the future. Activities may include joint participation in training, projects and youth camps. Use of the Environmental Education Training Centre at Dereköy will be maximised for these purposes. ƒ Involvement of people from both sides of the international border will be prioritised, sharing and collaborating in common projects, regional events and information for public dissemination. Socio-economic and sustainable use This memorandum of understanding recognises the social and economic aspirations of the people who live within the conservation area. Furthermore it recognises that: ƒ Biodiversity conservation is linked with social and economic development. ƒ The high costs of managing biodiversity can be met by policies and approaches that encourage different management processes to reduce, share or meet these costs. For example, there can be considerable savings in management costs by reducing the conflicts between local communities and management agencies and transferring protection and other management costs to community members and/or cooperatives. ƒ While the state is very often the appropriate and de jure owner of biodiversity, there may be historical rights of access to many of these resources, albeit not formally recognised by the state. Many protected areas are created on state lands but the people living locally may perceive a historical right of use of the resources and this should be taken into consideration when apportioning benefits and access to resources. ƒ The opportunity costs of conservation are very often considerable and rural people who live closest to the resources (whether it is wildlife or a protected area) are frequently the ones who absorb those costs. ƒ Many rural people regard biodiversity and other natural values as an important part of their livelihood and its sustainable use is of real concern to them.

Therefore the Parties will, wherever practicable, collaborate on issues relating to sustainable economic development and the sustainable utilisation of biodiversity within the conservation area including: ƒ Promoting the conservation area as a nature and cultural tourist destination. ƒ Jointly participating in tourism events and trade shows. ƒ Promoting the development of sustainable local enterprises based upon natural resource utilisation. ƒ Piloting innovative approaches to conservation management, including the sustainable use of natural resources. ƒ Jointly, monitoring, learning and sharing knowledge, and adapting management in the light of experience. ƒ Others... Research and Monitoring Cooperation in research and monitoring will concentrate on the following fields: ƒ The development of a common approach to monitoring and evaluation of conservation, in particular with respect to issues such as management effectiveness and surveillance of the impacts of global climate change, invasive species and the implementation of common conventions and international agreements etc. ƒ Conservation (protection and, where appropriate, sustainable use) of biodiversity (plants and animals) and the recovery of populations in decline. ƒ Hydrology, especially with respect to the functioning of forest and wetland ecosystems. ƒ Exchange of data as the basis for developing a common understanding of the science that underpins management and the development of joint research projects. Part VI: Periodic Review This Memorandum is entered into voluntarily by both Parties. Changes to this Memorandum will be subject to the agreement of both Parties. This Agreement will be reviewed periodically for purposes of consolidating and further developing this cooperative relationship, while ensuring that it is current and reflects the priorities of the respective Parties.

Signature page This agreement is made between the parties ( . . . ) and ( . . . ) on the DAY, MONTH, YEAR. Signature

Signature

ANNEX 12: 12A Threat Reduction Assessment (Management Planning Unit) CRITERIA RANKING THREATS

A B

C

D E

Illegal and unsustainable mushroom collection Lack of rubbish collection and illegal tipping of rubbish in the forest Domestic sewage is discharged into the river system and industrial sewage pollutes the river system Overfishing and inappropriate fishing methods (rivers) Illegal fishing and inappropriate fishing methods (marine)

AREA

% Reduced (MPU assessment) Total % TOTAL System / Enforcemen THREAT RANKING INTENSITY URGENCY Effectiveness Enabling t / Support REDUCED

RAW SCORE

THREATS - TURKISH Yasadışı ve sürdürülebilir A olmayan mantar toplanması Çöp toplama hizmetinin B eksikliği ve çöplerin ormana atılması

23

11

18

52

11

11

0

22

11.44

3

10

17

30

10

10

5

25

7.5

15

22

23

60

10

10

10

30

18

14

15

22

51

10

10

0

20

10.2

D

Aşırı ve usulsüz balık avlanması

13

14

21

48

10

10

0

20

9.6

E

Denizde usulsüz balık avcılığı

Evsel ve endüstriyel C atıkların derelere karışması

F

Mining

6

25

11

42

5

20

5

30

12.6

F Madencilik

G

Cattle grazing in the forests

18

2

14

34

30

5

5

40

13.6

G Orman içi otlatma

H

Illegal hunting

22

13

20

55

15

5

0

20

11

H Usulsüz avlanma

I

Conversion of pastures to scrub and forest due to a reduction in livestock

16

3

6

25

20

20

20

60

15

J

Overgrazing of treasury pastures

17

4

13

34

5

5

5

15

5.1

Climate change

K

L

Inadequate extent and occurrence of old growth forest for certain biodiversity (e.g. woodpeckers) Illegal commercial fishing in rivers

0

Bazı bölgelerde hayvanların azalması nedeniyle meralar ın yabanileşmesi Bazı bölgelerde J meralarda aşırı otlatma I

0

İklim değişikliği

20

9

16

45

25

25

25

75

33.75

K

Koruya tahvilin orman yapısını degiştirmesi

7

12

19

38

25

5

5

35

13.3

L

Ticari amaçlı derelerde illegal balık avlanması

M

M

Incomers settling in villages and unplanned development

10

6

8

24

15

5

5

25

6

N

Damage caused by treasure hunters

1

7

4

12

30

5

5

40

4.8

O

Forest fire

2

23

3

28

30

30

30

90

25.2

Köylerde plansız yerleşim ve gelişim Höyükler, kaleler ve mağaralara yönelik N olarak definecilerin faaliyetleri O Orman Yangını

CRITERIA RANKING THREATS

AREA

% Reduced (MPU assessment) Total % TOTAL System / Enforcemen THREAT INTENSITY URGENCY RANKING Effectiveness Enabling t / Support REDUCED

RAW SCORE

THREATS - TURKISH

P

Unplanned and unregulated tourism

9

17

9

35

5

5

5

15

5.25

Q

Proposed nuclear power station at Igneada

5

26

2

33

10

5

5

20

6.6

R

Proposed thermal power plant at Kiyikoy

4

24

1

29

10

5

5

20

5.8

S

Construction of wind turbines

11

19

5

35

10

5

5

20

7

T

Road construction

19

21

7

47

10

5

5

20

9.4

T Yol yapımı

U

Crop damage by wild boars

12

16

24

52

5

5

0

10

5.2

U

V

Falling prices of timber

26

20

12

58

5

5

5

15

8.7

V Odunun fiyatının düşmesi

W

Changes in forest operations have reduced incomes of village communities (coppice ban)

21

8

15

44

0

0

0

0

X

Lack of new income generating opportunities

24

1

25

50

10

2

1

13

Y

Lack of security of income generation (logging and livestock)

25

5

26

56

15

5

3

23

Z

Development expectations can be damaging to the natural resource base and values (e.g unrestricted tourism development)

8

18

10

36

20

5

5

30

351 TOTAL RANKING

351

1053

=

TOTAL TRA INDEX FORMULA TRA INDEX CALCULATION

TOTAL RAW SCORE 275.22

÷

351 1053 CONVERT TO PERCENTAGE % 0.261367521

Yaban domuzları ekili tarlalara zarar vermesi

Orman yönetimin degismesinden kaynakli ormandan elde edilen 0 W gelirin düşmesi (baltalık ormanların koruya dönüşmesi) Alternatif geçim 6.5 X kaynaklarının sunulmaması Gelir kaynaklarının güvenliğinin 12.88 Y sağlanamaması (Orman kesimi ve hayvancılık) Kalkınma beklentilerinin doğal kaynaklara ve 10.8 Z değerlere verebileceği zarar (Ör: Kontrolsuz turizim) 275.22 TOTAL

TRA INDEX 26.1367521 4

Plansız ve kontrolsüz turizm İğneada nükleer Q santralinin kurulması projesi Kıyıköy’de termik santralin yapılmasına R yönelik fizibilite çalışmaları Planlanan rüzgar enerjisi S santralleri P

%

12B Threat Reduction Assessment (Stakeholder Working Group) CRITERIA RANKING THREATS

A B

C

D E

Illegal and unsustainable mushroom collection Lack of rubbish collection and illegal tipping of rubbish in the forest Domestic sewage is discharged into the river system and industrial sewage pollutes the river system Illegal and inappropriate (unsustainable) fishing methods (rivers) Illegal fishing and inappropriate fishing methods (marine)

AREA

TOTAL INTENSITY URGENCY RANKING

% Reduced (PMU assessment) System / Enforcement Total % Effectiveness Enablin / Support THREAT g REDUCED

THREATS - TURKISH

RAW SCORE

Yasadışı ve sürdürülebilir A olmayan mantar toplanması Çöp toplama hizmetinin B eksikliği ve çöplerin ormana atılması

23

11

18

52

32

20

18

70

36.4

3

10

17

30

18

6

4

28

8.4

15

22

23

60

21

5

5

31

18.6

Evsel ve endüstriyel C atıkların derelere karışması

14

15

22

51

23

15

9

47

23.97

D

Aşırı ve usulsüz balık avlanması

13

14

21

48

16

7

6

29

13.92

E

Denizde usulsüz balık avcılığı

F

Mining

6

25

11

42

9

5

3

17

7.14

F Madencilik

G

Cattle grazing in the forests

18

2

14

34

17

15

8

40

13.6

G

Orman içi otlatma

H

Illegal hunting

22

13

20

55

22

12

8

42

23.1

H

Usulsüz avlanma

I

Conversion of pastures to scrub and forest due to a reduction in livestock at some locations

16

3

6

25

32

21

14

67

16.75

I

Bazı bölgelerde hayvanların azalması nedeniyle meralar ın yabanileşmesi

J

Overgrazing of treasury pastures at some locations

17

4

13

34

17

7

4

28

9.52

J

Bazı bölgelerde meralarda aşırı otlatma

Climate change

0

0

İklim değişikliği

K

Inadequate extent and occurrence of old growth forest for certain biodiversity (e.g. woodpeckers)

20

9

16

45

25

25

25

75

33.75

K

Koruya tahvilin orman yapısını degiştirmesi

L

Illegal commercial fishing in rivers

7

12

19

38

25

5

5

35

13.3

L

Ticari amaçlı derelerde illegal balık avlanması

M

Incomers settling in villages and unplanned development

23

11

18

52

32

20

18

70

36.4

M

Köylerde plansız yerleşim ve gelişim

N

Damage caused by treasure hunters

3

10

17

30

30

5

5

40

12

Höyükler, kaleler ve N mağaralara yönelik olarak definecilerin faaliyetleri

O

Forest fire

15

22

23

60

30

30

30

90

54

P

Unplanned and unregulated tourism

9

17

9

35

5

5

5

15

5.25

Q

Proposed nuclear power station at Igneada

5

26

2

33

10

5

5

20

6.6

R

Proposed thermal power plant at Kiyikoy

4

24

1

29

10

5

5

20

5.8

S

Construction of wind turbines

11

19

5

35

10

5

5

20

7

T

Road construction

19

21

7

47

10

5

5

20

9.4

T Yol yapımı

U

Crop damage by wild boars

12

16

24

52

5

5

0

10

5.2

U

V

Falling prices of timber

26

20

12

58

5

5

5

15

8.7

V Odunun fiyatının düşmesi

W

Changes in forest operations have reduced incomes of village communities (coppice ban)

21

8

15

44

0

0

0

0

0

W

X

Lack of new income generating opportunities

24

1

25

50

10

2

1

13

6.5

X

Y

Lack of security of income generation (logging and livestock)

25

5

26

56

15

5

3

23

12.88

Y

Z

Development expectations can be damaging to the natural resource base and values (e.g unrestricted tourism development)

8

18

10

36

20

5

5

30

10.8

Z

379 TOTAL RANKING

358

1131

=

TOTAL TRA INDEX FORMULA TRA INDEX CALCULATION

TOTAL RAW SCORE 398.98

÷

394 1131 CONVERT TO PERCENTAGE % 0.352767462

398.98 TRA INDEX 35.27674624

%

O Orman Yangını P

Plansız ve kontrolsüz turizm

İğneada nükleer Q santralinin kurulması projesi Kıyıköy’de termik santralin R yapılmasına yönelik fizibilite çalışmaları S

Planlanan rüzgar enerjisi santralleri

Yaban domuzları ekili tarlalara zarar vermesi

Orman yönetimin degismesinden kaynakli ormandan elde edilen gelirin düşmesi (baltalık ormanların koruya dönüşmesi) Alternatif geçim kaynaklarının sunulmaması Gelir kaynaklarının güvenliğinin sağlanamaması (Orman kesimi ve hayvancılık) Kalkınma beklentilerinin doğal kaynaklara ve değerlere verebileceği zarar (Ör: Kontrolsuz turizim) TOTAL

12C Description of threats and definitions of their 100% reduction DESCRIPTION AND 100% REDUCTION OF THREAT A

THREAT - Illegal and unsustainable mushroom collection.

100% REDUCTION = Agreed system for mushroom collection including methods, times and places for collection with enforcable rules to control outsiders involved in collection. THREAT - Lack of rubbish collection and illegal tipping of rubbish in the forest. B 100% REDUCTION = Adequately financed system for rubbish collection and disposal with appropriate fines for illegal tipping. Litter bins located at key areas and signs to warn public about li i i - Domestic l THREAT sewage is discharged into the river system and industrial sewage pollutes the river system. C 100% REDUCTION = Sewage treatment plants installed in all Yildiz Mountians villages and appropriate bylaws with financial (polluter pays) mechanisms in place. THREAT - Overfishing and inappropriate fishing methods (rivers) D 100% REDUCTION = Plan for inshore fisheries in place with agreed methods of capture and specified no-take zones for fisheries recovery. THREAT - Illegal fishing. E 100% REDUCTION % = Enforcement of regulations, penalties enforced, fully resourced fisheries enforcement agency. THREAT - Mining. F 100% REDUCTION = No further permissions granted, all unworked concessions revoked, environmental impact assessments carried out on ongoing operations and mitigation plans implemented. Most damaging operations closed. THREAT - Cattle grazing in forests. 100% REDUCTION = Assement of impact of cattle grazing in forests on biodiversity and forest regeneration. Grazing plan implemented according and vulnerable areas protected. THREAT - Illegal hunting. H 100% REDUCTION = Community (village) based hunting plans developed and enforced. Adequate penalties in place for illegal activity. THREAT - Conversion of pastures to scrub and forest due to a reduction in livestock I 100% REDUCTION = All pastures surveyed and mapped, mechanisms in place to increase value of local livestock (milk, meat, wool, hides etc.) and pasture monitoring programme in place. THREAT - Overgrazing of treasury pastures. J 100% REDUCTION = Agreed stocking densities enforced, monitoring programme in place and alternative or compensatory programme (e.g. beekeeping and marketing programme operating). THREAT - Climate change. 100% REDUCTION = Vulnerable habitats and species identified and conservation plans in place. Mechanisms in place to utilise carbon sequestration payments and finance carbon sink functions f Yildi M i THREAT - Inadequate extent and occurrence of old growth forest for certain biodiversity (e.g. woodpeckers)

G

K 100% REDUCTION = Agreed objectives for forest management, monitoring programme to detect changes in forest structure, composition, impact on income generating activities (e.g. timber production, hunting, etc.) and conservation objectives integrated into the forest management plan. THREAT - Illegal commercial fishing in rivers. L 100% REDUCTION = Local community motivated and empowered to prevent illegal fishing. THREAT - Incomers settling in villages and unplanned development. M 100% REDUCTION = Strategic development plan for the Yildiz Mountians communties, planning regulations enforced. THREAT - Damage caused by treasure hunters N 100% REDUCTION = Biosphere reserve management plan includes rules and regulations on treasure hunting. Communities empowered and motivated to enforce regulations alongside statutory agencies. Mechanism for state intervention when important finds are made. THREAT - Forest fire. O 100% REDUCTION = Fire plan in place and adequately resourced. Awareness programme for visitors and other resource users in place. P THREAT - Unplanned and unregulated tourism.

Q R S T U V

W

X

Y Z

DESCRIPTION AND 100% REDUCTION OF THREAT 100% REDUCTION = Biosphere reserve management plan includes a tourism development plan. Statutory agencies are made aware of the need for adequate planning and compliance. Penalties are sufficinet and rigerously enforced to ensure complaince. Local authorities have capacity to provide advice to villagers on tourism development. THREAT - Proposed nuclear power station at Igneada. 100% REDUCTION = Indepenedent social and environmental impact assessment. THREAT - Proposed thermal power plant at Kiyikoy. 100% REDUCTION = Indepenedent social and environmental impact assessment. THREAT - Construction of wind turbines. 100% REDUCTION = Indepenedent social and environmental impact assessment. THREAT - Road construction. 100% REDUCTION = Indepenedent social and environmental impact assessment. THREAT - Wild boars damage crops (particularly maize). 100% REDUCTION = Fencing of maize fields, targeted control of boars, hunted value of boars compensates for crop damage. THREAT - Falling prices of timber. 100% REDUCTION = Alternative markets for timber identified (e.g. pyrolysis, roofing shingles, etc.) and capacity to develop alternative and value added industries. Alternative values of forests (hunting, NTFPs, tourism, carbon sinks, etc.) fully explored and utilised through the Biosphere reserve management plan. THREAT - Changes in forest operations have reduced incomes of village communities (coppice ban) 100% REDUCTION = Alternative markets for timber identified and imporved marketing and forest product diversification (e.g. pyrolysis, roofing shingles, etc.) and capacity to develop alternative and value added industries. Alternative values of forests (hunting, NTFPs, tourism, carbon sinks, etc.) fully explored and utilised through the Biosphere reserve management plan. THREAT - Lack of new income generating opportunities. 100% REDUCTION = Yildiz Mountains Biosphere Reserve (in association with the MoA) has a rational agricultural policy that promotes sustainable use, organic farming and encourages the use of appropriate crops and livestock (e.g. Boz irk) by developing branded marketing and promotion of natural values. Local people receive training in small enterprises and business management. THREAT - Lack of security of income generation (logging and livestock). 100% REDUCTION = Management contracts between the Biosphere Reserve Authority and the village cooperatives strengthen the security of tenure of natural resources through transparent and conditional management agreements. THREAT - Development expectations can be damaging to the natural resource base and values (e.g unrestricted tourism development). 100% REDUCTION = High level awareness campaig with decision-makers to make them aware of the risks of inappropriate development

ANNEX 13: MONITORING FRAMEWORK MATRIX – YILDIZ MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE MANAGEMENT PLAN This framework provides examples of indicators based on the vision, objectives and activities contained in this feasibility study for the management plan. They can be used and developed as necessary for monitoring the implementation of the final MP. Hierarchy of Objectives

Performance Indicators

Vision Objective Conservation, and sustainable development of natural resources and biodiversity in Yildiz Mountains

Fully operational Biosphere with management zones and management agreements;

Baseline Project field surveys, 2009

Real economic and employment growth Abundance of natural resources within Yildiz Mountains

Management Objective 1 Conservation of biological diversity by protection of important and vulnerable habitats, species, aesthetic and representative landscapes and cultural sites.

Output 1.1 Vulnerable habitats, species, landscapes and ecosystem services identified and protected

Network of protected areas within the Biosphere covering all hotspots of biodiversity;

Vision to be fully achieved over a20year period with all prerequisites in place during first five years of Biosphere designation The same or increased abundance of natural resources

Inception of GEF 2 project

Where appropriate, local management agreements for protecting species and habitats?

roe deer numbers;

Field surveys

Wild cat index of abundance;

Field surveys

Rhinolophus bat numbers Woodpecker census

Target

Biosphere village socio-economic surveys

double numbers in 5 years on standard transects; No decline on sightings per km

Biosphere field surveys, 2014

No decline in winter counts

Field surveys

Increase in woodland areas managed for old growth Increase in migrant

Assumptions & Risks Government approval and support for Biosphere and CBNRM Unesco acceptance of Biosphere nomination

Biosphere biodiversity field surveys

Management Plan for next 5-yr period; GDNCNP protected areas list

Project field surveys, 2009

Project field surveys, 2009

National State of the Environment Report

Initially two protected areas, followed by a full network within 5 years of creation of Biosphere.

Wetland bird counts Satellite imagery of forestwoodland composition;

Means of verification

Management plan endorsements by government and local level institutions.

Biosphere field surveys, 2014; Biosphere field surveys, 2014; Biosphere field surveys, 2014; RS Imagery 2014

State grants control of hunting to cooperatives/hunting union. Implementation of new Forest Regulations with its provisions for biodiversity conservation Agreement with FDD on woodland management to protect biodiversity,

Hierarchy of Objectives

Performance Indicators

Baseline Project RS Imagery 2009

Activity 1.1.1 Classify habitats in the biosphere and map using the GIS.

Milestone – i.e. give date(s) when activity will be achieved

Activity 1.1.2 Risk assessments on habitats, species, landscapes and ecosystem services carried out and regularly updated

As above

Activity 1.1.3 Species and habitat recovery and management plans developed

As above

Activity 1.1.4 Byelaws agreed and in place.

As above

Activity 1.1.5 Longoz National Park Management Plan developed and implemented.

As above

Activity 1.1.6 updated.

Database systems regularly

As above

Activity 1.1.7 Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) develops agrobiodiversity strategy for Yildiz Mountains.

As above

Activity 1.1.8 “Stud book” register of traditional breeds in Yildiz Mountains developed by MoA.

As above

Output 1.2 Increased capacity of state agencies to manage biodiversity

Forest Management Plan of Forest District Directorate is in conformity with biodiversity management criteria Number of perverse incentives (such as keeping Holstsein breed of cattle)

Activity 1.2.1 National Park.

Budget for Longoz Forest

Activity 1.2.2 Biodiversity protection training for state agencies (importance of biodiversity, biodiversity and the law, biosphere bylaws, etc.) such as FDD, police, MoA, etc.

Milestone – i.e. give date(s) when activity will be achieved As above

Target

Means of verification

and resident waterfowl and waders

Assumptions & Risks for example, agreement with FDD to leaveby leaving some adult trees of importance for biodiversity

Increase the area of old growth woodland by 15%

Project management records, 2009

Decrease to zero

Biosphere management records, 2014

State agencies have the necessary will to review and change fundamental policy, development plans, and management approaches in response to Yildiz Mountains biodiversity conservation considerations

Hierarchy of Objectives

Performance Indicators

Activity 1.2.3 Regular meetings with Bulgarian agencies.

As above

Activity 1.2.4 DKMPGM biosphere staff attending international conferences and training on conservation of migratory species.

As above

Output 1.3 Academic and NGO participation in planning and management of biodiversity conservation

At least three academic and NGO partners active on the Biosphere Advisory or Management committees. Milestone – i.e. give date(s) when activity will be achieved

Activity 1.3.1 Funding identified for outsourcing research and monitoring

Baseline

Target

Means of verification

Assumptions & Risks

Biosphere management records

As above Activity 1.3.2 Agreements with academic institutions and NGOS developed and signed

Management Objective 2 Conservation of biological diversity by sustainable use of species, habitats and ecosystems goods and services

Output 2.1 Capacity of villagers for collective decisionmaking and internal conflict resolution increased. Improved ability to negotiate with external agencies, institutions and the private sector. Mechanism for equitable benefit distribution of profits from common

Natural resources (timber, NTFPs, rangeland, game, water) under joint cooperative and FDD control

Agreement in government to reforms that provide for CBNRM

Indices of abundance and quality of natural resources

Project field surveys, 2009

Indices in the efficiency of use of natural resources (wood and charcoal, mushrooms, game meat, etc)

Measurements taken prior to introducing new enterprises

% of village cooperatives with management agreements on use of common pool resources.

Start of implementation

Annual increases in efficiency of use of natural resources (e.g. in charcoal production from wood, in % of wild boar carcasses sold, in % of mushrooms wasted) 80% of villages with management agreements covering the use of at least one common pool resource by end of

Availability of funds for SME development

Biosphere records; Village cooperative records

Agreement in government to reforms that provide for CBNRM

Hierarchy of Objectives

Performance Indicators

pool resources in place

Means of verification

Assumptions & Risks

Milestone – i.e. give date(s) when activity will be achieved

Activity 2.1.2 Training in governance, financial management & accounting of existing cooperatives.

As above

Activity 2.1.3 Membership of cooperatives representing entire village (gender, age, social status, etc.).

As above

Activity 2.1.4 Equitable and transparent accounting system in place for each cooperative to ensure distribution of profits.

As above

Output 2.2 Institutional capacity of state agencies to support village-level management increased.

Activity 2.2.2 Biosphere Suppport Unit employs substantive facilitator for CBNRM development.

Percentage of Forest District Directorates with forest management plans implemented via partnership management agreements with village cooperatives Milestone – i.e. give date(s) when activity will be achieved As above

Activity 2.2.3 Build institutional capacity of state agencies to support village level management.

As above

Activity 2.2.1 Establish the Biosphere Advisory Committee.

Biosphere

Target first implementation period

Activity 2.1.1 Villages without cooperatives apply for cooperative status.

Activity 2.2.4 position.

Baseline

Executive Board in As above

Activity 2.2.5 Biosphere management plan in place. As above Activity 2.2.6 DKMPGM andForest District Directorates policy on supportive pricing mechanisms in place. As above Activity 2.2.7 Contractual agreement developed between Biosphere Executive Board and cooperatives developed. As above Activity 2.2.8 MoE DKMPGM develops community authority (cooperative) bidding

Biosphere records; Forest District Directorate records; Village cooperative records

Agreement in government to reforms that provide for CBNRM

Hierarchy of Objectives

Performance Indicators

Baseline

Target

Means of verification

document in line with Law o 4915 on Terrestrial Hunting. As above Output 2.3 Village capacity to sustainably natural resources strengthened

manage

Overall adherence of village cooperatives development and management plans to Biosphere management plan

N/A

Defaults in adherence reduced annually

Biosphere records; Local government records; Village cooperative records

Start of investment programme

At least 400 people employed in local SMEs by year 5 of Biosphere Management Plan

Biosphere records; Local government records; Village cooperative records

Number of cooperatives with a partnership agreement that is in line with CBNRM Activity 2.3.1 Training in resource inventory and management techniques.

Milestone – i.e. give date(s) when activity will be achieved

Activity 2.3.2 Village natural resource management plans developed by participating cooperatives.

As above

Activity 2.3.3 cooperatives.

As above

NGO

support

to

village

Output 2.4 Entrepreneurial skills of villagers increased and investment in the development of small to medium-sized natural resource based enterprises

Net increase in jobs

Activity 2.4.1 Orkoy funds skills training in SME development.

Milestone – i.e. give date(s) when activity will be achieved

Activity 2.4.2 Pricing mechanisms put in place to capture economic value at village level.

As above

Activity 2.4.3 Marketing of Yildiz Mountains and its natural products developed by appropriate agencies.

As above

Activity 2.4.4 communities.

As above

Credit made available to local

Assumptions & Risks

Hierarchy of Objectives

Performance Indicators

Management Objective 3 Sustainable economic and social development of Yildiz Mountains’ communities through the sustainable utilisation of the natural and cultural resource base.

Value of natural resource products (wood and charcoal, game meat, honey, mushrooms, plants, water, craftworks)

Baseline

Target

Increase value of wood products and other natural resources incrementally each year.

Means of verification

Biosphere records; Local government records; Village cooperative records

Assumptions & Risks

CBNRM protocols (policies, reglations, legislation as necessary) approved Capital and training for processing natural resources (such as refrigeration and vacuum packaging for wild boar meat, pyrolysis units for charcoal production) is available Risk of disease in trees, game animals, bees

Output 3.1 Capacity for small to medium village enterprises based upon Yildiz Mountains natural resources developed

Number of new businesses in Yildiz Mountains villages utilising natural resources;

Village surveys

At least one new business per village

Village cooperative records

Output 3.2 Certification, marketing and promotion of Yildiz Mountain resources developed

Number of products marketed under the Yildiz Mountains brand

N/A

Branded products to attract premium prices at top end of equivalent products produced in Turkey

Comparative prices of Yildiz Mountains products sold nationally and internationally

Sufficient to finance at least one significant business per village

Biosphere records;

Price differential between branded and non-branded products Output 3.3 Finance available for start up capital

Amount of finance made available

N/A

Management Objective 4 An enabling environment supportive of biological diversity conservation through protection, sustainable utilisation, and the social and economic development of Yildiz

Government policy on protected areas is widened to include support for Biospheres and CBNRM

2009 policies on protected areas, biosphere provisions and cooperatives

National State of the Environment Report

CBNRM protocols (policies, reglations, legislation as necessary) approved.

Hierarchy of Objectives

Performance Indicators

Baseline

Target

Means of verification

Mountains communities creating a functionally efficient policy, legal and institutional framework and a broad public awareness and support for the Vision. Output 4.1 Legislation biosphere

and

regulations

Legislation approved

MoEF records Biosphere reports

Management Committee, Advisory Committee and Biosphere Support Unit in place

MoEF records Biosphere reports

support

Output 4.2 Biosphere governance framework in place

Steering Committee established MoEF to oversee development of policies and guidelines for biospheres in Turkey Output 4.3 Biosphere management plan

Management plan approved

MoEF records Biosphere reports

Output 4.4 Awareness and support for biosphere raised

Number of media presentations given on TV, radio & newspapers

Biosphere records

Output 4.5 Trans-boundary cooperation improved

Number of joint actions with Bulgaria on transboundary biodiversity conservation

Bilateral MoU Biosphere reports

Management Objective 5 Financial sustainability of the Yildiz Mountains Biosphere in order to implement the management plan and achieve the long term vision

Revenue captured from ecosystem resources and services

Biosphere records Auditors records

Output 5.1 Financial plans and accountability developed

Approved financial plans

Biosphere records Auditors records

Auditing system

Assumptions & Risks

Hierarchy of Objectives

Performance Indicators

Baseline

Target

Means of verification

Output 5.2 Legal and policy framework to support sustainable financing

Completed legal and policy framework

Government records Biosphere reports

Output 5.3 Operational payment ecosystem services (PES) schemes in place

Operational PES schemes

Biosphere reports

Report on revenue streams

Biosphere reports

Output 5.5 Gap analysis

Completed GAP analysis

Biosphere reports

Management Objective 6 Protection of landscape and ecosystem values from damaging impacts of potential energy and infrastructure development through an appropriate and effective planning procedure

Approved planning procedure

Output 6.1 Biosphere planning framework in place

Approved planning framework

Management Objective 7 Waste management through reduction, recycling, treatment and disposal

Treatment and recycling plants

Output 5.4 Revenue streams identified

Government records Biosphere reports

Number of EIAs Court convictions against developers causing environmental damage

MoEF records Biosphere reports Status quo at onset of Biosphere investment programme

Treatment and recycling plants in each village

Biosphere records; Village cooperative records Water analysis reports

At least one study on each substantial resource to provide information on sustainable use and conservation

Biosphere reports Work plans Study reports

Water quality downstream of villages Management Objective 8 Research and monitoring to increase understanding of social, economic and environmental processes and ensure that management is adaptive

Management changes made using the adaptive management approach;

Management Objective 9

Number of school educational

Studies and surveys undertaken

Assumptions & Risks

Hierarchy of Objectives

Performance Indicators

Development of Yildiz Mountains Biosphere as an educational resource for present and future generations

visits to Training Centre. Knowledge of Yildiz Mountains Biosphere in children after educational training

Management Objective 10 Visitor management to enhance the visitor experience and protect the core values of the Yildiz Mountains

Number of visitors to Visitor Centre (Igneada) Number of visitors staying overnight in village pensions and hotels Knowledge of core values of Yildiz Mountains and of requested visitor conduct in tour guides and visitors

Management Objective 11 Conservation of cultural values and living heritage by protecting vulnerable archaeological sites and promoting local customs, arts, crafts and traditions

Actions undertaken from a management plan for conserving cultural heritage

Baseline

Target

Means of verification Biosphere reports School reports Questionnaire survey of schoolchildren

Questionnaire survey of tour guides and visitors

Biosphere reports Site inspections Village cooperative records

Assumptions & Risks

YILDIZ MOUNTAINS BIOSPHERE PROJECT REPORT

Management Plan

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