Учебное пособие. для III, IY курсов специальности «Строительство железных дорог, путь и путевое хозяйство»
1 ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ЖЕЛЕЗНОДОРОЖНОГО ТРАНСПОРТА Филиал федерального государственного бюджетного образовательного учр...
ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ЖЕЛЕЗНОДОРОЖНОГО ТРАНСПОРТА Филиал федерального государственного бюджетного образовательного учреждения высшего профессионального образования «Сибирский государственный университет путей сообщения» Томский техникум железнодорожного транспорта
Е.В. РЫЛЬСКАЯ ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК (АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК)
Учебное пособие ЖЕЛЕЗНЫЕ ДОРОГИ МИРА RAILROADS OF THE WORLD ПУТЬ И ПОДВИЖНОЙ СОСТАВ TRACKS AND TRAINS
для III, IY курсов специальности 270835 «Строительство железных дорог, путь и путевое хозяйство»
ОДОБРЕНА Предметной комиссией Председатель ___________
Составлена в соответствии с государственными требованиями к минимуму содержания и уровню подготовки выпускников для специальности Заместитель по УР
Протокол _____от _________ ___________________Н.Н.Куделькина Протокол _____от _________
Е.В.Рыльская, преподаватель Томского техникума железнодорожного транспорта – филиала СГУПС Т.А Беломестных, преподаватель английского языка высшей категории Томского государственного Промышленно-гуманитарного колледжа Л.В.Коростелёва, преподаватель высшей категории Томского техникума железнодорожного транспорта – филиала СГУПС
Содержание 1. ПОЯСНИТЕЛЬНАЯ ЗАПИСКА
2. UNIT 1. TEXT RAILROAD TRACK
3. UNIT 2. TEXT HOW RAILROADS SERVE THE PEOPLE
4. UNIT 3. TEXT ROLLING STOCK
5. UNIT 4. TEXT WORLD RAILROADS IN THE 20-th CENTURY
6. СПИСОК ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ
Предлагаемое учебное пособие «RAILROADS OF THE WORLD. TRACKS AND TRAINS» предназначено для студентов III, IY курсов специальности “Строительство железных дорог”. Целью пособия является формирование у студентов умения читать и переводить оригинальную литературу по железнодорожной тематике Пособие состоит из 4 разделов (UNITS). Каждый раздел включает в себя главный текст (TEXT), предназначенный для аналитического чтения, VOCABULARY, упражнения для формирования и развития лексикограмматических навыков и речевых умений. Все упражнения составлены по принципу нарастающей сложности. Лексикограмматические упражнения преследуют такие цели, как закрепление терминологической лексики, использование ее в новых ситуациях, контроль усвоенных грамматических знаний. Упражнения для развития навыков устной речи имеют коммуникативный характер и направлены на развитие творческой активности и самостоятельной деятельности студентов. Все тексты пособия аутентичны и взяты из англо-американских изданий, словарей, учебников по железнодорожному делу, CD-энциклопедий (Американской и Британской). Данное учебное пособие составлено в соответствии с рабочими программами заявленных специальностей ТТЖТ по иностранным языкам и готовит студентов к использованию английского языка в будущей профессиональной деятельности.
UNIT 1 I. TEXT RAILROAD TRACK The railroad is one of the most important means of transportation. Every day, thousands of trains speed along railroad tracks all over the world. Some trains carry passengers; others haul coal, grain lumber, machinery and other products on which people depend. Only ships carry heavier cargoes for longer distances; and only airplanes provide a faster means of public transportation than railroads do. A freight train can haul thousands of tons of goods across a continent. The fastest passenger trains in regular service travel at speeds of up to 185 mph (296kmph). In test runs, these trains have reached speeds of more than 250 mph (400kmph). Railroads use a two-railed track to guide trains along a permanent route. Powerful diesel-electric or electric locomotives move most trains along the track. Almost every country has at least one railroad. The world’s longest rail line is situated in Russia. It extends about 5,600 miles (9,000 km) and connects Moscow and Vladivostok. Laid end-to-end, the tracks of the world’s main railroad routes would stretch about 750,000 miles (1,200,000 km) – about 3 1/4 times the distance from the earth to the moon. In most countries, the central government owns all or most of the railroad lines. A state agency or a government-owned corporation operates the railroads, supports them and controls their construction, repair and maintenance. Over the years, railroads have been facing ever-increasing competition from other types of transportation. Nevertheless, railroads have always been and still remain the most important and universal mode of transport. A railroad consists basically of a track along which locomotives pull trains of cars. The track is made up of two steel rails fastened to a series of wooden or concrete crossties. The rails and crossties that make up a railway track are laid along a roadbed – a land that has been prepared as a foundation for the track. The roadbed follows the route planned for a railroad. Main-line routes link major cities; branch lines extend between main lines and various places not served by main lines. A lot of main lines consist of two or more tracks laid side by side. Such multiple-track allows trains to travel in opposite directions on the same line at the same time. Single-track lines must be equipped with sidings at various points along the route. A siding is a short track alongside a main or branch line to which one of two meeting trains is switched until the other train passes. The track and roadbed, together with such other railway structures as tunnels and bridges are called the roadway. In addition to the roadway, railways own a certain amount of land on both sides of the roadway. This land and the roadway make up a railroad's right-of-way. Nowadays, all rails are made of high quality steel. The cross-sectional area of a rail looks like letter "I" or letter "T". The rail consists of three main parts: the head (the upper part on which the wheels of the trains run), the foot (the lower part which rests upon the cross-ties), and the web (the middle part between the head and the foot). The rails are rolled in steel mills and cut in certain lengths according to the railroad standards. Steel mills in the USA and Canada produce rails in 39-ft (12-m) or 78-ft (24-m) lengths. Russia has adopted a standard rail length of 25 m on its railroads. Rails are joined end-to-end by pieces of steel called joint bars or fishplates. The joint bars are fastened to the rails by bolts that pass through holes in the bars and in the sides of the rail. But joint bars do not join the lengths together perfectly; instead, they leave tiny gaps between the lengths. These gaps have a slightly vibrating effect on a train as it passes over them. 5
Many railroads in the United States, Canada, Europe, Russia, and other countries are replacing the old short-length rails with new lengths of rails, most of which measure about 1/4 mile (400 m) long. Workers weld together standard rails to make continuous welded lengths of rails. Welded rails have fewer gaps and so produce a smoother ride than rails joined in many places. Continuous welded rails are also easier for railroad work crews to maintain. Most crossties are spaced about 20 in (0.50 m) apart. There are about 3,000 ties per mile (1,900 per km) of track. There are two types of ties: wood ties and concrete ties. In wood ties, two steel tie plates are placed on top of each tie, one plate near each end of the tie. Each plate has a groove that is shaped to hold the bottom of the rail. Steel spikes are driven through holes in the plates. The spikes hook over the bottom of the rail and keep it firmly fastened to the tie. In the mid-1900's, railroads began to use concrete ties. Concrete crossties do not need plates and spikes. Instead, plastic pads are used, and two steel bolts with spring clips hold the base of the rail firmly to the tie. The spikes or bolts must be the same distance apart on every tie so that they hold the rails the same distance apart all along the track. This uniform distance between the rails is called the gauge. Every country has a standard gauge for all its main lines and most branch lines. In this way, any locomotive or car can travel on any track in the country. But the standard gauge varies from country to country. The USA, Canada, and most European countries have a standard gauge of 4 ft 8 1/2 in (1.44 m). Russian railroads use the standard gauge that equals 1.52 m. In building a roadbed, engineers use special instruments and machinery to make the land as smooth and level as possible. This process is called grading. Most roadbeds are then covered with a layer of ballast, which consists of such materials as crushed stone and gravel. Ballast holds the ties in place and so helps to keep the track stable. Ballast also helps to distribute the weight of passing trains and gives them a certain degree of cushioning. Trains thus ride more easily and passengers receive more comfort. Ballast also promotes drainage of rainwater and slows the growth of weeds. Before constructing the roadbed, engineers plan a route with the least possible grade and curvature. Grade refers to the steepness of the land; curvature refers to the number and sharpness of curves along the route. The ideal railroad route lies across perfectly flat land. Freight trains can carry heavy loads along such track without difficulty, and passenger trains can travel at top speeds. Steep grades, on the other hand, prevent trains from carrying heavy loads or moving at high speeds. If a route passes through hilly or mountainous territory, engineers lay the track around steep grades. The track thus has many curves, which reduce the speeds of trains but allow them to carry heavy loads. A route through a mountain range might require so many curves that moving along the line would be extremely slow. Engineers therefore often build railroad tunnels through the mountains. They also build railroad bridges to span some of the deepest valleys. Tunnels and bridges are also constructed to extend railroad routes under or across rivers and other water obstacles. VOCABULARY 1. transportation means of ~ 2. route railroad ~ permanent ~ 3. track railroad ~ to lay the ~
– перевозка; транспорт – средство ~ – маршрут, трасса, путь – железнодорожный ~ – постоянный ~ – путь – железнодорожный ~ – прокладывать ~ 6
to repair the ~ to maintain the ~ 4. rails steel ~ standard ~ continuous welded ~ length of ~ head of a ~ foot of a ~ web of a ~ to roll ~ gaps between the ~ cross-sectional area of a ~ 5. ties wood ~ concrete ~ ~ plates 6. fishplates 7. spikes steel ~ 8. spring clip 9. gauge 10. ballast crushed stone ~ gravel ~ 11. cushioning 12. drainage 13. roadbed 14. roadway 15. line main ~ branch ~ single-track ~ multiple-track ~ 16. siding 17. right-of-way 18. grades 19. curves 20. obstacles
– ремонтировать ~ – содержать ~ – рельсы – стальные ~ – стальные ~ – без стыковые, сварные ~ – плеть ~ – головка ~ – основание ~ – шейка ~ – прокатывать ~ – зазор между ~ – поперечное сечение ~ – шпалы – деревянные ~ – бетонные ~ – рельсовые подкладки – стыковые накладки – костыли – стальные ~ – пружинный рельсовый зажим – колея – балласт – щебеночный ~ – гравийный ~ – амортизация – дренаж, отведение воды – основание пути – железнодорожное полотно – линия – магистральная ~ – ветка – однопутная ~ – многопутная ~ – разъезд – полоса отвода железной дороги – уклоны – кривые – препятствия
II. VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR EXERCISES Ex.I. Study VOCABULARY after the TEXT. Find in the TEXT sentences with VOCABULARY units and translate them into Russian. Ex.II. Substitute the underlined words with the synonyms from the TEXT. 1. Railroads are and have always been the most important mode of transport. 2. Some trains carry people; others transport various cargoes. 3. Almost every country has a railway. 4. The longest rail line extends for more than 9,000 km. 5. This railroad joins the capital of Russia and Vladivostok. 7
6. Most railroads all over the world are controlled by the state. 7. The railroad track consists of two parallel steel rails joined to timber or concrete sleepers. 8. Rails are made up of 3 parts: the lower part, the upper part and the middle part. 9. Rails are linked together by joint bars. 10. Nowadays, short rails are being replaced with longer rails on many railroads. 11. Every country has adopted a certain uniform distance between the rails on all its railway lines. 12. Broken rock and gravel are the best building materials for making ballast. Ex.III. Find pairs of synonyms. 1. to speed 2. to carry 3. cargo 4. rail line 5. to extend 6. to connect 7. main route 8. to operate 9. to consist of 10. crossties 11. the base of a rail 12. joint bars 13. to change 14. building 15. equipment 16. crushed stone 17. to keep 18. convenience 19. to reduce 20. to require
a. machinery b. main line c. broken rock d. construction e. to vary f. to be made up of g. railroad h. to decrease i. to hold j. the foot k. to stretch l. to need m. comfort n. to haul o. freight p. to go fast q. fishplates r. to maintain s. to join t. sleepers
Ex.IV. Complete the following sentences using prepositions, conjunctions and adverbs given below. Some of these words may be used more than once. and, as, because, before, besides, due to, during, for, from, how, in, occasionally, of, on, suddenly, though, under, with …, the steel … which rails are made may be defective, … the faults may not appear …the surface … the rails. A rail … a hidden flaw may break … … a heavy train … cause a wreck. Accidents … this kind are not so frequent nowadays … they were … former years. It is … steel manufactures know … to produce better quality steel. …, greater care is exercised … rolling rails and … testing them … they are laid … the track. … the last years the number … rail failures … most railroads has been greatly reduced … … the use … special rail detector cars that can test rails … hidden flaws. 8
Ex.V. Complete the table. VERBS PARTICIPLES I and II NOUNS ADJECTIVES MEAN DEPEND OWN OPERATE SUPPORT MAINTAIN EQUIP DISTRIBUTE PROMOTE REDUCE Ex.VI. Read the text below. Use the words given in Capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. _____ building materials are used for making ballast. Crushed stone and gravel are the most _____ of them. However, these materials are rather _____. Recently, a cheaper but very _____ substitute has been found. It is blast furnace slag. In the early days, ballast to be laid on the track had been brought to the site in wagons. Gangs of workers _____ with shovels spread it over the track to make a firm _____. Nowadays, special ballast trains are used. Loose stone is discharged _____ on the track, as the train moves _____ along the railroad route. The crews of workers then finish the _____.
VARY SUIT COST EFFECT
ARM FOUND DIRECT SLOW OPERATE
Ex.VII. Find in the TEXT English equivalents of the following Russian word-combinations. - важный и наиболее универсальный вид транспорта - скоростные пассажирские поезда - управлять железными дорогами - строительство, ремонт, эксплуатация - возрастающая конкуренция - двигаться одновременно в противоположных направлениях - железнодорожные сооружения: мосты и тоннели - полоса отвода железной дороги - высококачественная сталь для рельсов - поперечное сечение рельса - соединять рельсы стыковыми накладками - оставлять небольшой зазор в стыках - сваривать стандартные рельсы в длинные плети - плавное (бархатное) скольжение поезда 9
- прочно соединять основание рельса со шпалой - одинаковое расстояние между рельсами вдоль пути - использовать специальные инструменты - гладкое и ровное земляное полотно - слой балласта - распределять вес проходящих поездов - обеспечивать отведение дождевой воды - уклоны и кривые - перевозить тяжелые грузы - перевозить пассажиров на высокой скорости Ex.VIII. Complete the following sentences. Consult the TEXT if necessary. 1. A railroad track consists of two parallel … made of … . 2. The rails are made according to certain … adopted by all railroads in the country. 3. Standard rails are joined end-to-end by … . 4. Engineers often use … … … to reduce the number of … and to give a … ride to the passing trains. 5. Rails are fastened to the ties by means of … … . 6. The … … between the rails is called the … . 7. The rail-and-tie structure is laid upon a foundation called … . 8. The best building materials for ballast are … … and … . 9. Good ballast keeps the track … and promotes … of rainwater. 10. The process of making the land for the track … and … is called … . 11. Grades refer to the … of the land. 12. Grades limit the … of trains and the … carried. 13. Engineers often build such railway structures as … and … to reduce the number of … and … along the track. 14. Special … and … are used for the … of the track. Ex.IX. Fill in the correct Tense. Kevin Adams (love) trains. He (see) the first one when he was 4 years old and he (think) it was great. He (go) to different railway stations every week and (write down) the engine number of every train he sees. He (do) this since he was 8. By the time he was 15, he (collect) over 10,000 different engine numbers in various parts of England. Once, while he (stand) in a station in Cheshire, Kevin (see) something very unusual. He (wait) for over an hour for a train to go by when suddenly he (see) a very old steam train coming down the track. It (not /stop) at the station and, as it (pass), Kevin noticed that all passengers (wear) old-fashioned clothes. When he (tell) the station guard about this, the poor man turned pale. He said that no steam train (pass) through that station for years, and that the last one (crash) killing everyone on board.
Ex.X. Change Active Constructions into Passive. 10
1. Engineers are building a new multiple-track line in this region. 2. They have just constructed this modern track to link central and eastern regions of the country. 3. The railroad engineers installed high-quality steel rails and concrete crossties on this line. 4. All countries have adopted a standard gauge for their railroads. 5. Railroad builders use steel fishplates to join rails end-to-end. 6. Workers weld together standard rails to make continuous welded rails. 7. Engineers used crushed stone and gravel to make good ballast. 8. Engineers employ special equipment to make the land for the roadbed smooth and level. 9. Railroad engineers planned the route for the future railroad line with the least possible grades and curves. 10. Steep grades limit both the speeds of trains and the loads carried. 11. Engineers often design railroad bridges and tunnels along the route. Ex.XI. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the use of Participle Constructions. 1. The right-of-way having been cleared, the earth is graded for the roadbed and the track. 2. The grading, leveling and other similar operations having been completed, the land is ready for the track. 3. Being a strip of land on which the ties and rails are laid, the roadbed should be wide enough to support and carry one or more lines of the track that the railway engineers plan to lay. 4. Having determined the number of tracks that are supposed to be laid, engineers calculate the width of ballast. 5. Having been thus measured, the roadbed is prepared for laying ballast. 6. Being made of crushed stone and gravel, ballast provides stability of the railroad line and excellent drainage of rainwater. 7. The power of locomotives and the speeds of trains having been increased, the rail weights grew substantially. III. SPEECH PRACTICE EXERCISES Ex.I. Answer the following questions. 1. What kinds of loads do railroads carry? 2. Why are railroads considered the most important and universal mode of transport? 3. What is the longest railroad line in the world? 4. Who controls most railroad lines in many countries? 5. What are the basic elements of the track? 6. What building materials are used to make rails, crossties and ballast? 7. What parts do rails consist of? 8. What is the role of the fishplate? 9. What rails are called continuous welded rails? 10. What do they ensure? 11. What devices are used to fasten the rails to the wood ties? To the concrete ties? 12. Why does every country have a standard gauge on all its railroads? 13. What is the role of ballast for the track, trains and passengers? 14. What do grades and curves limit? 11
15. Why do engineers design and build railway bridges and tunnels? 16. Why do railway engineers use special equipment to build and maintain the track? 17. What do main lines and branch lines join? 18. What are the advantages of multiple-track lines? Ex.II. Express the main idea of the TEXT in 5 – 7 sentences. Write your summary. Ex.III. Translate the following sentences into English. 1. Не смотря на возрастающую конкуренцию со стороны автомобильного, воздушного и морского транспорта, железные дороги были и остаются наиболее важным и универсальным транспортным средством для перевозки различных грузов и пассажиров. 2. Стальные рельсы высокого качества, деревянные или бетонные шпалы, щебеночногравийный балласт, все виды креплений – стыковые накладки, рельсовые подкладки, костыли, болты, – имеют большое значение для строительства прочного, безопасного, скоростного железнодорожного пути. 3. Длинные сварные рельсы обеспечивают бархатный путь для современных скоростных поездов и максимальный комфорт для пассажиров. 4. Уклоны и кривые влияют на скорость движения поездов и перевозимые грузы. 5. Железнодорожные мосты и тоннели проектируются и строятся через многочисленные водные препятствия и горные массивы. 6. Специальные инструменты и оборудование необходимы как для проектирования и строительства железнодорожного полотна, так и для эксплуатации и ремонта пути. Ex.IV. Match the railroad terms and their definitions. Roadbed Roadway Ties Main Line Right-of-way Rails Branch Line Gauge Ballast Track Fishplates Grade Multiple-track Line Siding Curvature Single-track Line Grading a) the track and the roadbed together with such structures as railroad bridges and tunnels. b) a specially prepared foundation for the railroad track made of crushed stone and gravel; it holds the ties in place, keeps the track stable, helps distribute the weight of passing trains, and promotes drainage of water. c) the process of making the land for the railroad as smooth and level as possible; special instruments and machinery are used by the railroad engineers. d) the roadway and the land on both sides of it. e) plates of steel used to join the rails together end-to-end; they are fastened to the rails with fish-bolts. f) refers to the number and sharpness of curves along the railroad route; it only reduces the speeds of trains. g) the land that has been prepared as a foundation for the track. h) the route that links major cities. i) the uniform distance between the rails adopted on all railroads of a certain country. 12
j) the route that extends between main lines and various places not served by main lines. k) steel strings ( lengths ) of standard sizes used to guide the trains. l) refers to the steepness of the land for the railroad route; limits both the speed of trains and the loads carried. m) a combination of rails, ties, ballast and fastenings adopted for the railroads of a certain country. n) the line which must be equipped with sidings at various points along the route. o) timber ( wood ) or concrete bars spaced at a certain distance apart, on which rails are laid; on Russian Railways they average about 1,500 per kilometer. p) the track that allows trains to travel in opposite directions on the same line at the same time. q) a short track alongside the main or branch line to which one of the two meeting trains is switched until the other train passes. Ex.V. Retell the TEXT according to the following plan. 1. Basic elements of the track structure: a) rails; b) crossties; c) ballast. 2. Land for the rail track: a) roadbed; b) roadway and right-of-way; c) route. 3. The railroad gauge. 4. Grades and curves along the line. 5. Single-track and multiple-track lines. 6. Railroad bridges and tunnels. Ex.VI. Read these short texts about the basic elements of the track. Retell them briefly in English. RAILS Railroad rails are long heavy bars of steel of such shape that the cross-section of a rail looks like the letters “I” or “T”. Rails are manufactured in great steel mills. A large ingot of white-hot steel is passed back and forth between the huge steel rolls that give the rails the proper shape. After rolling is completed the rails are sawed to the standard length and branded. The brand shows the date of rolling, the kind of steel, the weight of the rail and the name of the manufacturer. After branding the rails are cooled and straightened. Their ends are squared, and the holes are drilled for the bolts of the rail joints. *
* * * * Rails differ greatly in design and weight according to the kind of traffic they must support when placed in the track. The largest and the heaviest rails are to be found in the main line tracks that carry the largest volume of freight and passenger traffic. Most of the rails now manufactured in Russia are 25 m long, and vary in weight from 60 to 75 kg to the meter. The most commonly used US rails are 39 ft long and range from 90 to 152 lb to the yard.
The crossties on which the rails are laid are nearly all of wood. Hard wood trees are the best woods for ties, because they are heavy and close-grained. Such ties last much longer but they are much more expensive than those produced of soft wood. To make the ties made of soft wood last longer they are subjected to a protective treatment. The most common method of protecting ties is to treat them with creosote, forced into the wood under pressure. *
* * * * Ties cut from green timber must be seasoned before they are treated with protective materials and placed in the track. The seasoning if done in the open air is called natural. It takes from 4 to 18 months depending upon the kind of lumber used and the local climate. Scientists have developed a process by which ties can be artificially seasoned in a few hours. Under this method, ties are enclosed in a huge air-tight container filled with a chemically treated water vapor hot enough to draw the moisture from the wood but not hot enough to destroy the wood fibers. Although the process is rather expensive the saving in time more than offsets the cost. GAUGE A railway gauge is the width between the inside faces of running rails. About 3/5 of the world’s tracks have the standard gauge of 4 ft 8.5 in. This gauge originated in 1829, when George Stephenson designed and built his famous Liverpool – Manchester Line. The gauge was exported from Britain to Europe and the United States with the export of British locomotives built to it. Among notable deviations are Russia’s 5-ft gauge, Spain’s 5-ft 6-in gauge, and Japan’s 3-ft 6-in gauge. Several countries operate railroads on two different gauges; Pakistan operates on three; Australia and India use four. *
* * * * A uniform railroad gauge, regardless of its size, makes it possible for a person to travel over several railroads without changing cars. When gauges were different it was necessary for freight and passengers to be transferred from one car to another at all points where there was a change of gauges. The adoption of a uniform gauge has resulted in great savings of both time and expenses. RAILROAD BRIDGES AND TUNNELS One of the oldest long railroad tunnels in America is the Hoosac Tunnel in Massachusetts opened in 1873. It is nearly 5 miles long and took many years to build. The longest railroad tunnel in the USA is the Great Northern Railway Cascade Tunnel in Washington, opened in 1929. It is almost 8 miles in length. There are many long railroad tunnels in Europe, the longest being situated in Switzerland, France and Italy, beneath the snow-covered Alps and Apennines. The St. Gothard Tunnel, the Simplon Tunnel and the Mont Cenis Tunnel are some of the bestknown tunnels in the world. Just as fascinating as mountain tunnels are the great bridges with the help of which railroads cross wide rivers or span deep valleys and canyons. Some bridges have a single high span crossing a river or 14
a valley in a single jump. Most of the large railroad bridges are complicated steel and concrete structures. RAILROAD MACHINERY Whatever happens on the railroad – blizzard, flood or wreck – the damage to the track must be repaired very quickly. The trains must be kept moving, for only when trains are moving can the railroads work, grow and develop successfully. The most important and widely used railway maintenance machines and equipment are the following: tracklayers, rail-grinding machines, ballast tampers, ballast cleaners, spike-removers, spikedrivers, weed-cutters, detector cars, snow-plows, and many others. Ex.VII. Translate the following passage about modern rails. Write your translation and read it in your English group. Modern track has to cope with the growing demands of rail traffic, in particular with the constant increase in the weight and speed of trains. One modern development in the upkeep of the permanent way is the use of the welding process. Steel rails were first rolled in England in 1856. From that date, they had rapidly become of a standard shape and length. The standard length of a single rail in the USA is 39 ft; 60 ft rails are common in Europe. The use of longer rails is advantageous in maintenance work. Rail joints and crossings wear away very rapidly. They are costly to make and to maintain. Railroads are therefore progressively adopting long welded rails that lessen wear and tear of rolling stock and mean longer life for rails. Wear of rail ends is avoided and there are fewer bolt holes that may cause cracks. Continuous welded rails are being laid in regions where the range of temperature during the year may be as much as 100. In such regions it is customary to lay the rails on days when the temperature is midway between the annual maximum and minimum. This means that the force of expansion and contraction is reduced to the lowest possible point. The greatest success with the long welded rails is obtained in tunnels, where the variation of temperature during the year is much less than in the open air. Continuous welded rails are now steadily growing in favor with railroad construction engineers. The elimination of track joints reduces the expense of track repair and maintenance considerably. Continuous rails are much more durable, they give to the railroad track a smoother riding quality, and they permit the operation of trains at greater speeds. Ex.VIII. Be ready to work on the following projects. 1. The Structure of Modern Railway Track: Components and Building Materials. 2. Railroad Bridges and Tunnels. 3. Modern Equipment and Machinery for the Construction and Maintenance of the Railroad Track.
UNIT 2 I. TEXT HOW RAILROADS SERVE THE PEOPLE Most people think of communications only when they want to get from one place to the other. But communications are extremely important to the national economy of a country as well. Without good roads and railways a country cannot develop its resources, industry and trade. Early man probably used great rivers as his first means of traveling and communication. Later, people began to develop roads. In the Roman times, roads became very important for military reasons. Nowadays, roads are still extremely significant; waterways are used for carrying bulky goods; airplanes cannot take very heavy loads and are especially useful for carrying passengers, mail and valuable equipment. And only railroads still carry the bulk of people and loads. Railway transport is still one of the cheapest ways of hauling freight over long distances. Railroads provide two main types of service: passenger service and freight service. The importance of each type of railroad service varies from country to country. Railroads operate two main types of passenger trains: commuter trains and intercity trains. Commuter trains carry passengers between large cities and the surrounding suburbs. Most of these trains are equipped with coaches only. Coaches provide seats for passengers but do not usually offer any extra services. Intercity trains make longer runs than most commuter trains do. The longest intercity runs cover great distances and take several days to complete. As a result, many intercity passenger trains have special cars, such as dining cars and sleeping cars, in addition to coaches. Since the 1940's, the number of rail passengers in the USA has declined sharply as more and more people prefer to travel by automobile and airplane. Railroads now carry less than 1 percent of all US intercity passenger traffic. In most other countries, passenger trains have not faced such strong competition from other forms of transportation. People in China, India, Japan, Russia, and most European countries still rely heavily on trains for transportation. About 75 % of all US rail passengers ride commuter trains. Each working day, these trains carry hundreds of thousands of suburban residents to and from work in such large cities as Chicago and New York City. Commuter trains also serve London, Paris, Berlin, Rome, Madrid, Moscow, Tokyo, Toronto and many other cities all over the world. Some intercity trains also carry commuter passengers. It takes as many as 1,000 automobiles to carry as many commuters as one commuter train can carry. Commuter trains thus help to relieve rush-hour traffic jams on city expressways. By reducing the number of automobiles in use, commuter trains also help to conserve fuel and to reduce air pollution caused by exhaust fumes. Some countries have unusually fast, efficient intercity passenger trains. Many Japanese trains travel at an average speed of more than 100 mph (160 kmph). The fastest passenger trains in the world operate in France: these trains travel up to 180 mph (290 kmph) between Paris and Lyon and some cities in Switzerland. They travel up to 200 mph (320 kmph) between Paris and other cities in France. High-speed trains also serve cities in Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Spain, and other European countries. Some of the Japanese and European high-speed trains offer a number of luxury services, including beauty shops, gift shops, telephones, and meals served at the passengers' seats. Some Canadian intercity trains also provide luxury service. One of these trains, the Rapido, is Canada's fastest train. It carries passengers between Toronto and Montreal – a 335-mile (536-km) journey – at an average speed of about 80 mph (130kmph). 16
In the early 1900's, there were thousands of intercity passenger trains in the USA that linked almost all American cities. Today, only about 125 intercity passenger trains serve the entire country. Few of them compare with Japanese and European intercity trains for speed. Subway electric-powered trains that run between New York City and Washington, D.C., are the fastest US trains in commercial service. They run at an average speed of about 80 mph (130 kmph) over a 225-mile (360-km) route. They reach a top speed of over 100 mph (160 kmph). About 95% of the money earned by US railroads comes from hauling freight. Canadian railroads earn about 80% of their income from freight operations. As many as 10,000 freight trains a day roar across the US countryside, loaded with everything from coal and iron ore to television sets and new automobiles. The longest freight trains consist of 200 or more cars. An average freight train includes about 70 cars and carries about 2,500 tons of goods. Some of the cars in a freight train are empty cars being moved to various points for loading. Railroads in the United States and in many other countries now carry more freight than ever before. However, most of the railroads haul a smaller share of the total freight traffic than in the past. In 1929, railroads handled almost 75% of all loads carried between US cities. Today, they carry less than 40% of the intercity freight. American railroads also used to carry most of the nation's mail, and so they received most of the money spent for mail transportation. Today, airplanes and trucks carry most US mail. The railroads receive only about 15% of the country's mail revenue. To attract more customers railroads in many countries have improved their freight service. In the 1950’s, US railroads introduced flatcars to carry truck trailers loaded with freight. Today, US railroads carry hundreds of thousands of truck trailers each year. VOCABULARY 1. communication(s) railway ~ 2. national economy 3. loads heavy ~ bulky ~ 4. trains passenger ~ freight ~ mail ~ commuter ~ intercity ~ high-speed ~ 5. car passenger ~ freight ~ mail ~ dining ~ sleeping ~ flat ~ 6. traffic 7. distance
– связь – железнодорожное сообщение – национальная экономика – грузы – тяжелые ~ – крупногабаритные ~ – поезда – пассажирские ~ – грузовые ~ – почтовые ~ – пригородные ~ – ~ дальнего следования – скорые ~ – вагон – пассажирский ~ – грузовой ~ – почтовый ~ – ~ ресторан – спальный ~ – ~ платформа – движение, транспорт – расстояние 17
to cover a ~ 8. speed average ~ fast ~ top ~ 9. expressways 10. rush-hour traffic jams
– преодолевать ~ – скорость – средняя ~ – высокая ~ – максимальная ~ – скоростная автомагистраль – автомобильные пробки в часы пик
II. VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR EXERCISES Ex.I. Study VOCABULARY after the TEXT. Find in the TEXT sentences with VOCABULARY units and translate them into Russian. Ex.II. Substitute the underlined words with the synonyms from the TEXT. 1. Communications are very significant to the national economy of every country. 2. Railroads haul the greater part of people and freight. 3. Railroads run two kinds of trains: suburban trains and long-distance trains. 4. Most commuter trains are fitted with passenger cars only. 5. The number of people traveling by trains in the USA and Canada has greatly decreased. 6. Some countries are developing high-speed and effective long-distance passenger service. 7. The maximum speeds of French intercity passenger trains reach 350kmph and even more. Ex.III. Find pairs of synonyms. 1. to equip with 2. to cover a distance 3. to decline 4. to reduce 5. to conserve 6. unusually 7. fast 8. efficient 9. to offer 10. journey 11. to link 12. fastest speed 13. income 14. various 15. share 16. to receive 17. extra 18. trucks 19. mail 20. customers
a. lorries b. additional c. to get d. quick e. users f. to propose, to suggest g. to decrease h. traveling i. part j. revenue k. post l. extremely m. to travel a distance n. effective o. to save p. to cut q. to join r. different s. top speed t. to fit with 18
Ex.IV. Complete the following sentences using prepositions, conjunctions and adverbs given below. Some of these words may be used more than once. about, almost, already, also, and, at, between, by, for, in, of, on, over, than, to, with … the beginning … the 20th century there were … one million miles … rail routes all … the world. … the end … the century there has been … a great number … gigantic railway engineering projects: the Trans-Siberian Railway and the BAM located … its north; the Seikan Tunnel … Honshu … Hokkaido … Japan … 34 miles long; the Simplon Tunnel … the Alps more … 12 miles; the Channel Tunnel … France … the UK, more … 30 miles long. Efforts to increase speeds have produced fundamental changes … railroading. In 1964, the first section … high-speed Shinkansen Line was opened … Tokyo … Osaka, Japan. Nowadays, the Shinkansen (New Trunk Line) trains operate … this network … speeds … … 150-170 mph. Starting … the original TGV (Trains a Grand Vitesse) Line … Paris … Lyon, the French have become the European leaders … this undertaking. The average permissible speed … this line is 168 mph. Next … progress came the TGV-Atlantique (Paris – La Mans) … the TGV-Nord (Paris via the Channel Tunnel), designed … average speeds … 186 mph. Germany, Italy, Spain, the UK, Belgium, Sweden are … famous … their top speed trains. Ex.V. Complete the table. VERBS TRAVEL ATTRACT RECEIVE VARY VALUE LOAD RELY SERVE INTRODUCE COMMUNICATE
PARTICIPLES I and II
Ex.VI. Read the text below. Use the words given in Capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits the space in the same line. In November 1994, the first Eurostar _____ train departed from London’s Waterloo International Station for the Gare du Nord, Paris. This high-speed, high-tech train is the _____ thing in the entire British Rail Network. Both Britain and France made great efforts to achieve the maximum possible _____, comfort for passengers 19
and _____. Eurostar _____ minimizes friction, thus the ride is made much _____ and passengers receive a great sense of _____. Eurostar has also been _____ tested for fire safety. But the biggest test for the train is its _____ among the people. It is absolutely clear that Eurostar’s _____ _____ will entirely depend upon the trust of the _____ public.
RELY LIGHT SMOOTH SECURE CARE POPULAR SUCCESS SERVE TRAVEL
Ex.VII. Find in the TEXT English equivalents of the following Russian word-combinations. – развитие национальной экономики, ресурсов, промышленности, торговли – средства передвижения и связи – наиболее дешевый вид транспорта – перевозка грузов на длинные расстояния – пассажирское и грузовое сообщение – пригородные поезда – поезда дальнего следования – вагоны-рестораны – спальные вагоны – значительно сократился – жители пригородов – ослабить пробки в часы пик – экономить топливо – снизить загрязнение воздуха – скоростные поезда дальнего следования – электропоезда метрополитена – максимально высокая скорость – 40% (75%, 80%) доходов – большая часть почтовых перевозок – привлечь больше клиентов Ex.VIII. Decide what answer – A, B, C, D – best fits each space. A hundred years ago, most people traveled on horseback, on foot, or (1) … train. (2) … made it possible to travel rapidly over long distances. Bicycles were also becoming (3) … after the invention of the air-filled (4) … which made cycling a lot more comfortable. Buses, trams and (5) … railways had already been invented, and cities all over the world already had traffic (6) … . There were very few private cars, and city (7) … were still full of horses. What a difference a hundred years have (8) … ! (9) … , we have got (10) … to the problem of private cars, and some cities are so noisy and (11) … that in many places (12) … have been banned from the city centers. The use of (13) … electricdriven commuter trains is the best solution for big cities. These trains are fuel efficient, (14) … and 20
extremely comfortable. They are very popular among (15) … passengers who value their time and money. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
A. by A. Tracks A. popular A. boot A. metro A. blocks A. streets A. taken A. Recently A. worked A. even A. vehicles A. slow A. noiseless A. free
B. on B. Lines B. famous B. brake B. cars B. sticks B. pavements B. done B. Then B. lived B. polluted B. traffic B. high-speed B. heavy B. popular
C. with C. Ways C. great C. tire C. underground C. knots C. lawns C. made C. Nowadays C. used C. so C. transport C. high C. noisy C. happy
D. to D. Railways D. difficult D. engine D. highway D. jams D. parks D. got D. Later D. looked D. poisoned D. trips D. old D. hard D. busy
Ex.IX. Look carefully at each line. Some lines are correct. But some have a word that should not be there. Tick () each correct line. If a line has a word that should not be there, write the word in the space. ____________ 1) Nowadays, more and more people enjoy ____________ 2) foreign travel, and take up their holidays ____________ 3) in the distant countries. However, not everyone ____________ 4) has had the same reason for traveling. Some ____________ 5) of people travel so that they can practice ____________ 6) foreign languages, or because they want to ____________ 7) visit the well-known sights in other countries. ____________ 8) Lots of young people just want to have relax ____________ 9) and make up new friends. Personally, I would ____________ 10) like to travel abroad for the excitement! I ____________ 11) have never been visited to a foreign country ____________ 12) before, but I have been planning a trip ____________ 13) around Europe by train with some ____________ 14) friends of mine. As we are students, and ____________ 15) so we can buy cheaper tickets. One of ____________ 16) my friends went on having this kind ____________ 17) of trip a few years ago. She stayed in ____________ 18) youth hostels, and managed to spend a ____________ 19) very little money. I think that this would be ____________ 20) an exiting and unforgettable holiday!
Ex.X. Complete the conversation between a travel agent and a lady, using the Infinitive or the “ing”-form of the Verb. A: Good morning, madam. Can I (help) you? L: Yes, I’d like (book) a holiday, please. A: Certainly, madam. I must (ask) you a few questions. Now, … where would like (go)? How long are you going (stay)? Would you prefer (have) a relaxing beach holiday or (go) sightseeing? Which countries are you interested in (visit)? What means of transport do you prefer? L: Well, young man, I don’t know where (go) or how long (stay). I hate (go) to the beach and I don’t enjoy sightseeing. I don’t want (visit) any foreign countries because foreign food makes me (feel) ill. As for means of transport, I’m too frightened (fly) in airplanes. I hate (go) on boats, I don’t like (travel) by train and (travel) in a coach makes me (feel) sick. A: Well, madam, I don’t know what (suggest). I don’t want (appear) rude, but I really think you had better (stay) at home! III. SPEECH PRACTICE EXERCISES Ex.I. Answer the following questions. 1. What is the role of communications for the development of national economy? 2. What was the first means of traveling of ancient people? 3. What people were the first skilled road-builders in human history? 4. What kinds of transport are developed nowadays? 5. What is the role of railways in carrying passengers and freight? 6. What kinds of service do railroads provide? 7. What kinds of passenger trains do railroads operate? 8. What are the differences between them? 9. In what cases do residents of big cities use commuter trains? 10. What are the main advantages of commuter traffic? 11. What countries have highly developed systems of intercity rail traffic? 12. What countries operate the fastest intercity passenger trains in Europe? In the world? 13. Name the top speed intercity trains famous all over the world. 14. What are their maximum and average speeds? 15. What services do they provide? 16. How many intercity passenger trains does the USA operate at present? 17. What cities do they serve? 18. What can you say about freight transportation of the USA and Canada? 19. How do railroads try to attract more customers? Ex.II. Express the main idea of the TEXT in 5 – 7 sentences. Write your summary. Ex.III. Translate the following sentences into English. 1. Первоклассные дороги для перевозки пассажиров и грузов имеют большое значение для развития промышленности и торговли любой страны. 22
2. Не смотря на важную роль автомобильного, авиационного, морского транспорта, железные дороги по-прежнему остаются вне конкуренции при перевозке пассажиров и грузов на дальние расстояния. 3. Железные дороги используют 2 вида пассажирских поездов: пригородные и дальнего следования. 4. Пригородный железнодорожный транспорт особенно важен для жителей 5. крупных городов. 5. Он позволяет избежать пробок в часы пик, экономит топливо и заботится об экологии. 6. Лидерами сверхскоростного пассажирского сообщения в мире являются Франция, Германия, Великобритания, Италия, Испания, Япония, Канада и США. 7. Грузовые железнодорожные перевозки занимают важное место в экономике России, США, Канады, Китая, Индии, Австралии. Ex.IV. Retell the TEXT according to the following plan. 1. The role of communications for people. 2. Commuter passenger trains. 3. Intercity passenger traffic. 4. The world fastest intercity passenger trains. 5. Railway freight transportation. Ex.V. Read the text. JAPANESE RAILROADS In Japan, railroads play an extremely important role in passenger travel. The first Japanese rail line was financed by the British and built by English engineers in 1868. Although there was strong opposition to its construction, because many people were against the expansion of foreign economic and political influence, the development of a modern rail network was a farsighted goal of the government. The first street car line was constructed in Kyoto in 1891, and used the electricity from the nation’s first power station. In subsequent years Japan, unlike most other Asian countries, developed extensive intercity and commuter railroad systems. The period between the two world wars saw the construction of many railroad lines to the suburbs. In 1927, the first subway was built in Tokyo, and over time it was expanded into one of the most extensive systems in the world. Subways were later built in most of Japan’s largest cities. The jewel of Japan’s passenger rail system is the high-speed Shinkansen. It began operation in 1964 on the New Tokaido Line. The line provides service on an electrified, double-track route between Tokyo and Osaka. It is part of a nationwide network of high-speed trains linking all major cities. Shinkansen service was extended westward to Okayama in 1972, and then to Fukuoka on Kyushu in 1975. Two lines radiating from Tokyo – north to Niigata and northeast to Morioka – were opened in 1982. In1991, the most intensive train services at very high speeds were provided by the “Bullet Trains” that run on Japan’s new standard gauge lines. The timetables of these lines show more than 300 trains daily. Every hour of the day Tokyo and Osaka are connected in each direction by at least 4 such trains. Many of them are scheduled to complete the Tokyo – Osaka run in less than 3 hours. The fastest 23
“Bullet Trains” are to be found on the later Shinkansen, the Joetsu and Tohoku lines operated at a maximum speed of 160 mph. Ex.VI. Write questions to the underlined parts of the sentences. Discuss the text with the students of your English group. Ex.VII. Fill in the chart and speak about the most significant events in the development of Japan’s railroads. YEAR SIGNIFICANT EVENTS 1868 1891 1927 1964 1972 1975 1982 1991 Ex.VIII. Read the following short dialogues and make up your own ones according to the given pattern. - Two tickets to Chicago, please. - One-way or round trip? - Round trip. How much is that? - $ 22.40 each. That’s $ 44.80. - Could you tell me what time the next train starts? - 3:25 p.m., sir. * * * * * - Excuse me, sir. Is this the train to Chicago? - No, it isn’t. That’s the Chicago train over there. - Where? - On track 12. - Thank you, sir. - You’re welcome. * * * * * - Excuse me. Are these seats taken? - Yes, they are. But those seats are free, sir. - Where? - Over there. Close to the door. - Thank you, sir. Ex.IX. Ask and answer questions about the prices of one-way tickets, about the departure time and the track numbers. TRAINS FOR
ONE-WAY PRICES $
TICKET LEAVING TIME 24
ST.LOUIS TORONTO BOSTON NEW YORK MONTREAL ORLANDO DETROIT NEW ORLEANS
47.45 115.95 32.95 64.00 80.60 126.55 54.20 83.15
5:40 p.m. 5:55 p.m. 6:15 p.m. 6:17 a.m. 7:20 a.m. 9:12 p.m. 11:17 a.m. 12:50 p.m.
7 2 11 3 4 5 9 12
Ex.X. Be ready to read the following dialogues in your English group. The porters are very busy carrying luggage to the trains: quite a lot of people are traveling during Christmas time. A gentleman wants to buy tickets at the Booking Office at the railway station. - I want to buy two tickets to Brighton. First class, please. - Of course, sir. Single or return? - Return, please. - First class, return, Brighton. 197 pounds, please. … Thank you, sir. … 3 pounds change. - Could you tell me what time the next train starts? - 8:55 p.m., sir. Platform 12. - Thanks a lot. - You’re welcome. Have a nice trip, sir. - Thank you. * * * * * - Well, Jason, here we are! When I get into the train I feel that holidays have really begun. Have you got the tickets? - Yes, darling, first class, non-smoker. We have numbers A20 and A22. Is that all right, Lora? - Exactly. I don’t like going a long journey in a smoker. My dear Jason, I have to admit that you were absolutely right to have booked tickets well in advance: trains at Christmas are usually so crowded! - Of course! Here’s our carriage, dear, and here’s our compartment. You may take whatever seat you like, Lora. - Thank you, honey. Oh, what a lovely compartment! I’ll take 22A. - Very well. Lora, dear, I’ll go and see that our luggage has been put into the guard’s van. And I’m going to reserve two seats in the dining car, as well. - Oh, don’t forget to buy some newspapers for you and some chocolate for me on your way back. - Don’t worry, honey, I will not. I’ll be back very soon. Enjoy your trip, Lora. - I’m sure we’ll have a very nice trip, Jason. You’ve seen to everything, dear. I needn’t do anything at all except sit back and enjoy the traveling. Ex.XI. Translate the following funny stories. Write your translation and read it in your English group. MARK TWAIN IN FRANCE
While on a trip in France, Mark Twain was traveling to the city of Dijon. On that afternoon, he was very tired and wished to sleep. He therefore asked the conductor to wake him up when they arrived at Dijon. But first he explained that he was a very heavy sleeper. “I shall probably protest loudly when you try to wake me up”, he told the train conductor. “But don’t pay any attention to me. Just put me off the train anyway”. Mark Twain went to sleep. Later, when he woke up it was a late night, and the train was in Paris. He realized at once that the conductor had forgotten to wake him up at Dijon. Mark Twain got very angry. He ran up to the conductor and began to cry at him. “I have never been so angry in all my life”, shouted the writer. The conductor looked at him calmly. “You are not half so angry as was the American I put off the train at Dijon”, he replied. AN ABSENT-MINDED WRITER A well-known writer was once traveling by train. When the ticket collector came for the tickets, the writer could not find his. The ticket collector who had recognized the famous author asked him not to be nervous about his ticket, saying that he would come for it at the next station. But at the next station there was the same difficulty again: the writer could not find his ticket anywhere. “Never mind”, said the ticket officer. “Don’t worry, I believe that you have got a ticket”. “I have to find my ticket by all means”, said the absent-minded writer. “I must know where I’m going to”. EX.XII. Be ready to work on the following projects. 1. The Role of Commuter Transportation for Big Cities. 2. Modern High-Speed Intercity Trains. 3. The Railroad as a Universal Freight Carrier. UNIT 3 I. TEXT ROLLING STOCK Railroad trains are pulled by locomotives. But some locomotives can push as well as pull. These locomotives are especially useful on commuter lines. Locomotives can be classified into two groups according to the work they do. Road locomotives haul freight or passenger trains. Switching locomotives, or switch engines, move cars from track to track in rail yards. Almost all locomotives can also be classified into three groups according to how they are powered. Diesel-electric locomotives use oil-burning diesel engines to turn electric generators. The electric power produced by the generators runs the driving mechanisms that turn the locomotive's wheels. Electric locomotives work much as diesel-electrics do. But instead of producing their own electric power, they get it from wires suspended above the track or from an electrified third rail. Steam locomotives burn coal or fuel oil to produce steam. The force of the steam runs the locomotive. 26
A few trains are powered by two other kinds of locomotives. Gas-turbine electric locomotives use the force of hot gases to run turbines, which in turn operate electric generators. The power produced by the generators runs the trains. Diesel-hydraulic locomotives use diesel engines to produce energy transmitted to the driving mechanisms by means of fluids under pressure. Railroads in the United States operate about 20,000 locomotives. Almost all of them are dieselelectric. Only a few US railroads use electric locomotives. Railroads in most industrial countries operate both diesel-electric and electric locomotives. Steam locomotives are still used in China, India, and some other countries. Railroad cars are grouped into two general categories: passenger cars and freight cars. Each car has a coupler at each end. This device links the cars together. The first automatic car couplers were designed in 1873. Cars also have air brakes connected to a master control in the locomotive. Railroad air brakes were patented by George Westinghouse in 1869 but were put into common practice only in the beginning of the 20th century. On most passenger trains the cars consist mainly of coaches. The majority of coaches have seats for 50 to 90 passengers. Double-deck coaches on commuter trains seat from 150 to 170 people. Some passenger train cars include baggage cars, dining cars and sleeping cars. Freight cars differ in shape and size according to the freight they are designed to haul. They range from boxcars for carrying general freight, to specially designed cars for new automobiles. Many newer freight cars are longer and have been designed to carry different kinds of load. Flat cars, for example, are specially equipped to hold truck trailers or containers. Railroads have greatly improved the safety of railroad cars over years. One of the chief improvements has been to reduce the danger from overheated journal boxes. On older cars, each end of an axle turned on solid surfaces enclosed in an oil-filled journal box. A box might become overheated due to the lack of lubrication and so become a hotbox. A hotbox might cause a derailment. On newer cars, the use of roller bearings at the ends of axles has helped to reduce the number of hotboxes. Railroads have also installed electronic devices called hotbox detectors at various points alongside railroad tracks. As trains pass by, the devices detect hotboxes. This information is transmitted to a central control station and cars with hotboxes are removed from the train. Railcars are railroad cars with a built-in power unit. These cars do not need a locomotive, because they provide their own power. A railcar may be diesel-electric, electric, or gas-turbine electric. Some railcars are intended for carrying passengers and form railcar trains. These trains include gas-turbine electric trains called turbo trains that operate between the cities of Germany, France, Italy, Spain, the UK, Japan, Canada, the USA and some other countries. Some self-propelled cars are designed for railroad maintenance. Each car carries special equipment to do a particular job along a railroad line. Some cars have track-laying machinery or machinery for inspecting or repairing tracks; others carry such equipment as snowplows or weed cutters. VOCABULARY 1. rolling stock 2. locomotive road ~ switching ~ steam ~ diesel-electric ~
– подвижной состав – локомотив – магистральный ~ – маневровый ~ – паровой ~ – дизель-электрический ~ 27
diesel-hydraulic ~ electric~ gas-turbine ~ 3. rail yard 4. automatic car coupler 5. air brake 6. master control 7. coach double-deck ~ 8. car passenger ~ freight ~ dining ~ sleeping ~ baggage ~ box ~ flat ~ rail ~ 9. journal box oil-filled ~ overheated ~ 10. lubrication 11. roller bearing 12. derailment 13. central control station 14. power unit built-in ~ 15. turbo train 16. maintenance
– дизель-гидравлический ~ – электровоз – газотурбинный ~ – сортировочная станция – автосцепка вагонов – пневматический тормоз – пульт управления локомотива – пассажирский вагон – двухъярусный ~ – железнодорожный вагон – пассажирский ~ – грузовой ~ – ~ ресторан – спальный ~ – багажный ~ – крытый ~ – ~ платформа – ~ со встроенным блоком питания – букса (колеса) – маслонаполненная ~ – перегревшаяся ~ – смазка – роликоподшипник – авария, сход поезда с рельсов – центральный диспетчерский пост управления – энергоблок – встроенный ~ – турбо поезд – эксплуатация, содержание пути
II. VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR EXERCISES Ex.I. Study VOCABULARY after the TEXT. Find in the TEXT sentences with Vocabulary units. Read and translate them into Russian. Ex.II. Substitute the underlined words with the synonyms from the TEXT. 1. Engines at the head of the train haul trains along the line. 2. Locomotives that can pull as well as push trains are especially efficient on suburban railroads. 3. Locomotives can be driven by different kinds of power. 4. Most great industrial countries have a lot of both electric and diesel-electric engines in operation. 5. Railway cars are classified into 2 groups: passenger cars and freight cars. 6. The first automatic car couplers and air brakes were invented in the 19th century. 7. Most passenger trains are made up of passenger cars. 8. Many modern freight cars are intended for carrying various kinds of cargoes. 28
9. An overheated box may result in a wreck. 10. Railcars do not require engines. 11. Gas-turbine electric trains are designed to transport people between the biggest cities of Europe, the USA, Japan, Canada, at very high speeds. Ex.III. Find pairs of synonyms. 1. locomotive 2. useful 3. to carry 4. rail yard 5. power 6. to produce 7. service 8. device 9. to include 10. to need 11. luggage 12. common 13. to couple 14. different 15. to range 16. inventor 17. lack 18. derailment 19. to remove 20. machinery
a. station b. appliance c. baggage d. efficient e. to comprise f. to link g. to vary h. wreck i. shortage j. to eliminate k. engine l. designer m. to generate n. equipment o. to transport p. operation q. various r. general s. to require t. energy
Ex.IV. Complete the following sentences using prepositions, conjunctions and adverbs given below. Some of these words may be used more than once. about, and, by, considerably, due to, formerly, in, now, nowadays, of, on, or, than, to, with Railway passenger cars (coaches) are … many different types … vary … … design … … the various kinds … traffic to be handled. …, all passenger cars were made … wood … equipped … hand brakes, coal … wood burning stoves … oil lamps. …, all coaches are made … steel. They are much safer … the old ones … carry a greater number … passengers. Comfort … sanitary conditions are … given great attention. A typical modern coach is … 25 m long, seats 48 passengers, weighs 50 tons, is carried … fourwheeled trucks … is … steel construction. All coaches are fitted … a hot water heating system … lighted … electricity. Improved seats, pleasant interior … air conditioning systems have added … the comfort … railway travelers. Ex.V. Complete the table. 29
PARTICIPLES I and II
CLASSIFY INSPECT ELECTRIFY TRANSMIT GENERATE DIFFER IMPROVE EQUIP DETECT REMOVE Ex.VI. Read the text below. Use the words given in Capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. The speed and weight of modern trains and the _____ CARRY capacity of railway lines have been _____ raised due to GREAT the _____ of steam locomotives with electric and dieselPLACE electric ones, using heavier rails, _____ track, concrete JOIN crossties and the _____ of the CTC systems. INTRODUCE High-speed locomotives and new coaches ___ with EQUIP electric _____ systems, day light lamps and HEAT air conditioning _____ help passengers travel quickly INSTALL and _____. COMFORT The wide use of automatic devices increases the _____ SAFE of train _____ . MOVE Ex.VII. Find in the TEXT English equivalents of the following Russian word-combinations. - тянуть и толкать поезда - в зависимости от выполняемой работы - дизельные двигатели на жидком топливе - приводить в движение электрические генераторы - колеса локомотива - контактная сеть - жидкости, находящиеся под давлением - постоянная эксплуатация - автосцепка вагонов - пневматические тормоза - большая часть пассажирских вагонов - двухъярусные вагоны пригородных поездов - вагоны-платформы для перевозки грузовых трейлеров - снизить опасность возникновения перегретых букс - стать причиной железнодорожной аварии - детекторы перегретых букс - встроенный энергоблок 30
- оборудование для ремонта и эксплуатации пути Ex.VIII. Complete the following sentences. Consult the TEXT if necessary. 1. Some locomotives can … as well as … . 2. These locomotives are especially useful on … lines. 3. According to the … they perform, locomotives are divided into … and … . 4. … locomotives are the oldest ones. 5. Nowadays, … and …-… locomotives are most widely used on railroads. 6. Railway cars include … cars and … cars. 7. … carry passengers only. 8. There are different kinds of … cars depending on the loads carried. 9. … journal boxes increase the danger of … . 10. Special devices are used to … hotboxes. 11. Railcars do not need … . 12. They are equipped with …-… power units. 13. … carry passengers between the … cities of France, Germany, Italy, Spain and some other countries. 14. Some …-… cars carry special … for …, … and … railroad tracks. Ex.IX. Translate the following sentences. Pay special attention to the Infinitive and Infinitive Constructions. 1. The most difficult task for engineers is to find a proper strip of land for a new railroad line. 2. The first work to be undertaken is to plan the route of the future high-speed line. 3. It was a great step forward to lay continuous welded rails made of high-quality steel. 4. Special signals to be installed along the railroad line will help enginemen drive trains without accidents. 5. It was necessary for railroads to introduce an interlocking system to ensure the safety of train movements. 6. It was extremely important for railroad engineers to solve the very complicated problems of locomotive hotboxes. 7. Railway engineers are known to be improving a protective device on locomotives. 8. A special safety device is used to detect overheated journal boxes on locomotives. 9. The efficiency of electric locomotives is stated to be much higher than that of steam engines. 10. The electrification of this line is expected to be finished very soon. 11. The locomotive crew noticed the signal change red. 12. We consider railroad transport to be the most universal means of transportation.
III. SPEECH PRACTICE EXERCISES Ex.I. Answer the following questions. 1. How are locomotives classified according to the work they perform? 2. What kinds of traction power are used to drive locomotives? 31
3. What type of locomotive is considered to be the oldest one? 4. What kinds of traction power are most widely used nowadays? 5. What countries still use steam engines on their railroads? 6. What are the 2 main classes of railway cars? 7. How many passengers can a coach carry? 8. What types of cars does a passenger train include? 9. What loads can freight trains carry? 10. What is a hotbox? 11. Why are the overheated boxes so dangerous? 12. What device reduces the number of hotboxes on a locomotive? 13. What device do railroad engineers use to detect locomotive hotboxes? 14. Why don’t railcars need locomotives? 15. What kinds of motive power are used in railcars? 16. What are railcars designed to carry? Ex.II. Express the main idea of the TEXT in 5 – 7 sentences. Write your summary. Ex.III. Translate the following sentences into English. 1. Железнодорожные локомотивы делятся на магистральные, которые тянут пассажирские и грузовые поезда, и маневровые, которые переводят вагоны с одного пути на другой на сортировочных станциях. 2. Локомотивы приводятся в движение с помощью паровой, электрической, дизельэлектрической, дизель-гидравлической и газотурбинной тяги. 3. Большинство развитых стран использует дизель-электрические и электрические локомотивы на своих железных дорогах. 4. Турбо поезда перевозят пассажиров на скоростных магистральных маршрутах Франции, Германии, Италии, Испании, Японии, Канады и других стран мира. 5. Разные виды грузовых вагонов, предназначенные для перевозки любых грузов, используются на железных дорогах всего мира. 6. Железные дороги имеют поезда, оборудованные специальными устройствами для осмотра, ремонта и содержания пути. Ex.IV. Match the railroad terms and their definitions. Locomotive. Road Locomotive. Switching Locomotive. Turbo Train.
Diesel-electric Locomotive Electric Locomotive. Gas-turbine Locomotive. Diesel-hydraulic Locomotive
Steam Locomotive. Hotbox Detector. Car Coupler. Railcar
a) a locomotive which uses the force of hot gases to run turbines operating electric generators. b) a gas turbine electric train. c) a device that links cars together. d) an engine at the head of the train used to pull or push cars. e) a device installed at various points along the track to find hotboxes of locomotives. 32
f) a locomotive which uses a diesel engine to produce energy transmitted to the driving mechanism by means of high pressure fluids. g) a locomotive which gets electric power from wires suspended above the track or from the third rail. h) an engine that moves cars from track to track in rail yards. i) a railroad car with a built-in power unit. j) a locomotive which uses an oil-burning diesel engine to turn an electric generator that produces electric power. k) an engine that pulls passenger or freight trains along the railroad line. l) a locomotive which burns coal or fuel oil to produce steam. Ex.V. Retell the TEXT according to the following plan. 1. Road and switching locomotives. 2. Classification of locomotives depending upon the traction power. 3. Passenger and freight cars. 4. Railcar trains. Ex.VI. Read the text. TYPES OF TRACTION SYSTEMS By the end of the 1960’s, diesel had almost completely superseded steam as the standard railroad motive power on non-electrified lines in most parts of the world. The change came first and most quickly in North America, where during the 25 years from 1935 to 1960 (and especially 1950 – 1960), railroads in the USA completely replaced their steam locomotives. What caused the diesel to substitute the steam locomotive so rapidly was the pressure of competition from other modes of transport. They forced the railroads to improve their services and adopt every possible measure to increase operating efficiency. Compared with steam, the diesel traction unit has a number of major advantages. It can operate for long periods with no lost time for maintenance. In the USA and Canada the diesel can operate on a run of 2,000 miles or more and then start a return trip. Steam locomotives require extensive servicing after only a few hours’ operation. It uses less fuel energy than a steam locomotive, its thermal efficiency being 4 times as great. It can accelerate a train more rapidly and operate at higher speeds with less damage to the track. The diesel is superior to the steam locomotive because of its smoother acceleration, greater cleanliness, standardized repair parts and operating flexibility. A number of diesel units can be combined and run by one operator. The diesel-electric locomotive is an electric locomotive that carries its own power plant. Its use brings to a railroad the advantages of electrification, but without the capital cost of the power distribution and feed-wire system. As compared with the electric locomotive, however, the diesel-electric has an important drawback: it can develop less horsepower. Since high power is required for high-speed operation, the diesel is less desirable than the electric for top speed passenger services and very fast freight operations. Ex.VII. Discuss in your English group the topics mentioned in this text. 33
1. The reasons for shifting from steam to diesel traction. 2. Major advantages of diesel traction over steam power. 3. Advantages of the electric traction as compared with the diesel-electric one. Ex.VIII. Read the text. ELECTRIC TRACTION Efforts to propel railway vehicles using batteries date back to 1835. The first successful application of electric traction was in 1879, when an electric locomotive ran at an exhibition in Berlin. The first commercial application of electric traction was for suburban and underground railroads. In 1895, the Baltimore and Ohio Line electrified a stretch of track to avoid smoke and noise problems in a tunnel. The first country to use electric traction for main-line operations was Italy, where a system was inaugurated as early as 1902. By World War I, a number of electrified lines were operating in Europe and in the United States. Major electrification programs were undertaken in such countries as Sweden, Switzerland, Norway, Germany and Austria. By the end of the 1920’s, nearly every European country had at least a small percentage of electrified railroad lines. Electric traction was also introduced in Australia (1919), New Zealand (1923), India (1925), Indonesia (1925) and South Africa (1926). A number of subway terminals and suburban services were electrified between 1900 and 1938 in the USA, and there were a few main-line electrifications. By 1990, electrified lines had made up a significant percentage of the national railroads’ total route miles in such countries as Switzerland (99.6%), Holland (69%), Belgium (62%), Sweden (62%), Norway (60%), Italy (59%), Austria (57%), Japan (56%), Germany (46%), France (37%) and Great Britain (30%). By contrast, electrified route mileage in the USA was less than 1%. The century’s second half was also marked by the creation all over the world of many new commuter rapid-transit rail systems as well as the extension of existing networks. Ex.IX. Fill in the chart and speak about the world’s major rail electrification programs. YEAR COUNTRY / CITY % OF ELECTRIFIED ROUTES 1879 1895 1902 1919 1923 1925 1926 1900-1938 1990 Ex.X. Translate the following texts. Write your translation and read it in your English group. TURBO TRAINS A turbo train is a high-speed passenger train powered by a gas-turbine engine similar to that used in jet aircraft. Unlike conventional trains, the turbo variety does not have a separate locomotive. Its turbine power unit is small enough to be built into a passenger car. 34
A typical turbo train consists of several coaches with power units located in each of the end cars. The cars are constructed of aluminum that reduces weight and minimizes the power required for highspeed locomotion. A pendulous banking suspension system enables the turbo train to travel around corners safely and smoothly at speeds 30 to 40% faster than other types of trains. With such a suspension system, a car is suspended above its center of gravity so as to swing freely from a special frame, which causes the train to bank inward rather than outward around curves under centrifugal force. The turbo trains were designed during the early 1960’s at the United Aircraft Corporation. They were first produced at the Sikorsky Aircraft Division. These American-built turbo trains operated in the 1970’s between Boston and New York City and also provided the rail service between Montreal and Toronto. French models were built later and were operating in New York State in the 1980’s. The success of the Japanese Shinkansen high-speed electric trains and the sharp rise of fuel prices in the 1970’s caused a serious decline in the use of turbo trains. TRACK MAINTENANCE Modern machinery enables a small group of workers to maintain a relatively long stretch of railroad track. Machines are available to do all the necessary track maintenance tasks: removing and inserting ties, tamping the ballast, cleaning the ballast, excavation and replacement of worn ballast, spiking rails, tightening bolts and aligning the track. Some machines are equipped to perform more than one task: for example, ballast tamping combined with track lining and leveling. Mechanized equipment can renew rails either in conventional bolted lengths or with long welded lengths. A modern machine of this type has built-in devices to lift and pass old rails to flat cars and to bring forward and deposit new rails. Complete sections of track – rails and crossties – may be prefabricated and laid in the track by mechanical means. Rail-grinding machines run over the track to even out irregularities in the rail surface. Track-measurement cars can record all aspects of track alignment and riding quality. Detector cars move over the main-line tracks at intervals with electronic inspection apparatus to locate any flaws in the rails. The mechanization of track maintenance has caused a technological revolution comparable to the development of the diesel locomotive and electrification. Precision of operation has gained much from the application of electronics to the measuring and control devices. In Europe, highly sophisticated railroad maintenance equipment has come into general use. Ex.XI. Be ready to work on the following projects. 1. Locomotives: Kinds of Traction Power. 2. Modern Passenger and Freight Cars. 3. European Program of Railroad Electrification. UNIT 4 I. TEXT WORLD RAILROADS IN THE 20-th CENTURY With the XX century the railroad reached a high level of development. Railroad building continued on an extensive scale in some parts of the world, notably in Canada, Russia, China and Africa. But in many other countries construction declined until the second half of the century. Then it 35
was revived, first by the demand for new city transit railroads or the expansion of existing systems and from 1970, by the creation in Europe and Japan of new high-speed intercity passenger lines. The technological emphasis shifted to faster operations, more amenities for passengers, larger and more specialized freight cars, safer and more sophisticated signaling and traffic-control systems, and new types of motive power. Railroads in many advanced countries found themselves operating in intense competition with other forms of transport. In the first half of the XX century, advances in railroad technology and operating practice were limited. One of the most far-reaching was the perfection of diesel traction as a more efficient alternative to steam and as a more cost-effective option than electrification where train movements were not intensive. Another was the move from mechanical signaling and telephonic traffic-control methods to electrical systems that enabled centralized control of considerable traffic areas. Also significant was the first use of continuous welded rails, a major contribution to improved vehicle riding, to longer track life and reduced maintenance costs. From 1960, the developed world’s railroads, pressed hard by highway and air competition, progressed swiftly into a new technological age. Steam traction had been eliminated from North America and disappeared from Western Europe’s national railroads in 1968. By 1990, steam power had survived only in China, in parts of Africa and on the Indian subcontinent. China switched to electric locomotive manufacture in 1991. Diesel-electric traction had become more reliable and cheaper to run, though electric traction’s performance characteristics and operating costs were superior. In the second half of the century, new technology resulted in a steady reduction in electrification’s initial cost. Particularly influential was the successful French pioneering of electrification with a direct supply of high-voltage alternating current at the industrial frequency. This stimulated large electrification programs in China, Japan, South Korea, Russia and India. Those railroads already electrified to a considerable extent either kept their existing systems or, with the perfection of locomotives able to work with up to 4 different types of traction voltage – both alternating and direct current – adopted the high-voltage system. Another stimulus for electrification came with the sharp rise in oil prices and the realization of the risks of dependence on imported oil as fuel that followed the 1973 Middle East crisis. By 1990, only a minority of Western European trunk routes were still using diesel traction. Few industries benefited more than the railroads from the rapid advances in electronics, which has found a wide range of applications from real-time operations monitoring and customer services to computer-based traffic control. The latest technologies are widely used in the design of high-performance track and vehicles, both freight and passenger, and for the development of high-speed passenger systems to challenge air transport and the huge growth of private auto travel over improved national highways. The cost of maintaining high-quality track is reduced considerably due to the use of a wide range of mobile machinery capable of every task, from complete renewal of a line length to ballast cleaning or tamping, from ultrasonic rail flaw detection to electronic checking of track alignment. During the 1990’s, new trunk route construction was considerably active in China, India and Russia, where railroads remained the prime mover of people and freight. Increase of existing route capacity by multi-tracking and creation of new lines was essential for expanding industries and socioeconomic development. Between 1950 and 1990, China doubled the route length of its national rail system to some 33,500 miles (54,000 km); a further 1,000 miles of new lines were proposed in the railroad’s 1990 – 36
1995 program. New routes, some more than 500 miles long, were built primarily to move coal from the country’s western fields to industries and ports in the east. From 1950 to 1990, Russian Railways increased the route length from 71,000 to more than 90,000 miles. Extensions included a second Trans-Siberian Line, the 1,954-mile (3,130-km) Baikal – Amur Magistral (BAM). Begun in the late 1970’s, and for almost half its length being laid on a permafrost territory where winter temperatures can drop to – 60C, BAM carried the first trains in October 1989. In India new trunk route construction continued in the 1990’s. * * * * * Construction of new railroads for high-speed passenger trains was pioneered by Japan. In 1957, a government study concluded that the existing line between Tokyo and Osaka, built to the historic Japanese track gauge of 3 ft 6 in (1.07 m), was incapable of meeting the needs of the densely populated and industrialized Tokaido costal belt between the two cities. In April 1959, work began on a 320-mile (512-km) Tokyo – Osaka railway built with a standard gauge of 4 ft 8.5 in (1.44 m). The line was designed for the exclusive use of streamlined electric passenger trains. Running initially at a top speed of 130 mph (210 kmph), these trains were until 1981 the world’s fastest. Opened in October 1964, this first Shinkansen (New Trunk Line) was an immediate commercial success. By March 1975, it had been extended via a tunnel under the Kammon – Kaikyo Strait to Hakata in Kyushu Island, to complete a 664-mile (1,063-km) high-speed route from Tokyo. A 1973 government plan to construct up to 12 more Shinkansen made no immediate progress chiefly because of economic problems connected with the global energy crisis. However, two further Shinkansen, the Tohoku and Joetsu, were inaugurated in 1982; three more extensions were begun in 1991. Shinkansen top speed has been raised since the opening of the Tokyo – Osaka Line: it is 150 mph (240 kmph) on both Tohoku and Joetsu, and it reaches 171 mph (274 kmph) on one stretch. Except for its automatic speed-control signaling system, the first Shinkansen was essentially a development of the traction, vehicle and infrastructure technology of the 1960’s. France’s first highspeed line, or Train a Grand Vitesse (TGV), from Paris to Lyon, partially opened in September 1981 and completed in October 1983, was the product of integrated infrastructure and train design based on more than 20 years of research. Dedication of the new line to a single type of high-powered, lightweight train set with in-built traction enabled design of the track with gradients as steep as 3.5%, thus minimizing construction costs, without detriment to a 168 mph (270 kmph) top speed. The second high-speed line, the TGV-Atlantique, from Paris to junctions near Le Mans and Tours, was opened in 1989 – 1990. It was built with easier ruling gradients, allowing the maximum operating speed to be raised to 186 mph (300 kmph). During 1991, three further TGV lines were being built. The French government approved construction of 14 more lines under a master plan that would extend TGV service from Paris to all major French cities, interconnect key provincial centers and plug the French TGV network into the high-speed systems of the neighboring countries. They included Great Britain, to which a rail tunnel under the English Channel was opened in 1993. This tunnel railway is directly connected to a new TGV route, but a modern high-speed line from London via the Channel Tunnel to Paris and Brussels would not be completed until the XXI century. The Netherlands government approved plans for new lines to connect its western group of cities with both the Paris – London – Brussels high-speed triangle and the rapid intercity network created in Germany. In 1991, Germany completed the Hannover – Wurzburg and the Mannheim – Stuttgart rapidtransit lines designed to carry both 174-mph (280-kmph) passenger and 100-mph (160-kmph) freight 37
trains. Further new line construction is under way and planned for Germany’s most heavily trafficked corridor, Cologne – Frankfurt-am-Main, and between Hannover – Berlin. In Italy the last stretch of a high-speed line from Rome to Florence, designed for 186-mph (300kmph) top speed, was finished in 1992. The first segment of it had been opened in 1977, but progress was slowed down by severe geological problems encountered in the project’s tunneling. After some controversy over finance, a mixed holding company of the National Italian Railways and European banks was established in 1990 to extend the high-speed line north from Florence to Milan and south from Rome to Naples, and to build a new high-speed west-east route from Turin to Milan and Venice. In 1992, Spain completed a new 186-mph (300-kmph) line between Madrid and Seville. The line was built not to the country’s traditional broad gauge of 5ft 6in (1.68 m), but to the European standard. It is fitted with the French TGV design trains. Outside Europe, South Korea and Taiwan were firmly committed to the construction of new highspeed passenger lines at the start of the 1990’s. Lines were planned to run between Seoul and Pusan and between Kao-Shiung and Taipei. Several other countries, including China, had pushed proposals for high-speed intercity projects. From the 1970’s, such schemes were advanced in the USA, but by 1990, the only state close to overcoming all political, financial and environmental problems was Texas. A private enterprise consortium was established by the High Speed Rail Authority to develop the first Dallas – Houston segment of the Dallas – Fort Worth – Houston – San Antonio – Austin network based on the TGV technology. The line is designed for the top speed of 200 mph (320 kmph). In the 1990’s, the Quebec and Ontario governments of Canada were studying the feasibility of a private enterprise proposal to construct a TGV-based, high-speed system connecting the cities of Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa and Toronto. In the last quarter of the century, the gulf between the technologies and efficiency of the industrialized and developing nations’ railroads was widening. In some African countries the national railroads were close to collapse because of the lack of adequate funds for their maintenance, renewal and construction. VOCABULARY 1. to reach a high level 2. rapid transit railroads 3. high-speed intercity lines 4. specialized cars 5. sophisticated signaling 6. traffic control systems 7. intense competition 8. cost-effective option 9. maintenance costs 10. to challenge 11. electric current high-voltage ~ direct ~ alternating ~ 12. trunk rail route 13. high-performance track
– достичь высокого уровня – скоростные железные дороги – скоростные междугородние линии – специализированные вагоны – сложнейшие системы сигнализации – системы управления транспортом – жесткая конкуренция – экономичная альтернатива – эксплуатационные расходы – оспаривать, бросать вызов – электрический ток – ~ высокого напряжения – постоянный ~ – переменный ~ – магистральная железнодорожная трасса – путь высокого технологического качества 38
15. track alignment 16. route capacity
определение с помощью оборудования – рихтовка пути – пропускная способность
дефектов рельсов ультразвукового
17. multi-tracking – строительство многопутных линий 18. permafrost territory – территория вечной мерзлоты 19. to meet the needs – соответствовать требованиям 20. streamlined trains – поезда аэродинамической формы 21. to inaugurate – торжественно открывать 22. railway junction – узловая железнодорожная станция 23. to interconnect key centers – связать друг с другом главные центры 24. heavily trafficked corridor – трасса с интенсивным движением 25. controversy over finance – финансовые противоречия, разногласия II. VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR EXERCISES Ex.I. Study VOCABULARY after the TEXT. Find in the TEXT sentences with VOCABULARY units. Read and translate them into Russian. Ex.II. Substitute the underlined words with the synonyms from the TEXT. 1. Construction of railroads in the second half of the 20-th century developed fast due to the requirements of new rapid transit rail lines. 2. Railroads shifted to the new types of traction. 3. Railroads are working in intense competition with other modes of transportation. 4. The use of long welded rails is very important for the better riding of vehicles and durability of track. 5. France was the first country to design a completely new electrification program. 6. By 1990, only a small number of European main line rail routes were still using diesel traction. 7. In China, India and Russia railroads still remain the major carrier of both people and loads. 8. Building of new railroads for fast passenger trains was started by Japan. 9. Since the opening of the Tokyo – Osaka main line in 1964, the maximum speeds of Shinkansen trains have been raised from 130 mph to 171 mph. 10. The first French TGV high-speed line was the result of more than two decades of scientific investigation. 11. The new German high-speed lines are engineered to transport both people and load. 12. After some financial disagreement and solving hard geological problems, Italy founded an international company to build the north and south extensions of the existing fast intercity railroad system. Ex. III. Find pairs of synonyms. 1. to decline 2. to revive 3. demand
a. progress b. to be founded c. better and higher 39
4. advance d. profit 5. significant e. to design 6. prime f. requirement 7. superior g. volume 8. realization h. control 9. benefit i. to promote 10. monitoring j. unable 11. to engineer k. to open 12. mover l. to decrease 13. to foster m. carrier 14. capacity n. major 15. incapable o. disagreement 16. to inaugurate p. understanding 17. to be faced with q. possibility 18. controversy r. to renew 19. to be established s. to encounter 20. feasibility t. important Ex.IV. Complete the following sentences using prepositions, conjunctions and adverbs given below. Some of these words may be used more than once. and, at, by, for, generally, in, now, of over, so, under, with It is necessary … railroads to utilize some means … spacing trains … safe distances to provide trains … a clear track. The method … … … use to achieve this aim is called the block system. A block is a length … track … a definite limit, its use being controlled … block signals. All block signals are … … electronic control. Further developments controlling train movements are Centralized Traffic Control (CTC) … interlocking systems. CTC centralizes dispatching … a given point, a dispatcher controlling train movements … an extensive area. An interlocking is an arrangement … signal appliances … interconnected, that their work must succeed each other … predetermined order. All these devices are designed to increase the safety … efficiency … train operation. Ex.V. Complete the table. VERBS
PARTICIPLES I and II
REDUCE PRESS DISAPPEAR SURVIVE PERFORM INFLUENCE DEPEND CHALLENGE CONTINUE 40
PROGRESS Ex.VI. Read the text below. Use the words given in Capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. Railroads use signals and _____ other means of controlling train _____ . The chief purpose of traffic control is to prevent accidents and to make railroad _____ faster, more efficient and _____. Most railroad signals consist of colored lights alongside or over the track. Each color has a _____ meaning. Most railroads have adopted some form of the block signal system. The system is designed _____ to keep a safe distance between trains _____ on the same track. Most blocks range from 1 to 2 miles. Only one train is _____ to be in a block at a time. Colored-light signals control _____ to the block. No train may proceed from one block to the next without an all-clear signal. Automatic block _____ systems are used on all tracks where _____ trains travel at speeds of 60 mph and more and where freight trains move at speeds of 50 mph and over. The _____ of automatic block signaling makes human errors practically _____. Besides, it is much _____ and more reliable than the manual one.
VARY MOVE OPERATE RELY DIFFER CHIEF TRAVEL ALLOW ENTER SIGNAL PASS
APPLY POSSIBLE SAFE
Ex.VII. Find in the TEXT English equivalents of the following Russian word-combinations. - высокий уровень развития - удобство, комфорт для пассажиров - сложнейшая система сигнализации и блокировки - работать в условиях жесткой конкуренции с другими видами транспорта - достижения, прогресс в железнодорожной технологии - централизованный контроль движения транспорта - конкуренция со стороны автомобильного и воздушного транспорта - более надежный - особенно влиятельный - переменный ток высокого напряжения промышленной частоты - в значительной степени - путь и подвижной состав высокого качества - эксплуатационные затраты - замена участка линии, подбивка балласта и рихтовка пути - главный перевозчик пассажиров и грузов 41
- увеличение пропускной способности трассы - социально – экономическое развитие региона - густо населенные и промышленно развитые прибрежные территории - мгновенный коммерческий успех - интеграция путевой инфраструктуры и конструкции поезда - встроенный энергоблок - руководящий градиент (уклон) - генеральный план развития - участок пути с максимально напряженным движением - преодолеть политические, финансовые и экологические разногласия - консорциум частных предприятий - геологические проблемы, связанные с ведением туннельных работ - последняя четверть 20 века - разрыв в технологиях и эффективности Ex.VIII. Change Active Constructions into Passive. 1. By the XX century, the world’s railroads have reached a very high level of their development. 2. Engineers designed sophisticated signaling and traffic control systems. 3. Railroads are using new types of motive power. 4. Railroad engineers worked out larger and more specialized freight cars. 5. The use of continuous welded rails has greatly improved vehicles’ riding qualities and has essentially reduced maintenance costs. 6. France pioneered a basically new railroad electrification program in the second half of the XX century. 7. Engineers used the latest scientific technologies to design high-performance track structure and rolling stock. 8. In the 1990’s, China, Russia and India were carrying out new trunk route construction programs. 9. Russia laid the Baikal – Amur Magistral (BAM) on permafrost territory. 10. BAM carried the first trains in 1989. 11. Japan designed the first high-speed passenger trains in the world. 12. The Japanese authorities opened the first Shinkansen line in October 1964. 13. France completed its TGV line between Paris and Lyon in October 1983. 14. A rail tunnel under the English Channel joined the high-speed rail networks of England and France. 15. Germany plans to use its top-speed trains in the most heavily trafficked corridor. 16. Italy established a mixed holding company to build high-speed passenger routes between Florence and Milan and from Rome to Naples. 17. In 1992, Spain constructed the Madrid – Seville Line and used a standard European gauge. 18. Canada is studying a proposal to build a high-speed rail system to connect Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa and Toronto. III. SPEECH PRACTICE EXERCISES Ex.I. Answer the following questions. 42
1. What are the most significant achievements of railroads in the first half of the XX century? 2. Why did railway construction decline in the beginning of the century? 3. Why was it revived in the second half of the century? 4. Where was the technological emphasis shifted? Why? 5. What changes in rail traction took place in the 1960’s? 6. What country pioneered a new electrification program for railroads? 7. How did the French program influence other countries’ railroads? 8. How did railroads benefit from rapid advances in electronics? 9. What was the role of mobile machinery for the maintenance of high-quality track? 10. Speak about extensive trunk route construction in China. 11. Why did the Japanese government decide to build a new national high-speed railroad network? 12. What is the total length of Japan’s rail network? 13. What cities does it connect nowadays? 14. What speeds is the line designed for? 15. What is the major difference between the Shinkansen of Japan and the TGV of France? 16. When was the second French high-speed line, the TGV-Atlantique, opened? 17. What is the role of the Channel Tunnel for the European passenger railway network? 18. What programs do Germany, Italy and Spain develop for their national railroad systems? 19. What countries outside Europe are especially interested in top-speed passenger transportation programs? 20. What difficulties do they face? Ex.II. Express the main idea of the TEXT in 5 –7 sentences. Write your summary. Ex.III. Translate the following sentences into English. 1. К концу 20 века железные дороги достигли высокого уровня развития и могли успешно конкурировать с автомобильным, воздушным и морским транспортом. 2. Использование новых технологий для строительства высоко качественной путевой инфраструктуры и комфортабельных пассажирских вагонов, применение сложнейших систем сигнализации и автоматического контроля, строительство сверхскоростных магистральных линий – это лишь некоторые итоги развития железных дорог в 20 веке. 3. Переход на дизель-электрическую и электрическую тягу, установка систем централизованного диспетчерского контроля, использование длинных сварных рельсов привело к значительному снижению эксплуатационных затрат и существенно повысило надежность, безопасность и скорость железных дорог. 4. Японские линии Shinkansen сыграли важную роль в создании национальной сети скоростных железных дорог в стране. 5. Франция – мировой лидер по строительству сверхскоростных магистральных линий для пассажирских поездов дальнего следования. 6. После преодоления финансовых, геологических и экологических проблем, программы по строительству скоростных железнодорожных линий были приняты в Германии, Италии, Испании, Южной Корее, Канаде, США.
7. Программы по электрификации железных дорог во Франции, Германии, Великобритании, Италии, Испании, Японии, Китае, России, Канаде значительно увеличили скорости движения поездов и пропускную способность линий. 8. Это повысило роль железной дороги как главного перевозчика пассажиров и грузов на большие расстояния. Ex.IV. Fill in the chart and speak about the most notable railroad projects of the XX century. YEAR
COUNTRY CHINA JAPAN FRANCE GERMANY ITALY SPAIN CANADA RUSSIA USA
Ex.V. Retell the TEXT according to the following plan. 1. The most significant events of the XX century: a) change of traction; b) creation of Centralized Traffic Control (CTC); c) use of continuous welded rails. 2. The extensive railroad construction programs of China and Russia. 3. High-speed passenger trains of the Japanese Shinkansen. 4. The French national program of super-speed trains. 5. Development of railroads in Germany, the UK, Italy and Spain. 6. American chapter in the construction of high-speed trunk lines. Ex.VI. Read the following text and fill in the spaces in the sentences, using the words and the word-combinations given below. safety devices Centralized Traffic Control automatic train stop automatic train control automatic block signals stop signal caution signal two-way radio systems satellite-based system
electric diagrams distant train yards central control station siding train’s exact location two-way traffic required speed train crews safely, speedily and efficiently
SYSTEMS OF TRAFFIC CONTROL 44
One of the most advanced signal systems is called … (CTC). It uses … for trains following one another on the same track. But all other signals and switches on the line are controlled from a … . This station has one or more … that show the present location of every train on a line. CTC operators study the diagrams to decide how to route the trains as … as possible. The operators direct trains by setting the necessary signals and switches. CTC makes it possible to use single-track lines efficiently for … . If two trains are headed toward one another on the same track, a CTC operator switches one of them to a … until the other train passes. In addition to signal lights along the track, some railroads have signals providing the same information on the panels of locomotives. These signals may also work in connection with … . One such device is the … (ATS). The ATS puts on a train’s brakes automatically if the engine driver fails to notice a … . Another safety device, called … (ATC), automatically controls a train’s speed. If the engine driver fails to notice a …, the ATC puts on brakes to slow the train to the … . Many railroads use advanced communication systems to help control the movement of trains. … on trains allow crew members to communicate from one end of the train to the other. … use more powerful two-way radio systems to talk to … and stations. In the mid-1980’s, railroads began to experiment with advanced train control systems. These systems use satellites or electronic transmitting devices to determine a … . In the 1990’s, some world railroads adopted a … called the Advanced Railroad Electronic System (ARES) to improve train control and dispatching. Ex.VII. Speak about the most important systems and devices used to ensure safety, speed and efficiency of railroads: CTC, ATS, ATC and ARES. Ex.VIII. Translate the following text about the future of railroads. Write your translation and read it in your English group. THE FUTURE OF RAILROADS For more than a century the railroad was the dominant form of land transportation in much of the world. It was and remains the one land carrier that can carry almost anything anywhere, and do it at a cost lower than other types of land or air traffic. Today, however, other modes of transport have been developed to the point at which they can do certain transportation jobs more effectively than the railroads. Pipelines can carry liquids and some solids over long distances economically. Airplanes, with their great speed, can carry some types of light, valuable freight at a saving. Trucks offer speed and flexibility, especially for short and medium hauls. Private automobiles, running over modern highways, and the airplanes have taken over much passenger traffic formerly handled by rails. Modern barges, operating on improved inland waterways, can move a lot of commodities over specific routes at very low costs. Undeniably, these competitors of the railroad can do a better job on some types of transportation tasks. The development of these newer modes has changed the role of the railroad from that of the general-purpose carrier to that of a more specialized carrier. The future role of railroads will vary in different countries. In general, however, the railroad is particularly strong in the following areas. 1. It is especially effective in moving large volumes of bulk commodities, such as coal, ores, chemicals and grain. When there are facilities for rapid train loading and unloading, the railroad can be competitive over short distances. In Britain, one such coal – mine – to – electricity – generating – 45
station operation involves a distance of only 30 miles. Railroads can also move large volumes of finished goods economically at relatively high speeds over medium to long distances. 2. The railroad can efficiently handle containers of large volumes between major centers in some countries. For this purpose, special trans-shipment terminals equipped for easy and rapid transfer from railcar to truck have been created. Commodities to be transferred include steel, forestry, paper products and new automobiles. 3. Railroads in the industrialized world have learned that to compete with trucks for high-value freight, such as components for automobile industry or food for retail markets, they must not only promise fast transit times but also keep to schedule with the same precision as passenger trains. 4. The railroad is the best mode of transport for moving commuter passengers between big metropolitan centers and the outlying suburban areas. 5. Very-high-speed intercity passenger services can be successful with modern equipment at medium to long distances. In Western Europe, Japan and the New York City – Washington, D.C., corridor of the USA, railroad intercity passenger business has been successfully increased due to a combination of high speed, more comfortable and smoother-riding cars and greater frequency of service. With its TGV operation, the French National Railways have proved that trains can regain considerable traffic from airlines over intercity distances of up to 400 miles. There are plans to raise the distance at which air travel is powerfully challenged to 650 miles. In short, the railroad under modern conditions is at its best as a high-volume high-speed carrier of both passengers and freight. * * * * * In looking at the future place of railroads, three other factors should be noted. 1. Railroads disturb the natural environment less than highways or air transport systems. They produce less pollutants than either automobiles or airplanes. These factors have become more significant as society increasingly concerns itself with the need to preserve the environment and to reduce air, water and noise pollution. 2. Railroads are more efficient in the use of fuel than either highway or air transportation. Concern over the best use of these resources forces many countries to place more emphasis on rail transportation. 3. While much public money has gone into technological research on the newer forms of transportation and into constructing facilities for them, in all but a few countries relatively little has been spent to improve railroad technology and infrastructure. Thus, even the most advanced of today’s railroads and services, with very few exceptions, do not represent the best that is possible from the railroad. Ex.IX. Be ready to work on the following projects. 1. Railroads in the 20-th Century: Results and Prospects. 2. The World Leaders in High-Speed Passenger Transportation: France, Germany, Italy, Great Britain, Spain and Japan. 3. Great Railroad States: Russia and China.
СПИСОК ИСТОЧНИКОВ И ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ Основная литература: 1. Тарануха Н.А. Английский язык для транспортных специальностей вузов. Базовый профессиональный курс. II том. М:. «Солон-Пресс» «Библиотека студента» 2011г. 288с. 2. Хведченя Л.В. Английский язык для поступающих в ВУЗы. Минск, «Высшая школа» 2008г. 345 с. 3. Христорождественская Л.П. Практический курс английского языка для начинающих.(2 части). Минск, ООО «Попурри» 2008 г. 379стр., 408 с. Дополнительная литература: 1. Evans V. Round-Up. English Grammar Practice Books 4, 5, 6 / V. Evans. – Addison Wesley Longman Limited, 2001. 2. Fisher L. Tracks Across America: The Story Of The American Railroad 1825-900 / L. Fisher. – USA, 1992. 3. Spangenburg R., Moser D.K. The Story Of America’s Railroads / R. Spangenburg, D.K. Moser. – Facts on File, USA, 1991. 4. Armstrong J. The Railroad – What It Is. What It Does / J. Armstrong. – Boardman, USA, 1993. 5. Spangenburg R., Moser D.K. The Story Of America’s Railroads / R. Spangenburg, D.K. Moser. – Facts on File, USA, 1991. 6. Drury G.H. Guide To North American Steam Locomotives / G.H. Drury. – Kalmbach, USA, 1993. 7. Uyera O.A. Diesel Engine / O.A. Uyera. – University Of Wisconsin, USA, 1997. 8. Vernon P.R. Electric Railroad / P.R. Vernon. – Mechanical Engineering, University Of Florida, USA, 1999. 9. The World Book Multimedia Encyclopedia. – Chicago, USA, 1997. 10. Encyclopedia Britannica CD. Standart edition CD. – Oxford University Press, UK, 2001. Интернет – ресурсы: http://enterprise.alcatel-lucent.com/private/images/public/si/pdf_globalRailways.pdf www.macmillanenglish.com www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/leamingenglish www.britishcouncil.org/learning-elt-resources.htm www.developingteachers.com (lesson plans, tips, articles and more) www.longman.com www.oup.com/elt/naturalenglish
www. oup. com/elt/englishfile www, oup. com/elt/ wordskills www.cambridgeenglishonline.com