1 African Journal of Business Management Vol. 7(4), pp , 28 January, 2013 Available online at DOI: /AJBM ISSN Academic ...
African Journal of Business Management Vol. 7(4), pp. 250-259, 28 January, 2013 Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJBM DOI: 10.5897/AJBM12.680 ISSN 1993-8233 ©2013 Academic Journals
Full Length Research Paper
Organizational image as a crucial factor in the organizational efficiency of education faculties of state universities: A sample of Education Faculty of Pamukkale University in Turkey Ali Rıza ERDEM Pamukkale University, Education Faculty, Kinikli Campus, Denizli, TURKEY. E-mail: [email protected]
Tel: (0258) 2961137. Fax: (0258) 2961200. Accepted 12 November, 2012
The aim of the study is to put forward the current and future images of the Education Faculty of PAU according to its internal and external participants. The model is “the case study”. Of the pool of the participants, 223 people were involved in the study. The data obtained were processed with thematic content analysis. According to the internal and external participants’ perceptions, the first leading three images which define the current position of the Education Faculty of PAU are as follows: (1) remaining as an institution / faculty of education for training teachers, (2) remaining as a faculty is to ever develop due to non-stop efforts of development and (3) remaining as a leader in the education faculties by producing proficient teachers for the society. The first current three images of the Education Faculty of PAU for participants are crucial for the administration of the faculty itself because it clearly indicates that the faculty has already established a virtual image over the present status. According to the participants’ perceptions, the first three images of the future status of the Education faculty of PAU are also as follows: (1) training fully qualified teachers in all aspects, (2) a faculty which has already completed its infra-structure base and (3) reaching a respectful place internally and internationally. According to the participants, the first three images to define the future status of the Education Faculty of PAU are highly guiding in clarifying the futuristic destination which the internal and external participants wish to take the faculty to and in clearing the picture of target point in the future. Key words: The Education Faculty of PAU, internal and external participants, organizational image.
INTRODUCTION Education faculties in state universities are quite similar to each other in many respects, such as mission, administrative function and target groups. Besides, for an education faculty to have a positive and remarkable organizational image is a vital point that distinguishes them from many other education faculties, for it is a priority base for the target groups who will prefer the state‟s education faculties. A virtual organizational image is now a must in an ever-changing world with institutional competition. In addition, in order to realize virtual organizational image of a state‟s education faculty, it is also crucial to establish a relevant appearance as well as functional effect in the structure.
Organizational image and efficiency Organizations now largely tend to establish a trustworthy trend in their covered areas to prove themselves better in order to get a chance of being an initial preference. It should also be noted that the perceptions of target group about the organizational participants‟ minds are critical in preference provision on the grounds that such factors building up an organizational image lead to the viewing of the institution itself as a compilation of experiments, beliefs, impressions, technical details and positive and negative thoughts. Organizational image is a means of perception by workers of the image group and target
group itself (Ayhan and Karatepe, 2000; Abratt and Mofokeng, 2001; Nguyen and Leblanc, 2002; Aktan, 2006) as well as the approach of the internal and external participants of the organization. Organizational image could undoubtedly turn out to be neutral or negative. It should also be taken into consideration that major constituents of an organizational image are organizational outlook and organizational treatment. Organizational image should include certain other points such as mission, vision, products, provisions, administrative system, and ways of communication, which are appointed by the organization as well as the common satisfaction of the participants. Along with the perceptive image of the organization, there certainly exists a desired image, as well. While the perceptive image is the type which the participants perceive, the latter, that is the desired image, is the target point of the organization itself (Peltekoğlu, 2001; Laura, 2005; Aktan, 2006). Among the well-known approaches in defining the term “efficiency”, to get the best result is by using sources in the best way. Bernard (1948) studies the subject in a different way and explains that the individuals are the “efficiency” wing of the organization and their efforts are the “effectiveness” of the organization (Cameron, 1986; Thibodeaux and Favilla, 1996; Aydin, 1998). According to Başaran (1996), the term “effectiveness” could be used not only in terms of organization but administration itself as well: (1) Organizational effectiveness in an organization is realizing its target at the highest possible point by using its own sources (2) Administrative effectiveness is the administration of an organization built compatibly for realizing organizational effectiveness. The idea of organizational effectiveness is especially important for non-profit organizations as most people who donate money to non-profit and charity organizations are interested in knowing whether the organizations are effective in accomplishing their goals (Bryson, 1995; Aktan, 1997; Herman and Renz, 1998). For a real success, it should also be noted that an intense interaction be established within the organizations because a virtual image of an organization is to make a great contribution by adding authorization and transparency to get organizational efficiency. It is a well known fact that strategies for realizing targets will essentially make it easier for internal and external participants to have full comprehension (Bryson, 1995; Aktan 1997; Herman and Renz, 1998; Gadot, 2003). A remarkable factor in organizational image of the state’s education faculties An organizational outlook, the vision of the organization is a crucial factor of organizational image. The term “vision” is a frequently used term in administration; which is not only a creative stress to us, our way and ideas, but also an ultimate effective factor of reality. It may also mean a picture that defines how the future will be and what must
be. It also necessitates a detailed study like a puzzle to bring so-called unrelated pieces together (Kozlu, 1996; Çetinkaya and, Gülmez, 1999; Ozden, 1998; Redhouse, 1998; Pat, 2001, Karaman, 2005). Vision is a prediction and picture on the future. It is more valuable to share vision. A shared vision is like a piston which pushes people rather than being a value. What inspires that power could be a brilliant idea. However, once it starts to move, it leaves its concrete meaning by turning into a concrete shape which is available to touch (provided it is pushing and gaining the support of more than one persons). Shared visions get their energy by using joint movements to realize them (Senge, 1993; Toktamısoglu, 2001). The visions which should primarily be taken over by teachers will also surely determine the visions which train themselves. With globalization, in today‟s modern world, vision of teachers has also changed a lot. Instead of traditionalism in visions of teachers, “modernist” movement has notably been put forward. As a result, teachers are expected not only to be open to innovations in education and training world but also to put them into practice. Moreover, as a result of technology which is the main step of the current globalization process, teachers also should be able to use modern technology to realize their vision. In parallel with the mission, a modernist movement in the education faculties should be put forward instead of a traditional one, as it is a crucial vision for an education faculty to use modern technology in training new generations of teachers. Vision of the education faculties at the state universities which train teachers in needed branches in the society is of great importance in obtaining effectiveness. The most immediate target of the education faculties in state universities is to train fully qualified teachers in the preservice process. Other targets include the provision of national and international contribution to science education through scientific studies and to meet certain educational needs of society or institutions. Education faculties in state universities would also indicate their own distinction by putting forward their visions. Although they may completely be distinct from each other in terms of performance, staff, geographical situations, administration, perception, interpretation of education and training and potential of their students, they are setup by the state itself for the same purpose. For this reason, education faculties in the state universities are expected to put forward their distinction in the form of their vision that determines the desired point in the future. The Faculty of Education, Pamukkale University This institution was founded as Denizli Teachers School for Girls in 1957 which is named “The Education Faculty of Pamukkale University” today. It was later called Denizli Education Academy, through a law registration number
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2547, which was a part of The University of Dokuz Eylul, Buca Education Faculty. Then through another law with registration number 3837, dated 3rd July, 1992, following the foundation of Pamukkale University, it was activated with “Primary School Teaching, Department of Education, Faculty of Pamukkale University” on 10th November, 1992. With its experience of nearly a half century, The Education Faculty of Pamukkale University has an important place among experienced and well known universities of education faculty in the country. In the study, certain current and futuristic images of The Education Faculty of Pamukkale University (PAU) are studied by thoroughly evaluating its most prominent “internal and external participants”, a term which points out all concerned groups in or out of the faculty. The most prominent factors which are included in the search focus are as follows: (1) Faculty administrator (the dean, the vice dean, chiefs of departments and vice chiefs, heads of science branches, the faculty secretary, the chief), (2) Academic staff (professors, associate professors, assistant professors, instructors, assistants, teaching staff, specialists), (3) Office staff (officers, technicians, janitors) and (4) Students (undergraduates and postgraduates). The most prominent factors included in the search focus are as follows, as well: (1) Administrators at Denizli Directory Office of the Ministry of Education (the director, the deputy director, officer head, the chief of inspectors of primary school education and the vice chief), (2) Principals at state‟s schools and private ones in Denizli (high school principals and first vice principals and other deputies, principals and vice principals of kindergartens), (3) Teachers at state‟s schools and private ones in Denizli (kindergartens teachers, primary school teachers, branch teachers), (4) Inspectors of primary schools, (5) Graduates of Education Faculty of Pamukkale Universities (PAU), (6) Parents of graduates of Education Faculty of Pamukkale University (PAU) and (7) Administrators of civil organizations in Denizli (administrators of education unions, volunteer associations, media, administrators of chambers). The problem sentence What are the current and future images which define the Education Faculty of PAU according to its internal and external participants? The sub-problems in this respect are: (1) What are the current images which define the Education Faculty of PAU? (2) What are the future images which define the Education Faculty of PAU? THE METHOD The model of the search The model search is “the case study”. In other words, according to
Yin (1984), it could be expressed as follows (as cited in Yildirim and Simsek, 2005): (1) It is a search method which studies the current process within its structure (content). (2) It is also a state in which an edge exists between the case and the content. (3) It is a preferable method to be used on occasions where there are enough amounts of database and evidence. Finally, “the case study” could surely be expressed to be a method allowing the researcher to study the matter or the case exhaustively by taking the questions “how?” and “Why?” into consideration. Like in many qualitative searching methods, existence of the case study will be relatively on a “small-scale” which obviously results from case studies being exhaustive and detailed search methods (Yildirim and Simsek, 2005). The data gained were collected randomly and, through “the case study”, chosen by group modeling method. Of all the internal and external participants of the Education Faculty of PAU, totally 223 people were chosen for modeling and were included in the inquiry (Table 1). Of the internalparticipants of the Education Faculty of PAU, totally 118 people were chosen for modeling and the inquiry, among whom are students, administrative staff and academic executives. Of the external participants of the Education Faculty of PAU, totally 105 people were chosen for modeling and the inquiry among whom are Denizli Office of Ministry of Education (MEM), state and private schools‟ principals and teaching staff, primary teaching inspector, graduates, students‟ parents and exclusives of certain civil organizations. The gathering of data, validity, reliability and analysis The perceptions of internal and external participants of the Education Faculty of PAU were obtained by “open ended inquiry”. Since, according to “the case study”, those who are included in the inquiry were required to give “creative (original) and virtual answers”, one of the ways to realize them was the “inquiry process”, indeed. According to Bryson‟s (1995) model, used for gathering data, which is also called “model in strategic planning for state‟s institutions and other non-profit organizations”, fictitious images are given place to overcome by studying the internal and external participants of the faculty, in the light of the data already obtained. Because such a process could not be adapted to by the individuals who were studied with an “open ended inquiry”, the questions: “what are the current images which define The Education Faculty of PAU and what are the future images which define the Education Faculty of PAU?” were given place instead. The inquiry was used for the volunteers, all of whom had already been evaluated for modeling beforehand. Certain questions in their mind were answered face to face. Meanwhile, the open ended inquiry was continued with volunteers and by persuading other individuals to be included until the number of models in the case study group, which had been chosen randomly and rationalized with model groups, was achieved at the desired level. The data obtained from internal and external shareholders in the Education Faculty, Pamukkale University were subjected to thematic content analysis process. Here are the steps followed in the course of the study. 1. Titling step: In this step, the declarations of the internal and external shareholders of the Education Faculty of PAU through sampling and the open-ended poll were studied in images of whether they pointed to a significant reality. Throughout the evaluation process, the image in the open-ended poll was marked in color pencils. Meanwhile, the terms in the poll not pointing out an image or not written ones were titled as “not question coded”. 2. Sorting out step: In this process, by using content analysis method, similarities and common points preferred by the internal and external participants at PAU Education Faculty were analyzed. Meanwhile, all of the participants were seen not to point to an
Table 1. Model ranges.
image while some used unclear expressions to mention the image. 3. Reorganizing: In this stage, totally 241 produced current images and totally 257 produced desired images were pinpointed after sorting a number of non-problematic, vague and obscure expressions out. Then, in the third stage, these images were put into order, some of which were declared by only one participant while some others were invariably declared by more than one participants. 4. Building up concerned themes: By collecting the coded images under certain categories, the themes concerned were built up and each of them was supported by another matter declared by at least one participant. Meanwhile, it was considered vital that each theme should be different from one another while making up considerable harmony as a whole. In the section of “findings”, the image identifications were grouped and 84 different groups of current images and 67 different groups of desired images identifications were obtained, which were heavily categorized by considering (a) that each matter was identified by at least one participant (b) the criteria that each matter was declared by parallel identifications. 5. Obtaining validity and confidence: To gain virtual validity for the research, the participants were offered open-ended questions which would provide trustworthy, original and objective knowledge. The data obtained through the participants both from the Education Faculty of PAU and outside were exposed to the analysis of thematic content by grouping the codes under certain categories and each of the themes was invariably supported with the matters identified by at least one participant. Meanwhile, it was also considered vital that these themes should be distinct from one another while making up considerable harmony as a whole. Concerning the validity of the study, the research process was identified in a detailed way so as to allow the obtained analysis result for an evaluation. On the other hand, opinions of specialists were taken into consideration as to whether the concerned themes completely match with the current and future images which define the Education Faculty of PAU. 6. Expression in percentages: Each theme was rated in certain percentages; however, these ratings could not be available for use in statistical comparisons in a quantitative study, but they are suitable for listings or counseling works as the result of qualitative research.
Civil organization of administrators
Graduates & parents of student
Private schools‟ teachers
State‟s schools‟ teachers
Private schools‟ administrators
State‟s schools‟ administrators
Administrators of MEM
Management staff 4
The total number
Total of external participants of the faculty
External participants of the faculty Totals of internal participants of the faculty
Internal participants of the faculty
FINDINGS AND INTERPRETATION With thematic analysis of the datum of the study, certain findings have been reached and interpreted in the following lines. The current images of the Education Faculty of PAU according to participants The total number of made up images is 241. According to the participants‟ perception, the images which define the “current” trend in the Education Faculty of PAU are categorized in 84 groups (Table 2). As a result of the analysis of the data gained from the participants in the study, 84 distance image groups have been reached which explains the current trend in the Education Faculty of Pamukkale University. Among those images, the most stressed one, with 19.50%, is “An education institution/faculty which trains teachers”. Briefly, the participants regard the Education Faculty of PAU as an image which does not contradict its main function and it does not include any positive-negative meaning. The second most leading image, with 12.86%, is “a faculty which is steadily developing and with the effort of ever-developing”, which draws a positive image about the Education Faculty of PAU. The third most leading image, with 8.71%, is “one of the education faculties which train “qualified teachers”; participants in this image attribute the Education Faculty of PAU to positive qualifications of the teacher which it has trained. The fourth most leading image, with 5.35%, is “one of the casual education faculties which try to train teachers”. The image mentioned is negative because the
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Table 2. The images which define the “current” trend in The Education Faculty of PAU.
Images 1. An education institution / faculty which trains teachers 2. A faculty which is steadily developing and in the effort of ever-development 3. One of the education faculties which train “qualified teachers” 4. One of the casual education faculties which tries to train teachers 5. An educational institutions which trains casual teachers 6. An important and established unit of PAU which trains teachers with a considerable background 7. Development & improvement 8. A unit which contributes a lot to Denizli City 9. An insufficient, repetitive and unqualified education service 10. A faculty which tries to push the student 11. No an existing image 12. A faculty which is in too much insufficiency 13. An army on unemployment teachers 14. Crowd and exhaustion 15. Courses and examinations 16. Incapable of physical infrastructure and very few efficient staff 17. A weaker faculty in research and education service compared with scientific global criteria 18. Analyses on education 19. Too many courses 20. Contemporary, futuristic and sincere 21. Financial matters to get over 22. A qualified education service 23. The most successful faculty at KPSS exam with its graduates 24. Old buildings and a good education service 25. Development & change 26. Satisfying 27. I have no idea 28. One of the rarest education faculties which bears a nostalgic mood of teaching training schools in the past 29. The faculty which includes the biggest number of students in PAU 30. A traditional place where institutionalism couldn‟t established 31. A socially respected institution which performs in YOK‟s body 32. An institution which trains teachers to primary school 33. Over the expectation 34. How qualified is it education service? 35. It has completed the development process 36. The oldest faculty in Denizli 37. An educational faculty which could compete with the others in the country 38. Weak in promoting its title and achievements 39. Looks as if a primary school in jungle part of city 40. Efficiency in relative affairs 41. A converted faculty type from a typical training school of the past 42. Too many students 43. Civil engineering 44. Groups in affairs 45. No difficulty in passing the courses 46. A continuation of educational institution of the past 47. An established academic staff 48. A causal institution 49. Insufficient library 50. All flowers of my country 51. A not promising faculty
% 19.50 12.86 8.71 5.39 4.56 2.48 1.65 1.65 1.65 1.65 1.65 1.24 1.24 0.82 0.82 0.82 0.82 0.82 0.82 0.82 0.82 0.82 0.82 0.82 0.82 0.82 0.82 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41
Table 2. Contd.
52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84.
As if high school under the university‟s control Insufficient social & cultural activity A cute faculty Two mid-terms An incredible contradictory Shabby No communication between the administration and the staff The place in which I‟m planning to build up a career Disappointment as well as beauties Easiness in studying A renewed place Door to future End of my ideals Stress A democratic approachment to education A resort A faculty where most of our students attend Red tape (too much bureaucracy) Students who come for training period Post graduate students who wander certain polls in their hands An institution which I have contributed in many ways but I couldn‟t get a mutual assistance Winds of change Broken affairs with the institution of National Education One of the promising faculties in the Aegean Region Not an considerable institution in Denizli Its degree is much high in OSS exams In need of development No inspiration, no passion Academic aspect of the city Broken affairs with exhaustive scientific studies The most important faculty Teaching how to learn An institution which trains teaching staff
participants regard the Education Faculty of PAU as a casual one. The fifth most leading image, with 4.56%, is “an institution which trains casual teachers”. The image is also negative as the participants attribute the Education Faculty of PAU to this causality of the teacher trained by the faculty. The sixth most leading image, with 2.48%, is “an important and established unit of PAU which trains teachers with a considerable background”. By this image the participants stress out the background of the Education Faculty of Pamukkale University. The seventh most leading images, with 1.65%, are “development and improvement”, “a unit which contributes a lot to Denizli City”, “an insufficient, repetitive and unqualified education service”, “a faculty which tries to push the student”, “no existing image”; among the ones mentioned earlier, the expression “no image” does not reflect the reality at all as participants globally always have opinion
0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41
either positive or negative about an institution. The eighth most leading images, with 1.24%, are “a faculty which has too much insufficiency” and “unemployed teachers”. The image mentioned in that category actually reflects negative opinions of the Education Faculty of PAU. The images, according to the participants, which define the desired status of the Education Faculty of PAU According to the participants, the images defining the desired status of the Education Faculty of Pamukkale University are categorized into 67 different groups (Table 3). The number of total images is 257. In the analysis of the data gained from the participants, totally 67 different image groups have been reached
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Table 3. The images which define the desired status of the Education Faculty of PAU.
Images 1. Training more qualified teachers in every aspects 2. A well established faculty in infrastructure 3. Being one of the well-known education faculties in int‟l arena as well as Turkey 4. Being an aspect faculty in the region 5. A contemporary faculty 6. A qualified training service 7. An education faculty which is preferred by promising students 8. An faculty of which is proud by not only by students but also its own staff 9. A university of pedagogy 10. A scientific faculty 11. Example of education faculty 12. A promising teacher‟s training faculty 13. A well-established academic spirit 14. A faculty hand to hand the public 15. A contemporary faculty which has already absorbed certain national and global values 16. A faculty open to cooperation with the primary and secondary schools in the neighborhood 17. Advancement 18. Freedom 19. Ever –innovating itself 20. An institution which has caught up with acceptable standards at least 21. Training generation of teachers who are inclined to investigation 22. Leadership and instinctiveness to success 23. A reflective faculty which experience the first in every aspects 24. A faculty free of traditional country mood 25. Open to cooperation 26. Students who tend to investigation but not repetitive knowledge 27. A faculty which could be considered “an academic surroundings” 28. A faculty in which students could be more active 29. An entertaining service of education 30. A faculty which has a considerable success in KPSS exams 31. More art 32. I have no idea 33. An internationally respected faculty 34. An institution which trains now generations of teachers who are of a progressive system 35. An institution by which we love teaching profession 36. An efficient institution which bears individuals of future 37. Cooperation, science, professional manner 38. A center of an efficient life in which institutionalism becomes true 39. A lightening source to Denizli City 40. A great faculty 41. Academic cooperation 42. Investigation 43. An institution which both trains teachers and runs after success in science 44. An institution whose students particularly utter those words “Here, I have realized how teaching profession must be performed”
% 15.56 9.72 8.56 7.39 6.61 5.05 2.72 2.72 2.33 2.33 2.33 1.94 1.94 1.55 1.16 1.16 1.16 1.16 1.16 0.77 0.77 0.77 0.77 0.77 0.77 0.77 0.77 0.77 0.77 0.77 0.77 0.77 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38
45. 46. 47. 48. 49.
0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38
An well-identified and established faculty in scientific criteria A post-modern institution A wealthy library Future and freedom of Turkey A faculty which will take its own place in the university campus area
Table 3. Contd.
50. 51. 52. 53.
Practical education One mid-term exam and one final exam An active communication between the students and the faculty administration A faculty which has managed to train new generations of teachers who are secular, democratic, interrogative
0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38
54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67.
A visioned faculty Entertainment, education and discipline Proficiency Students who have already realized themselves A center of ideals Leader An attentive policy to international educational projects Academic proficiency Primary school teachers Driving to future but not to today More social and scientific activities A Kemalist and Republican policy faculty A pride in education quality A leader in education service in Denizli City
0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38
which define the desired situation of the Education Faculty of Pamukkale University. Among those images, the most repeated one is, with 15.56%, “to train more qualified teachers in every aspect”. In this respect, the participants express the desire that the Education Faculty of PAU should mainly be known in future by training fully qualified teachers. The second most striking image is, with 9.72%, “to be a well qualified faculty in infrastructure”. In this respect, the participants express the desire that the Education Faculty of PAU should mainly be known in future as “a problem-free faculty in infrastructure”. The third most striking image is, with 8.56%, “being one of the well-known education faculties in int‟l arena as well as in Turkey”. In this respect, the participants express the desire that the Education Faculty of PAU should be a well-known faculty in both national and international arena. The fourth most leading image, with 7.39%, is “a respected expert, faculty in the area of training teachers”. The image indicates the desire of the participants is that the Education Faculty of PAU must essentially obtain the regional leadership in its branch in future. The fifth most leading image, with 6.61%, is “a contemporary faculty”, which to the participants means that the Education Faculty of PAU must be fully contemporary in all aspects in future. The sixth most leading image, with 5.05%, is “a qualified educational service”. The image clearly indicates that the desire of the participants is that the Education Faculty must be one step forward in future in “educational service quality”. The seventh most leading images, with 2.72%, are “an education faculty which is preferred by promising students” and “a faculty which not only the students but
also its staff is proud of”. The participants clearly direct the Education Faculty of PAU to “qualification” and “organizational culture” in future. The eighth most striking images, with 2.33%, are “a scientific faculty”, “a model faculty” and “a university of pedagogy”. With the last one, the participants express the desire that they would like to regard the Education Faculty of PAU as a “university” in the future. The ninth most striking images, with 1.94%, are “a faculty of academic essence” and “a well-known faculty through its teachers training service and academic studies”. With these images, the participants express the desire that Pamukkale University, Education Faculty should be an authority in “teachers‟ training” and “scientific studies”. The tenth most striking image is, with 1.55%, “a faculty associated with society”. With this image, the participants express the desire that the Education Faculty of PAU should be open to society. DISCUSSION The current images The current images are critical for indicating how the internal and external participants consider the current trend and common view. According to their perception, the most striking three images which define the current trend are orderly as follows: “an education faculty which trains teachers”, “a faculty with an effort to develop itself” and “one of the education faculties which trains qualified teachers”. According to the participants, these positive functions of the Education Faculty of PAU are quite
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important so that the faculty can establish a stable position in its mind. The desired images The desired images are also critical for indicating how the internal and the external participants would like to see this institution in future, by which the desired picture could be cleared. According to the participants, the most striking three images which define the desired images for future are orderly as follows: “training teachers who will be more qualified in every aspect”, “a faculty that is problem-free in infrastructure” and “a well-known faculty in both national and international arena”. According to the participants, these positive functions of the Education Faculty of PAU could be quite important for futuristic picture and what the target point must be. Regional images Certain institutions could care more about regional activities and the existing image could only be “regional”, too. Pamukkale University Education Faculty in Denizli City from the very first day has always been known to share its studies with certain social organizations in the city. According to the participants, the seventh image (1.65%), which is among the current images, is, “an accelerative function in Denizli”; the tenth images (0.41%) are “a cute faculty”, “the oldest faculty in Denizli”, “the most crowded faculty in Pamukkale University”, “one of the oldest faculties in Aegean Region”, “a casual institution in Denizli” and “academic aspect of the city”. The fourth desired image (7.39%) is, “a respected faculty for teachers‟ training in the region”, while the thirteen images (0.38%) are, “a source of enlightenment in Denizli” and “an effective leader in education service in the city”. The key decision makers in the Education Faculty of PAU are able to replace the fourth image, that is „‟a respected faculty for teachers‟ training in the region‟‟, with the most shared one by the participants. The third most striking image (8.56%) is, “being one of the well-known education faculties in int‟l arena as well as in Turkey‟‟.
exam” and the tenth images (0.41%) are “an established institution of YOK” and “a faculty which can compete with other education faculties”. On the other hand, among the desired images, the third one (8.56%) is, “being one of the well-known faculties in Turkey” and the thirteenth ones (0.38%) are “a faculty in Kemalist and Republican wing” and “freedom and future of Turkey”. These images are clearly “national ones”. The key decision makers in the Education Faculty of PAU are able to replace the third desired image, that is „‟a respected faculty in the country” with the most shared one by the participants. International images Institutions, with the globalization process, have had to lay more emphasis on opening a global window in order to take their place in global arena. Among education institutions, high-education units have particularly had to act internationally in students, technology, communication, production and cooperation dimension. As education institutions, education faculties are supposed to be more successful than other organizations in complying with winds of change in the society. Since 2004, education faculties in Turkey have perpetually attended a program called Erasmus which is a part of Socrates‟ program with the aim of pulling up education faculties‟ qualifications to European standards (Ustel, 2005; Aslan, 2005). For this reason, there is cooperation between Turkish and European education faculties. In that way, PAU Education Faculty has also signed certain agreements and mutual cooperation plans on education with certain education faculties in the Europe continent. According to the participants of the PAU Education Faculty, the following judgments are considerably striking: among the current images, the most agreed ninth one, with 0.82%, is “a weak faculty in researches, education and training service according to global scientific criteria”, while among the desired images, the most agreed third one, with 8.56%, is “one of the globally respected faculties”. The most agreed thirteenth images with 0.38% are “having an international fame” and “being attentive to international projects on education which points to us”. The key decision makers of PAU Education Faculty are actually supposed to put forward these images (that is being one of the globally respected faculties”, which can be realized in the faculty.
National images The institution successfully performs nation-wide duties. Besides, it works out pre-determined plans. As in other education faculties in the country, the Education Faculty of PAU also trains teachers, with an orientation process, in the branches which the country is in need of. According to the participants of PAU Education Faculty, among the current images, the ninth one with 0.82% is, “the faculty whose students are more successful in KPSS
A university of education Teachers are trained in certain education faculties which are part of universities, academies or Denmark Education University, Island Education University, the Education University of Harkov Skorovoda in Ukraine, Professional Education University of Nijmegen in Holland, the Education University of Anqing in P.R.C., the
Education University of Hokkaide in Japan (Kocabaş, 2005; METU, 2006). In our country, teachers are also trained in education faculties which are part of universities or academies by exposing them to a certain process of orientation. There have been disputes in our country from time to time about “education universities” in teachers‟ training instead of education faculties (Eşme and Karaçay, 2002). The conversion of education faculties to “education universities” will be a new step and a distant process and perspective in teachers‟ training. According to the participants of PAU Education Faculty, among desired images, the most striking eighth one with 2.33% is “a university of pedagogy”, and it clearly points out “a university of education”. Like those in any country of the world, education faculties in Turkey have also undertaken mission to maintain vocational training and education to bring up qualified teachers who will be employed in education institutions after graduation. To discriminate the Education Faculty of PAU which serves in preschool teaching from other education faculties of universities, it seems crucial to establish an “organizational image” which is native to itself. In that way, the key decision makers in the PAU Education Faculty should also ensure the contributions of internal and external shareholders. This is because such an “organizational image” established with effective contribution of these internal and external shareholders will surely be considered as “shared (collective) organizational image” which could act as a guide both to draw a futuristic route for the organization and to provide effective participation of the internal and external shareholders in the course. In addition, it is indisputable that the “organizational image” which is based on the mentality of participation will be more realistic and inspiring and lead to internal-external participation.
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