A Pilot Municipal IPM Training Project

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A Pilot Municipal IPM Training Project

USDA/CSREES Project No. 95-EPAP-1-0005 North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, Department of Crop Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences,

North Carolina State University

A Pilot Municipal IPM Training Project

Authors H. Michael Linker Integrated Pest Management Coordinator College of Agriculture and Life Sciences North Carolina State University Patti Pritchard Extension Associate Integrated Pest Management North Carolina State University

June 1997

Document Prepared for U.S. Department of Agriculture CSREES

Urban IPM Advisory Committee Membership List Appreciation is extended to the following individuals who supported the urban IPM program by serving on an advisory committee that offered suggestions for program planning, technical presentations, and support for this project. Joe Blomquist

City of Raleigh Animal Control

Don Booth

Bartlett Tree Research Laboratories

Ken Jackson

City of Winston-Salem Roadway Appearance

Winston-Salem, NC

Sandra Swift

City of Winston-Salem Roadway Appearance

Winston-Salem, NC

Susan Whaley

Durham Parks and Recreation

Durham, NC

Taylor Williams

Lee County Cooperative Extension Service

Sanford, NC

Beth Nunnally

Mecklenburg County Dept. of Environmental Protection

Charlotte, NC

Craig Miller

Mecklenburg County Dept. of Environmental Protection

Charlotte, NC

Brenda Morris

Guilford County Cooperative Extension Service

Charles Apperson

Dept. of Entomology- NC State University

Raleigh, NC

Jim Baker

Dept. of Entomology-NC State University

Raleigh, NC

J. Stephen Greer

Gaston County Cooperative Extension Service

Dallas, NC

Toby Bost

Forsyth County Cooperative Extension Service

Winston-Salem, NC

Ned Dillon

North Carolina Department of Agriculture

Raleigh, NC

Mike Waldvogel

Dept. of Entomology-NC State University

Raleigh, NC

Ron Jones

Dept. of Plant Pathology-NC State University

Raleigh, NC

Billy Tesh

Pest Management Systems, Inc.

Tom Glasgow

Craven County Cooperative Extension Service

Fred Warner

Landscape Health Management

Alice Russell

Dept. of Horticulture-NC State University

Raleigh, NC

Art Bruneau

Dept. of Crop Science.-NC State University

Raleigh, NC

Gwyn Riddick

Randolph County Cooperative Extension Service

Colleen Hudak

North Carolina Department of Agriculture

ii

Raleigh, NC Charlotte, NC

Greensboro, NC

Greensboro, NC New Bern, NC Charlotte, NC

Asheboro, NC Raleigh, NC

Table of Contents

Page Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Challenges faced by North Carolina municipalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Pest Management Practices Among Urban Governments in North Carolina . . . . . . Pests requiring the most resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pest control practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Familiarity with IPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 4 4 4

Urban IPM Advisory Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Urban IPM Manual Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Urban IPM on the World-Wide-Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Municipal IPM Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Curriculum development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Participant demographics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Post-Training Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Changes in participants’ knowledge of IPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Changes in pest management practices one year after training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Future IPM training and IPM certification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Appendices A. Pest Management Practices Among Urban Governments —1994 Survey . . . . . . . . . 17 B. Evaluating Integrated Pest Management Training Sessions—1997 Survey . . . . . . . . 31

iii

Tables Page 1. Comparison of square miles and populations of the ten largest North Carolina municipalities between April 1990 and July 1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2. Summary of attendance at municipal IPM training in 1996. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3. Municipal divisions represented at IPM training in 1996. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4. Results of follow-up survey of participants in 1996 Workshops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5. IPM practices implemented by municipal workers after attending IPM training. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Figures 1. North Carolina municipalities required to obtain NPDES stormwater permits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. IPM adoption by North Carolina municipalities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3. Discussions of IPM among municipal workers since attending training. . . . . . . . 11

iv

Executive Summary Challenges Faced by Municipalities. The 527 municipalities within North Carolina face a particularly difficult job of providing services to rapidly growing populations and complying with an increasing number of federal and state environmental protection regulations, often with a limited staff. Municipal workers must be experienced in maintaining very diverse ecosystems with many different types of plant material and pests. In many instances, the staff may not have the ability or resources to develop longterm pest management plans or to evaluate the competence of contracted pest control services. Pest Management Practices Among Urban Governments in North Carolina. In a telephone survey of 115 licensed public pesticide operators in North Carolina, 60% of the respondents reported spending most of their resources attempting to control pests of ornamentals or turf. The majority of respondents (81%) reported that their departments applied chemical pesticides in response to the number and types of pests present (62%), complaints about pests from clients (53%), and complaints from the public (52%). A large proportion of the respondents (44%) indicated that they had some information about IPM. However, a considerable number (30%) indicated that they knew nothing about IPM. Urban IPM Advisory Committee. A 25-person advisory committee was formed to design the content and delivery method of IPM training sessions. This voluntary committee is comprised of representatives from municipalities, county Cooperative Extension Service offices, the North Carolina Department of Agriculture, private-sector interests, and faculty from the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at North Carolina State University. Municipal IPM Manual Development. A comprehensive instructional text dealing with fundamental IPM principles was developed using North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service publications and NCSU departmental fact sheets. A bound copy of the manual was given to each municipal employee attending the training. Additionally, the information contained within the manual has been made available on the world wide web at http://ipmwww.ncsu.edu/urban/cropsci. The site averages 35 visits per week. Municipal IPM Training. A one-day training session was offered at two locations in the state. The training was designed to enable participants to develop and implement pest management plans beyond general cover sprays. A total of 253 persons representing 22 municipal divisions from 93 North Carolina cities or towns attended the training. The majority of participants (72%) had responsibilities for turfgrass and ornamentals management. Participants received recertification credits from the North Carolina Department of Agriculture for attending the training. Post-training Evaluation. One year after training, a phone survey was conducted of 204 of the public pesticide applicators who had attended one of the municipal IPM training sessions. Nearly half of the participants indicated that they had some knowledge of IPM prior to attending training. When asked why they chose to attend the training, many participants (57.8%) indicated it was because they desired to learn more about IPM. However, the most important reason cited was to obtain recertification credits. Nearly 70% of participants indicated that they had made some changes in their pest management programs as a result of attendance at the workshop. North Carolina Municipal IPM Training - 1

Introduction Regulatory agencies are highly concerned about non-point pollution and its effect on land and water resources. Municipalities have a particularly difficult job of complying with new regulations due to the size and complexity of the areas they maintain. Cities must develop pest management plans for many different ecosystems, from athletic fields and rose gardens, to public housing and public buildings. In many cases, staff making decisions about municipal pesticide use do not have the technical expertise to develop successful pest management plans or cannot evaluate the competence of contracted pest control services. This has led to problems with pesticide misuse in schools and other highly visible public areas. Cities need a more integrated, systematic approach to managing pests. Land-grant university IPM programs have been shown to be effective in implementing IPM in urban areas and reducing the quantity of pesticides used (Holmes and Davidson, 1984, Raupp and Noland, 1984, Smith & Raupp, 1986, Coffelt & Schultz, 1990). Municipalities must be willing to invest time and money to increase employee knowledge of pest ecology and biology and IPM practices. Challenges Faced by North Carolina Municipalities In 1995 there were 527 incorporated municipalities in North Carolina. Municipal divisions that typically have some type of responsibility for pest control include: parks and recreation, public works/solid waste/utilities, maintenance, schools, streets divisions, public health, and airport authorities. Between April 1990 and July 1995, North Carolina municipalities experienced rapid growth in both size and population (Table 1). Table 1. Comparison of land area and populations of the ten largest North Carolina municipalities between April 1990 and July 1995*. Municipality

Land Area (Sq. Miles) % Municipal Population % 1990 1995 Change 1990 1995 Change

Charlotte Raleigh Greensboro Winston-Salem Durham Fayetteville Jacksonville High Point Asheville Cary

174.23 88.12 79.78 71.11 69.26 40.59 12.99 42.99 34.94 31.15

211.90 99.09 92.24 99.49 80.25 46.31 40.72 45.88 40.99 38.80

21.6 12.4 15.6 39.9 15.8 14.0 213.4 6.7 17.3 24.5

395,934 212,092 183,894 143,485 136,612 75,850 30,398 69,428 61,855 44,397

*State of North Carolina, Department of Commerce, Office of State Planning

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469,809 18.6 249,332 17.5 193,298 5.1 165,750 15.5 148,129 8.4 93,219 22.8 75,069 146.9 71,791 3.4 68,474 10.7 65,912 48.4

Accompanying the growth in municipal land mass are increased responsibilities for maintaining services offered to the citizenry of the area. In a 1994 survey conducted by the North Carolina Department of Agriculture, it was determined that approximately 2.0 million acres of turfgrass are maintained in North Carolina, and municipalities are responsible for maintaining approximately 27 percent of the total acreage (NC Dept. of Agriculture, 1994) Municipalities must comply with federal, state and local regulations regarding environmental protection. Many municipalities may find compliance with new regulations difficult because of the size and complexity of the area maintained and the number of personnel employed. For example, in 1975 the U.S. EPA delegated to North Carolina the authority to administer its state program of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). The purpose of this program is to reduce and eliminate pollutants in stormwater runoff from municipal storm sewer systems and industrial activities. All municipalities with populations of 100,000 or more are required to obtain a permit from the Department of Environmental Management to discharge stormwater. Currently six North Carolina municipalities (Figure 1) are subject to NPDES programs (Eaker, 1994).

Figure 1. North Carolina Municipalities Required to Obtain NPDES Stormwater Permits (Cities with populations of 100,000 or greater)

Winston- Greensboro Salem Durham Raleigh Charlotte Fayetteville/ Cumberland Co.

PEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AMONG URBAN GOVERNMENTS IN NORTH CAROLINA A telephone survey conducted in 1994 (Appendix A) provided some insight into the way in which pest problems are managed by North Carolina cities. One hundred fifteen licensed public pesticide operators in North Carolina were selected using a purposive sampling method. Names of licensees were provided by agricultural extension agents in the state. The participants worked in 52 different cities and 33 different counties across North Carolina. Participants represented many different municipal divisions, including parks and recreation departments, public works North Carolina Municipal IPM Training - 3

departments, solid waste departments, utilities departments, maintenance departments, school districts, streets departments, public health agencies and airport authorities. Respondents represented departments with an average of 30 employees. Types of Pests that Require the Most Resources A majority of the respondents (60%) reported spending most of their resources attempting to control pests of ornamentals or turf. A substantial percentage of respondents (23%) indicated that their departments spent most of their resources on public health pests in streets and landfills. Just 11% of respondents reported spending most of their resources on right-of-way weeds. Less than 3% of the respondents said that they spent most of their resources on each of the following areas: structural pests in buildings, aquatic weeds, vegetable or field crop pests, and forest pests. Pest Control Practices Only one-third of the respondents indicated that their department contracted with private commercial pesticide operators to control pests. The majority of respondents (81%) reported that their departments used chemical pesticides. Respondents indicated that their pesticide use had either remained the same (45%) or decreased (34%) over the past five years. However, most of the respondents (73%) indicated they had not used restricted pesticides in the last two years. The factors most frequently cited by respondents as very important in deciding which pesticide to apply were personal safety (96%), weather conditions (89%), ease of use of product (75%), and number and types of pests to be controlled (69%). The factors that respondents most frequently rated as very important in deciding when to apply pesticides were the number and types of pests (62%), complaints about pests from clients (53%) and complaints from the public (52%). These findings are in line with findings from other states. Smith and Raupp (1986) found that many plants in Maryland suburban communities were treated with pesticides based upon citizen complaints. Studies by Sadof and Alexander (1993), and Coffelt and Schultz (1990) found that many people perceive plant injury at or below a 10% level. When pesticide application is based upon citizen complaints and citizens have a low threshold for injury acceptance, then persons in densely populated urban areas may experience significant pesticide exposure because of the frequency of plant appearance complaints. Familiarity With Integrated Pest Management A considerable number of respondents (30%) reported having heard or read nothing about IPM; a large proportion of respondents (44%) said that they had some information about IPM; only 27% of respondents indicated having heard or read a lot about IPM. The majority of respondents indicated they were either very interested (44%) or somewhat interested (50%) in learning more about IPM.

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URBAN IPM ADVISORY COMMITTEE To facilitate the participation and input of stakeholders in designing the content and delivery method of all training sessions, a 25-person advisory committee was formed in September, 1995. A public announcement about the formation of this committee was posted to the NC State Extension Service electronic news. Those persons volunteering to serve on this committee were asked to recommend other individuals in the private sector and governmental units who might have interest in participating. The committee was made up of municipal employees, county extension agents, university faculty, North Carolina Department of Agriculture representatives, and private sector interests. A list of committee membership is found on page ii of this report.

URBAN IPM MANUAL DEVELOPMENT A comprehensive instructional text encompassing many aspects of urban pest management was created using North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service publications and NCSU departmental fact sheets. Topics discussed in this publication include: Integrated Pest Management for Municipalities, Alternatives to Chemical Pest Control, Protecting Water Quality, Landscaping to Protect Water Quality, Identifying Plant Problems, Insect Pest Identification, Plant Disease and Nematode Identification, Weed Identification, Landscaping Techniques that Minimize Pest Problems, Turfgrass, Common Woody Ornamentals and their Pests, Structural and Public Health Pests, Wildlife Pests. Fundamental IPM principles such as plant placement, plant selection, pest resistant plant varieties, pest identification, pest biology, and groundwater and surface water pollution prevention were emphasized in this publication. North Carolina State University faculty from the departments of Biological & Agricultural Engineering, Crop Science, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology, Soil Science, and Zoology reviewed manual chapters. Each participant attending a training session received a copy of the manual. This text was intended as a resource for municipal workers attending the training as well as a resource for county agents throughout the state. Urban IPM on the World-Wide-Web The information contained in the training manual has been mounted on the world-wide-web. The Integrated Pest Management For North Carolina Municipalities website can be accessed through the National IPM Home Page at: http://ipmwww.ncsu.edu/urban/cropsci. Between July 1996 and June 1997, there were 1599 visits to the table of contents page of this website.

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Table of Contents Integrated Pest Management for Municipalities Landscaping To Minimize Pest Problems Alternatives To Chemical Pest Control Landscaping To Protect Water Quality Protecting Water Quality Pest Identification: Identifying Plant Problems Common Woody Ornamentals and Their Pests Turfgrass/Lawns Structural and Public Health Pests Vertebrates

MUNICIPAL IPM TRAINING The objective of this training was to enable participants to design and implement pest management plans beyond pesticide spraying after having received instruction on the components of IPM. Training sessions emphasized that spraying offers only a temporary solution to pest problems and that implementing IPM approaches, such as matching a plant to its proper site conditions or understanding pest biology to determine the optimal time in a pest’s life cycle for pesticides to be most effective, offers more permanent solutions to pest problems. Curriculum Development The curriculum was designed to assist pesticide decision makers develop and implement pest management programs. Based upon the advisory committee’s recommendation, a session was developed that detailed what integrated pest management programs were and why they were important. Emphasis was placed on water quality and how pest management programs and pesticide storage could impact stormwater and groundwater in municipalities. Two individuals who use IPM commercially were asked to address the group. These individuals stressed that IPM is an effective management program and that it is being used successfully in their businesses. This session was designed for all participants to attend. In other parts of the workshop, participants attended either a landscape or structural specialized session based upon their responsibilities. During this session, participants were presented with

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case studies of key pests or pest systems that have been successfully managed using IPM approaches. Discussions included pest identification, biology, identification of resistant varieties, proper plant selection and installation. The topics presented at each training session are outlined below. Turf and Ornamental Pest Management Sessions Reducing pesticides on woody ornamentals using cultural management practices. Reducing pesticides on turfgrass using cultural management practices. Management of weeds in ornamental landscapes. Management of weeds in turfgrass. Management of insect pests of woody ornamentals. Management of insect pests of turfgrass. Management of diseases of woody ornamentals Management of diseases of turfgrass.

Structural Pest Management Sessions Pesticide storage issues and IPM basics for cockroaches and ants. IPM for rodents, lice, ticks, and stinging pests. Pitt County Schools IPM program. An IPM approach to commercial pest control. Wood destroying insects: Legal aspects of your contract. Termites and carpenter ants. The curriculum closely followed the material in the manual. Participants could follow discussions and make notes in their copies of the manual. Participant Demographics One-day sessions were offered at two locations in the state. A total of 253 persons attended municipal training sessions (Table 2). Participants represented 61 of the 100 counties in North Carolina and 93 cities or towns. Municipal divisions represented are detailed in Table 3. A large majority (72%) of participants attending had responsibilities in the areas of turf and ornamentals.

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Table 2. Summary of attendance at municipal IPM training in 1996. Meeting Location

Winston-Salem Greenville Total Attendance

Total Number Of Attendees

Number Attending Landscape Training

124 129 253

Number Attending Structural Training

80 103 183

44 26 70

Table 3. Municipal divisions represented at IPM training in 1996.

Type of Organization City/County Groundskeepers County Schools Parks and Recreation Public Health Public Works Streets Division Utilities University Grounds Board of Education Department of Defense Housing Authority Other Commercial Business Airport Commission Sanitary District Employment Security Commission Environmental Services-County Government Forest Service Solid Waste Division Waste Water Treatment Plant Corrections Division Hospital

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Percentage of Participants 27.5 15.8 10.0 9.3 5.8 5.0 4.3 3.1 2.7 2.3 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.6 1.2 1.2 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.4 0.4

POST-TRAINING EVALUATION One year after training, a telephone survey (Appendix B) was conducted of 204 public pesticide applicators who had attended one of the municipal IPM training sessions in 1996. A large proportion of respondents (25.5%) were employed by a city/county government, 20.2% were employed by county schools, universities, and community colleges, and 14.7% were employed by public works. The majority of those participating in the survey (76.5%) had attended landscape specialized sessions. Under one-fourth of participants (23.5%) attended structural specialized sessions. Just over half of the respondents attended the Greenville training (52%) and 48% attended the Winston-Salem training. The respondents reported that their municipal divisions spent an average of $5,351 on pesticide purchases, $34,475 on contracted pest control services, and $4,184 on fertilizer purchases. Changes in Participants’ Knowledge About IPM Table 4 summarizes the findings of the follow-up survey. Table 4. Result of Follow-up Survey of Participants in 1996 Workshops. Workshop Track

Landscape Structural

No Previous IPM Training Workshop Materials Knowledge (%) Useful (%) Appropriate (%)

37 38

73 58

97 94

Specialized training Useful (%)

89 98

The majority of participants (97% of turf and ornamental track participants and 94% of structural track participants) rated the level of the material presented in the general IPM session as appropriate to their level of understanding. When participants were asked to comment on their specialized training sessions, 89% of turf and ornamental participants and 98% of structural participants felt the materials was appropriate to their level of understanding. When asked why they chose to attend IPM training, 91% of turf and ornamental participants indicated it was because they wanted to learn about IPM, while 60% of structural participants indicated it was because they desired to learn more about IPM. However, the most important reason for attending in both groups was obtaining recertification credits. Change in Participants’ Pest Management Practices One Year After Training Seventy percent of turf and ornamental participants and 65% of structural participants indicated that they had made changes in their pest management approaches since attending IPM training. North Carolina Municipal IPM Training - 9

Figure 2. IPM adoption by North Carolina municipalities.

100 80 60 40 20 0

Landscape IPM Implementation

Specific changes that have been implemented by each group are shown in Table 5. However, 30.9% of respondents indicated they had not made any changes since attending the workshop. Of the 63 respondents who indicate they had not made any changes, 90% said they did not plan to make any changes in the future. Respondents who reported no prior knowledge of IPM were just as likely to indicate they had not made changes in pest management as respondents who indicated they had prior knowledge of IPM.

Structural No Changes

Table 5. IPM Practices Implemented by Municipal Workers After Attending IPM Training. Percentage of Participants Implementing IPM Practices

Cultural Modifications Select plant material adapted to site conditions Select pest-resistant plant varieties Change mowing height for turf Soil test prior to fertilizer or lime applications Monitoring/Identification of Pests Identify pests before treating Monitor Pest Populations Timing of Control Measures Use pesticides only when appropriate for pest life cycle Use of biological controls Other Changes (not specified)

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Turf & Ornamental

Structural

18.6

6.3

10.9

4.2

21.8

10.4

35.7

10.4

33.3 22.8

25.0 29.2

38.5

20.8

15.4 19.9

22.9 20.1

Percentage of Participants

Figure 3. Discussion of IPM Among Municipal Workers Since Attending Training.

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

Landscape Structural

Never

Once

2-3

4-5 >5 Number of Times Discussed

When participants were asked the number of times they had discussed IPM practices with their coworkers since attending the training, 35% of landscape participants and 37.5% of structural participants indicated that they had had two or three such conversations. However, a large percentage of both landscape (23.7%) and structural (29.2%) participants indicated that they had discussed IPM with coworkers more than 5 times since attending training.

Future IPM Training and IPM Certification The 1996 training sessions offered municipal pest managers an introduction to the basics of IPM, pest biology, and plant selection and management. The next phase of IPM training will focus on designing and implementing IPM programs specific to the needs of individual municipalities. The majority of post-training survey respondents (69.1%) indicated that they were very interested in attending follow-up IPM training. Seventy percent of respondents indicated that even if their organization would not pay a $30 fee for their participation in future IPM training, they would be willing to pay the fee themselves. The lack of well-defined decision-making guidelines for management actions for urban IPM programs has been cited as a major weakness of urban IPM implementation (Raupp et al. 1988). However, several extension-based pilot projects in the area of urban IPM have documented that the amount of pesticides applied, number of plants treated, and the cost of pest management can all be reduced without jeopardizing the appearance of affected plant material. In many cases, IPM programs replaced existing management programs (which were often based on general cover sprays in response to public complaints) with programs that focused on monitoring and managing common pests of key plants in a landscape. To facilitate building the confidence of individuals when designing and implementing an IPM program, it seems that a hands-on session with a small ratio of specialists to municipal managers would prove most successful. When asked if they would participate in a half-day training session during the spring or summer that focused on specific pest problems and was conducted in-thefield, 97.6% of post-training survey participants indicated that they would attend. North Carolina Municipal IPM Training - 11

In an informal discussion with a representative from one of the participating municipalities in this project, it was mentioned that a field guide assembled in a calendar format containing concise management information and color illustrations would best serve as a resource guide in the field for managers working with IPM programs. Currently, a resource guide is being developed that emphasizes when common pests are typically present, how to monitor for them, and IPM approaches to managing pests. Also included with this material will be a comprehensive listing of resistant plant varieties and other plants that may also serve as hosts for the offending pest. This resource will be designed to help build decision-making skills when using IPM in a management program. Just over half (53%) of the survey participants who attended the landscape sessions and 40% of structural participants indicated they would be very interested in obtaining certification in IPM through additional training. The urban IPM program at North Carolina State University is currently focusing on the development of specific programs and materials for advanced training in the area of urban IPM for North Carolina municipalities.

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References Coffelt, M.A. and P.B. Schultz. 1990. Development of an aesthetic injury level to decrease pesticide use against orangestriped oakworm (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) in an urban pest management project. J. Econ. Entomology 83(5):2044-2049. Eaker, William. 1994. Stormwater Management in North Carolina. A Guide for Local Officials. Land-of-Sky Regional Council. Asheville, NC. 91 pp. Holmes, J. J. and J. A. Davidson. 1984. Integrated Pest Management for Arborists: Implementation of a Pilot Program. Journal of Arboriculture. 10(3): 65-70. North Carolina Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Statistics Division. 1994. North Carolina Turfgrass Survey. Raleigh, NC. 56 pp. Raupp, M.J., J.A. Davidson, C.S. Koehler, C.S. Sadof, K. Reicheldefer. 1988. Decision-making considerations for aesthetic damage caused by pests. Bull. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 34:27-32. Raupp, M.J. and R.M. Noland. 1984. Implementing landscape plant management programs in institutional and residential settings. Journal of Arboriculture. 10(6): 161-169. Sadof, C.S. and C.M. Alexander. 1993. Limitations of cost-benefit-based aesthetic injury levels by managing twospotted spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae). J. Econ. Entomology 86(5):15161521. Smith, D.C. and M. J. Raupp. 1986. Economic and environmental assessment of an integrated pest management program for community-owned landscape plants. J. Econ. Entomology 79: 162-165. State of North Carolina, Department of Commerce, Office of State Planning. 1997. Municipal Growth 1990-1995. http://www.ospl.state.nc.us/demog/gran9095.html.

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APPENDICES

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Appendix A PEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AMONG URBAN GOVERNMENTS 1994 Phone Interview Survey Conducted by Dr. Simon K. Garber, Extension Sociologist, North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service INTRODUCTION Hello, my name is _________________ and I'm calling from North Carolina State University for the Cooperative Extension Service. Have I reached (verify telephone number)? We are surveying licensed pesticide operators in local governments to learn how we can help improve training programs in pest control procedures. May I please speak with NAME OF INDIVIDUAL (Alternatively, if Named individual no longer works there) May I speak with the person responsible for pest control in your department (agency)? (IF SAME PERSON, CONTINUE; IF DIFFERENT PERSON, REPEAT INTRODUCTION) Repeat introduction Your name was selected at random from a list of licensed public pesticide operators in North Carolina. All information you give us will be treated confidentially. The results of this survey will inform university scientists and Extension Agents about the kinds of research and educational programs that would benefit pesticide operators. CONTINUE INTERVIEW 1.

Name of county (INTERVIEWER, RECORD COUNTY NAME FROM LIST OF TELEPHONE NUMBERS)_________________________________

2.

Do you work for the county, a city or private utility? Local Government type (INTERVIEWER, CIRCLE ONE; DO NOT ASK) City (GO TO Q2)..........1 County...................2 Private utility..........3 Other 9

3.

(IF 2 is circled in Q2) What is the name of your city? City

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FIRST, I'D LIKE TO ASK YOU A FEW GENERAL QUESTIONS ABOUT YOU AND WHERE YOUR WORK. 4.

What is the (CITY/COUNTY) department or agency in which you work. (CIRCLE ONE) Parks Department.........................1 Recreation Department....................2 Parks and Recreation Department..........3 Horticulture Department..................4 Streets Division.........................5 Waste Water Treatment/Land Application...6 Solid Waste Management...................7 Housing Authority........................8 Hospital/Nursing Home/Day Care etc.......9 Private Utility.........................10 Other___________________________________11 __________________________________________

5.

How many years have you worked for this department/section? Years____

6.

What is your position?__________________________________.

7.

In this position do you supervise other employees? Yes(GO TO Q8)...........1 No (GO TO Q9)...........0

8.

(IF YES TO Q7) How many employees do you supervise? Number Employees Supervised __________

9.

How many employees, including yourself, are there in your department/section? Number of Employees________

10.

How many employees in your department/section, including yourself, are licensed public pesticide operators? Number of licensed P C O's________

11.

How many years have you been a licensed public pesticide operator? Years__________

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NOW, I'D LIKE TO ASK A FEW QUESTIONS ABOUT PEST CONTROL PRACTICES IN YOUR DEPARTMENT/SECTION/AGENCY. 12.

Does your department/section contract with a private commercial operator to control any pests? Yes (GO TO 13)..........1 No (GO TO 14)...........0

13. (IF YES TO Q12) What types of pests do you contract to have controlled? Would you say they are... (READ EACH ITEM AND CIRCLE ALL MENTIONED) Structural (Termites, other wood pests).......................1 Structural (Rats, roaches, flies in buildings)................1 Public Health (Rats, Mosquitos, roaches in streets/landfills).1 Aquatic weed control..........................................1 Ornamental or turf pests......................................1 Vegetable or field crop pests.................................1 Right of Way weeds............................................1 Other (SPECIFY)______________________________________________01 _______________________________________________________________ 14.

Do you or members of your department/section carry out any pest control programs using chemical pesticides? Yes(GO TO 15)...........1 No (GO TO Q57)..........0

15. (IF YES TO Q14) What types of pests are controlled by you or members of your department/section? Would you say...(READ EACH ITEM AND CIRCLE ALL MENTIONED) Structural (rats, roaches, flies in buildings) (GO TO Q16)....1 Public Health (rats, mosquitos, roaches in streets/landfills) (GO TO Q21)......1 Aquatic weed control (GO TO Q26)..............................1 Ornamental or turf pests (GO TO Q32)..........................1 Vegetable or field crop pests (GO TO Q39).....................1 Right of way weeds (GO TO Q48)................................1 Other (SPECIFY) (GO TO Q57)__________________________________01 _______________________________________________________________ (IF MORE THAN ONE ITEM IS CIRCLED) Which category of pests do you devote the greatest amount of time and resources to control? (PLACE A CHECK MARK BESIDE THE CIRCLED ITEM AND GO TO THE INDICATED QUESTION?

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STRUCTURAL PESTS NOW, WITH REGARD TO PEST CONTROL PRACTICES IN BUILDINGS. 16.

Do you generally treat all buildings or structures with the same pesticide program? That is, do you generally apply the same pesticides at the same rates and times throughout the building or structure? Yes (GO TO Q17).........1 No (GO TO Q18)..........0

17. (IF YES to Q16) Why do you treat buildings or structures with the same pesticide program? (CIRCLE ALL MENTIONED AND GO TO Q19) All structures have the same pest problems......1 It is cheaper...................................1 It provides better control......................1 Its easier to apply.............................1 Other (specify) _______________________________01 _________________________________________________ 18. (IF NO TO Q16) Why do you treat buildings or structures differently? (CIRCLE ALL MENTIONED) Avoid resistance problems..................1 Households have different pest problems....1 It is cheaper..............................1 It provides better control.................1 Stages of pest growth are different........1 Use safer materials........................1 Other (specify)___________________________01 ____________________________________________ 19.

Do you use any pest control methods other than chemicals? Yes (GO TO Q20).........1 No (GO TO Q53)..........0

20.

What types of non-chemical control methods do you use? (PROBE AND CIRCLE ALL THAT APPLY, AND GO TO 53) Traps.............................1 Rat proof buildings...............1 Screens on doors and windows......1 Mechanical (swat flies, etc.).....1 Other, specify___________________01 ___________________________________

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PUBLIC HEALTH (RATS, ROACHES, MOSQUITOES IN STREETS AND LANDFILLS) NOW, WITH REGARD TO RATS, ROACHES OR MOSQUITOES IN STREETS AND LANDFILLS IN BUILDINGS. 21.

Do you generally apply the same pesticide at the same rates and times throughout the treatment area? Yes (GO TO Q22)...................1 No (GO TO Q23)....................0 Don't use chemicals (GO TO Q60)...9

22. IF YES to Q21) Why do you treat the entire area with the same pesticide? (CIRCLE ALL MENTIONED AND GO TO Q24) Area has the same pest problems.............1 It is cheaper...............................1 It provides better control..................1 Its easier to apply.........................1 Other (specify) ___________________________01 _____________________________________________ 23. (IF NO TO Q21) Why do you use more than one pesticide in the job or area? (CIRCLE ALL MENTIONED) Area has the same pest problems............1 Avoid resistance problems..................1 It is cheaper..............................1 It provides better control.................1 Stages of pest growth are different........1 Use safer materials........................1 Other (specify)___________________________01 ____________________________________________ 24.

Do you use any pest controls methods other than chemicals? Yes (GO TO Q25).........1 No (GO TO Q53)..........0

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25. (IF YES TO Q24) What types of non-chemical control methods do you use? (PROBE AND CIRCLE ALL THAT APPLY, THEN GO TO 53) Traps......................................1 Mechanical (swat)..........................2 Control standing water.....................3 Cover/bury garbage.........................4 Other, specify____________________________01 ____________________________________________ AQUATIC WEED CONTROL NOW, WITH REGARD TO AQUATIC WEED CONTROL PRACTICES IN BUILDINGS. 26.

Do you generally apply the same chemicals at the same rates and times throughout the water area? Yes (GO TO Q27).........1 No (GO TO Q28)..........0

27. (IF YES TO Q26) Why do you apply chemicals at the same rates and times throughout the water area? (PROBE AND CIRCLE ALL MENTIONED THEN GO TO Q29) Same weed conditions exist.................1 Same environment...........................1 It is cheaper..............................1 It provides better control.................1 It's easier................................1 Other, specify____________________________01 ____________________________________________

28.

(IF NO TO Q26) Why do you treat the water area differently? (PROBE AND CIRCLE ALL MENTIONED) Different environments/ situation...........1 Different weed problem......................1 It's cheaper................................1 It provides better control..................1 Different stages of growth/time of year.....1 Some weed above, others below water line....1 Other, specify_____________________________01 _____________________________________________

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29.

Do you use any pest controls methods other than chemicals? Yes (GO TO Q30).........1 No (GO TO Q31)..........0

30. (IF YES TO Q29) What types of non-chemical control methods do you use? (PROBE AND CIRCLE ALL MENTIONED) Mechanical/physical.............................1 Water level manipulation........................1 Weed eating fish/insects........................1 Fungi/bacteria..................................1 Control light penetration.......................1 Other, specify.................................01 _________________________________________________ 31.

Do you use any fertilizer or lime? Yes (GO TO Q47).........1 No (GO TO Q53)..........0 TURF AND ORNAMENTAL

NOW, WITH REGARD TO TURF AND ORNAMENTAL PEST CONTROL PRACTICES IN BUILDINGS. 32.

Do you use insecticides, fungicides or weed killers to control turf or ornamental pests? Yes(GO TO Q33)..........1 No (GO TO Q36)..........0

33.

Do you generally treat each type of ornamental plants or turf with the same pesticide program? That is, do you generally apply the same pesticides at the same rates and times on your ornamental plants or turf? (CIRCLE ONE) Yes(GO TO Q34)..........1 No (GO TO Q35)..........0

34. IF YES to Q33) Why do you treat all turf or ornamental pests with the same pesticide program? (CIRCLED ALL MENTIONED AND GO TO Q36) Turf or plants have the same pest problems......1 It is cheaper...................................1 It provides better control......................1 Its easier to apply.............................1 Other (specify) _______________________________01 _________________________________________________ North Carolina Municipal IPM Training - 23

35.

(IF NO TO Q33) Why do you treat all turf or ornamental plants differently? (CIRCLE ALL MENTIONED) Turf or plants have different pest problems...1 It is cheaper.................................1 It provides better control....................1 Stages of pest growth are different...........1 Other (specify)______________________________01 _______________________________________________

36.

Have you eliminated any grasses or ornamental plants in your landscape plans that require excessive pesticide use? (CIRCLE ONE) Yes......1 No.......0

37.

Do you use natural areas in your landscaping to avoid using chemicals? (CIRCLE ONE) Yes......1 No.......0

38.

Do you use any fertilizers or lime in your landscaping? Yes (GO TO Q45).........1 No (GO TO Q53)..........0

VEGETABLE OR FIELD CROP PESTS NOW, WITH REGARD TO VEGETABLE OR FIELD CROP PESTS IN BUILDINGS. 39.

Do you use any insecticides, fungicides or weed killers to control your vegetable or field crop pests? Yes(GO TO Q40)..........1 No (GO TO Q43)..........0

40.

Do you generally treat each vegetable or field crop with the same pesticide program? That is, do you generally apply the same pesticides at the same rates and times on all fields of a similar crop? (CIRCLE ONE) Yes(GO TO Q41)..........1

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No (GO TO Q42)......... 0

41. (IF YES to Q40) Why do you treat all fields of similar crop with the same pesticide program? (CIRCLE ALL MENTIONED AND GO TO Q37) Only have one crop..........................1 All plants have the same pest problems......1 It is cheaper...............................1 It provides better control..................1 Its easier to apply.........................1 Other (specify)___________________________01 _____________________________________________ 42. (IF NO TO Q40) Why do you treat your fields differently? Crops are different...........................1 Fields have different pest problems...........1 It is cheaper.................................1 It provides better control....................1 Stages of pest growth are different...........1 Pesticide not cleared for all pests...........1 Other (specify)______________________________01 _______________________________________________ 43.

Which of the following cultural practices do you use when growing vegetables or field crops.? Do you... (READ LIST AND CIRCLE ONE ANSWER EACH) Yes No A. Rotate your crops.........................1 B. Rotate crop varieties.....................1 C. Use resistant varieties...................1 D. Cultivate your crop to control weeds?.....1 E. Hoe weeds in the row......................1 F. Destroy plant residue left in fields after harvest?...........................1

44.

0 0 0 0 0 0

Do you use any commercial fertilizer or lime in your operation? Yes(GO TO Q45)..........1 No (GO TO Q53)..........0

45.

Do you use soil tests to determine the amount of fertilizer that should be applied? Yes(GO TO Q46)..........1 North Carolina Municipal IPM Training - 25

No (GO TO Q47)..........0

46. (IF YES TO Q45) How frequently do you get your soil tested? Would you say... (READ LIST AND CIRCLE ONE ANSWER) Once a year...................1 Every two years...............2 Every three or more years.....3 When establishing a new area..4

47.

Over the past five years would you say that the amount of commercial fertilizer you applied per acre has increased, remained about the same, or decreased? (CIRCLE ONE AND GO TO Q53) Increased.................1 Remained the same.........2 Decreased.................3

RIGHT OF WAY WEEDS NOW, WITH REGARD TO RIGHT OF WAY WEED CONTROL PRACTICES IN BUILDINGS. 48.

Do you use weed killers to control weeds on right of ways? Yes(GO TO Q49)...1 No (GO TO Q52)...0

49.

Do you generally apply the same herbicides at the same rates and times on all right of ways? Yes(GO TO Q50)...1 No (GO TO Q51)...0

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50. (IF YES TO Q49) Why do you treat the right of ways the same? (CIRCLE ALL MENTIONED AND GO TO Q52) Same weed problems........................1 Stages of weed growth are the same. . . . 1 It is easier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 It saves time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Changing herbicide programs makes no difference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Other (Specify) _________________________01 ___________________________________________ 51. (IF YES TO Q49) Why do you treat your areas, crop, or right of ways with different chemicals? (PROBE AND CIRCLE ALL MENTIONED) Fields have different weed problems . . . 1 Stages of weed growth are different . . . 1 It's cheaper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 It provides better weed control . . . . . 1 Other (Specify)_________________________01 ___________________________________________ 52.

Which of the following practices do you use to control weeds on right of ways? Do you... (READ LIST AND CIRCLE ONE ANSWER EACH) Yes No A. Mow the area.......................1 B. Use mulching.......................1 C. Use cultivation....................1 D. Hand hoe weeds.....................1 E. Use burning........................1

2 2 2 2 2

NOW I WANT TO ASK YOU A FEW GENERAL QUESTIONS ABOUT YOUR PEST MANAGEMENT DECISIONS 53.

We are interested in how you decide when to apply pesticide(s). Would you say that (READ EACH ITEM) is a very important, somewhat important, or not an important factor when you decide to apply the pesticide? Very Somewhat Not Important Important Important

A. B.

C.

Complaints about the pests from clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Potential Complaints from public about the unsightliness caused by pests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Whether other people

2

1

2

1

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D. E. F. 54.

are spraying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Recommendations from dealers or other professionals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Threat of losing the crop The number and types of pests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

2

1

2

1

2

1

Have you used any restricted pesticides over the past two years? Yes.........1 No..........0 Don't know..9

55.

We're also interested in how you decide which pesticide to use. Would you say that (READ EACH ITEM AND CIRCLE ONE FOR EACH) is very important, somewhat important, or not important when you decide which pesticide to use? Very Somewhat Not Important Important Important

A. B. C. D. E. F.

56.

The number and types of pests..... Personal safety................... The product's ease of use......... Cost of the product............... Weather conditions................ Recommendations from dealers/professionals............

3 3 3 3 3

2 2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1 1

3

2

1

Over the past five years would you say that the amount of pest control chemicals you use per (acre, square footage, structure) has increased, remained about the same, or decreased? (CIRCLE ONE) Increased.................1 Remained the same.........2 Decreased.................3 Don't know................9

57.

How much have you heard or read about Integrated Pest Management (It is also called IPM or scouting)? Would you say... Nothing (GO TO Q59).......1 Some (GO TO Q58)..........2 A Lot (GO TO Q58).........3

58.

How much information about Integrated Pest Management or scouting have you ever received from each of the following sources? Would you say a lot, some, or none (READ ITEM AND CIRCLE ONE FOR EACH) A LOT SOME NONE A. Chemical Dealer(s)....................3 2 1

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B. Association Meetings..................3 C. Trade Magazines.......................3 D. Professional Acquaintances In Local Government.................3 E. Private consultants...................3 F. NC Cooperative Extension Service......3 59.

2 2

1 1

2 2 2

1 1 1

How interested are you in learning more about Integrated Pest management (IPM)? Are you... (READ ITEM AND CIRCLE ONE) Not Interested (GO TO Q61).........1 Somewhat interested (GO TO Q60)... 2 Very Interested (GO TO Q60)........3

60.

How useful are each of the following ways for you to receive information about pest management? Would you say that (READ ITEM AND CIRCLE ONE FOR EACH) would be very useful, somewhat useful, or not useful Very Somewhat Not Useful Useful Useful A. Newsletters/Bulletins mailed to you. . . . . . . . . . . 3 2 1 B. Trade Magazines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2 1 D. Radio and TV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2 1 E. Video Tapes for your VCR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2 1 F. Meetings or Workshops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2 1 G. On-site Demonstrations or Field Days . . . . . . . . . 3 2 1 H. On Site Visit by Extension Agent/Specialist . . . . 3 2 1

61.

Have you attended any meetings, conferences, workshops or recertification classes in the past year to keep up to date in your job? Yes (GO TO Q62).....1 No (GO TO Q63)......0

62. (IF YES TO Q61) Approximately how many classes, meetings or workshops did you attend in the past year? Number of Meetings attended___________ 63.

Do all employees who handle pesticides in your department have an opportunity to participate in educational meetings, conferences or workshops related to their work? Yes (GO TO Q64)........1 No (GO TO Q65).........0

64. (IF YES TO Q60) On average, about how many times per year may an employee in your department who handles pesticides participate in educational meetings, conferences or workshops related to their work? North Carolina Municipal IPM Training - 29

Average Number of Meetings _________ 65.

How often have you attended Extension-sponsored meetings or workshops during the past 12 months? Would you say...(CIRCLE ONE) Never.....................1 Once......................2 2 -3 times................3 4 - 5 times...............4 More than 5 times.........5

66.

How often have you contacted the North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service for advice of any kind during the past 12 months? Would you say... (CIRCLE ONE) Never.....................1 Once......................2 2 -3 times................3 4 - 5 times...............4 More than 5 times.........5

NOW I HAVE JUST A FEW QUESTIONS THAT I'D LIKE TO ASK FOR STATISTICAL PURPOSES 67.

In what year were you born? Year 19____

68.

What is the highest level of school that you completed? (PROBE TO CIRCLE ONLY ONE) ONE . . . . . . . . . 01 TWO . . . . . . . . . 02 THREE . . . . . . . . 03 FOUR . . . . . . . . 04 FIVE . . . . . . . . 05 SIX . . . . . . . . . 06 SEVEN . . . . . . . . 07 EIGHT . . . . . . . . 08 NINE . . . . . . . . 09 TEN . . . . . . . . . 10 ELEVEN . . . . . . . 11 HIGH SCHOOL (DIPLOMA) 12

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1 YEAR ASSOCIATE . . . . . . . . 13 2 YEAR ASSOCIATE . . . . . . . . 14 1 YEAR, COLLEGE, NO DEGREE . . . 15 2 YEAR, COLLEGE, NO DEGREE . . . 16 3 YEAR, COLLEGE, NO DEGREE . . . 17 BACHELOR'S (BA, BS, BA) . . . . . 18 SOME GRADUATE, NO DEGREE . . . . 19 MASTER'S (MS., SW, MA, MBA, MED, M ENG) . . . . . . . . . 20 PROFESSIONAL (MD, DDS, DVM, LLB, JD) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 DOCTORATE (Ph.D. EDD) . . . . . . 22

69.

Approximately what is your Department's annual chemical budget? About how much does it spend on... (READ EACH ITEM AND COMPLETE) DK Pesticide Purchases..... $ ____________ Contracted Pest Control. $ ____________ Fertilizer Purchases.... $ ____________

70.

9 9 9

Gender of Respondent (DO NOT ASK) Male...............1 Female.............2

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Appendix B GENERAL EVALUATION OF URBAN IPM TRAINING SESSIONS 1997 Phone Interview Survey Conducted by Dr. Simon K. Garber, Steve Lilley, and Doug Mason-Schrock Department of Sociology and Anthropology North Carolina State University

INTRODUCTION Hello, my name is ________ and I’m calling from North Carolina State University for the Cooperative Extension Service. May I please speak with ___________. [IF SAME PERSON, CONTINUE; IF DIFFERENT PERSON, REPEAT INTRODUCTION]. We are calling attendees of last spring’s Integrated Pest Management training sessions in Winston-Salem and Greenville to do a follow-up evaluation of the program. All the information you give us will be treated confidentially. The results of this study will help determine future educational programs for licensed public pesticide applicators in the state. First, I’d like to ask you a few general questions about your participation in the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Training program. 1.

Which training session did you attend, Winston-Salem or Greenville? WINSTON-SALEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 GREENVILLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

2.

How did you learn about the training session? [LET RESPONDENT VOLUNTEER] NCDA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 BROCHURE MAILED TO YOU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 BY WORD OF MOUTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 FROM EXTENSION OFFICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 DON’T REMEMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

3. What were some of the reasons you attended the training program? [CIRCLE ALL THAT APPLY] LICENSE RECERTIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 LEARN ABOUT IPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 INCREASE MY PEST MANAGEMENT ABILITY . . . . . . . 1 LEARN TO CONTROL PESTS WITHOUT CHEMICALS . 1 OTHER [SPECIFY] _________________________________________

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4.

Which of these reasons was the most important? [CIRCLE ALL THAT APPLY] LICENSE RECERTIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 LEARN ABOUT IPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 INCREASE MY PEST MANAGEMENT ABILITY . . . . . . . 1 LEARN TO CONTROL PESTS WITHOUT CHEMICAL . . 1 OTHER [Specify] _________________________________________

5. How much had you read or heard about Integrated Pest Management prior to the training session? Would you say...? [READ LIST] NOTHING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 SOME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 A LOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

As you may remember, the training program began with an IPM overview, followed by two specific sessions -- one on Turf & Ornamental issues and one on Structural issues. 6.

Which of the two specific training sessions did you attend? [READ LIST]

Or 7.

TURF & ORNAMENTAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 STRUCTURAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

How would you rate the specific training session in terms of the material that was presented? Was it…? [READ LIST] TOO ELEMENTARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 JUST RIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 TOO ADVANCED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

8.

How would you rate the overview in terms of the material that was presented? Was it…? [READ LIST] TOO ELEMENTARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 JUST RIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 TOO ADVANCED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

9.

Now, thinking about both sessions, how would you rate the training in terms of helping you to understand what Integrated Pest Management is and how it applies to your work? Was it…? [READ LIST] VERY USEFUL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 SOMEWHAT USEFUL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NOT USEFUL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

North Carolina Municipal IPM Training - 33

10. Since the workshop, how often have you discussed IPM concepts and/or techniques with coworkers? Would you say…? [READ LIST] NEVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 ONCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 - 3 TIMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4 - 5 TIMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 MORE THAN 5 TIMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 11. What specific changes have you made in your approach to pest control because of your participation in the workshop? If you can, please be specific! [CIRCLE ALL THAT APPLY] I IDENTIFY PESTS BEFORE TREATING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I MONITOR PEST POPULATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I USE PESTICIDES ONLY WHEN APPROPRIATE FOR PEST LIFE CYCLE . . . 1 I SELECT NEW PLANT MATERIAL FOR SITE CONDITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I USE BIOLOGICAL CONTROLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I SELECT PEST RESISTANT PLANT VARIETIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I HAVE SOIL TESTED BEFORE APPLYING FERTILIZER OR LIME TO TURF 1 I CHANGED THE MOWING HEIGHT FOR TURF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO CHANGES ADOPTED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 OTHER [SPECIFY] __________________________________________

12. [IF NO CHANGES ADOPTED] Are there specific changes you plan to make in the future? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 IF YES [SPECIFY] 13. How interested are you in participating in follow-up IPM training sessions? Would you say…? [READ LIST] VERY INTERESTED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 SOMEWHAT INTERESTED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NOT INTERESTED [Go to Q21] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 14. [IF SOMEWHAT OR VERY INTERESTED] How often would you like to attend an IPM training session? Would you say...? [READ LIST] 2 TIMES A YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 TIME PER YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 EVERY OTHER YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 OTHER [SPECIFY] _____________________

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15. How long should each IPM training session last? Would you prefer...? [READ LIST] A HALF DAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 A FULL DAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Now, I would like to ask a few questions about the type of training you prefer. General IPM training focuses on concepts and the variety of techniques which could be used in a pest program. Specific IPM training involves application of IPM techniques to specific pest problems. 16. Would you prefer training on general concepts and techniques in IPM, or, training which demonstrates IPM applications for specific pest problems, or, both? GENERAL IPM TRAINING [GO TO Q18] . . . . . . . . . . 1 FOCUS ON SPECIFIC PEST PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . 2 BOTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 17. [IF FOCUS ON SPECIFIC PEST PROBLEMS OR BOTH] Would you be willing to attend a ½ day session during spring or summer, if training was focused on specific pest problems and conducted in-the-field? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 18. If a fee of $30.00 were charged for attending the training would your organization be willing to pay it? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 19. If your organization would not pay the $30.00 participation fee, would you be willing to pay the fee? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 20. How interested are you in obtaining IPM certification through this training? Would you say...? [READ LIST] VERY INTERESTED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 SOMEWHAT INTERESTED . . . . . . . . . . 2 NOT INTERESTED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Now we just have a few more questions for statistical purposes. 21.What year were you born?

YEAR 19

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22. What is the highest level of school that you completed? ONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TWO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THREE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FOUR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SEVEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ELEVEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H S GRADUATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12

1 YEAR ASSOCIATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2 YEAR ASSOCIATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1 YEAR, COLLEGE, NO DEGREE . . . . 15 2 YEAR, COLLEGE, NO DEGREE . . . . 16 3 YEAR, COLLEGE, NO DEGREE . . . . 17 BACHELOR’S (BA, BS, AB) . . . . . . . . . 18 SOME GRADUATE, NO DEGREE . . . . 19 MASTER’S (MS, SW, MA, MBA, MED, M, ENG) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 PROFESSIONAL (MD, DDS, DVM, LLB, JD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 DOCTORATE (PH.D, EDD) . . . . . . . . . 22

23. How many years have you been a certified public pesticide applicator? YEARS __ __

Finally, we’d like to have some idea of the type and size of your pest control operation. 24. What type of organization do you work for? PARKS AND RECREATION . . . . . . . . . . . . 01 CITY/COUNTY GROUNDS KEEPER . . . . . 08 UNIVERSITY GROUNDS KEEPER . . . . . . 02 HOUSING AUTHORITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09 EMPLOYMENT SECURITY COMMISSION 03 WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT . . 10 COUNTY SCHOOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 04 COUNTY HEALTH DEPT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 PUBLIC WORKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 UTILITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 STREET DIVISION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 AIRPORT COMMISSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 FOREST SERVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 PUBLIC BUSINESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 OTHER [SPECIFY] ___________________ _________________________________________

25. How many people have pest control responsibility in your department? NUMBER OF PERSONS__ __ __

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26. Approximately, what was your department’s annual budget for [READ ITEM] last year? (PROBE: About how much did you spend on… ? [READ ITEM] PESTICIDE PURCHASES $__ __ __ __ __ __ CONTRACTED PEST CONTROL $__ __ __ __ __ __ FERTILIZER PURCHASES $__ __ __ __ __ __

Thank you very much for your time and cooperation in completing this survey.

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